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About Philosophy,9780137442515
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About Philosophy

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780137442515

ISBN10:
0137442513
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $73.00

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This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 8/1/1997.
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Summary

This classic text introduces the major fields, problems, theories, and personalities of philosophy through the biographies and writing of leading thinkers. Presenting philosophy as an activity whose guiding principle is reason and whose goal is critical self-understanding, this book explains in a clear, uncluttered manner not only what the great philosophers said, but why they said it. The book also includes discussions of Alternative Philosophies throughout the book where appropriate. Each chapter concludes with a Contemporary Application that relates the philosophy to important issues of current concern. The seventh edition of About Philosophy has been revised to include presentation of topics related to Medical Ethics; new Contemporary Applications; and a strengthening of feminist theory throughout the book.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1. What Is Philosophy?
1(40)
What Do Philosophers Do? The Study of Human Nature
2(13)
What Do Philosophers Do? The Study of the Universe
15(5)
What Do Philosophers Do? Human Nature and the Universe
20(9)
The Limitations of the Western Philosophical Tradition
29(9)
The Main Points in Chapter One
38(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
38(3)
2. Ethical Theory
41(92)
The Varieties of Ethical Theory
42(2)
Kant and the Commands of Duty
42(2)
Three Reasons to Think About Ethics
44(2)
Ethical Disagreement and the Categorical Imperative
46(11)
Utilitarianism and the Calculation of Pleasures and Pains
57(11)
The Theory of the Healthy Personality
68(8)
The Feminist Critique of Ethical Theory
76(10)
The Main Points in Chapter Two, Part One
86(2)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Same-Sex Marriage
88(9)
Questions for Discussion and Review
97(1)
The Ethical Dimensions of Medicine
97(1)
The Ethical Dimensions of Medical Decisions
97(6)
Withholding Food and Water
103(5)
The Buying and Selling of Human Organs
108(4)
What Should the Doctor Tell the Patient?
112(7)
The Main Points in Chapter Two, Part Two
119(2)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Assisted Suicide
121(10)
Questions for Discussion and Review
131(2)
3. Social and Political Philosophy
133(68)
Mill and Classical Laissez-Faire Liberalism
134(3)
The Socialist Attack on Capitalism
147(9)
Rousseau and the Theory of the Social Contract
156(17)
The Pluralist Theory of the State
173(4)
The Racial Critique of the Social Contract Theory of the State
177(6)
The Main Points in Chapter Three
183(1)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Affirmative Action
184(14)
Questions for Discussion and Review
198(3)
4. Philosophy of Art
201(54)
Plato's Attack on the Poets
202(10)
Aristotle's Defense of the Poets
212(6)
Romanticism
218(4)
Tolstoy's Religious Defense of Art
222(6)
Marcuse and the Uses of Negation
228(6)
Art for Art's Sake
234(4)
The Main Points in Chapter Four
238(2)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Pornography and Art
240(13)
Questions for Discussion and Review
253(2)
5. Philosophy of Religion
255(50)
Kierkegaard's Encounter with Faith
256(13)
Can We Prove That God Exists?
269(1)
William Paley: The Argument from Design
270(8)
St. Thomas Aquinas: The Cosmological Argument
278(6)
St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument
284(6)
The Problem of Evil
290(3)
The Main Points in Chapter Five
293(2)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Creationism vs. Evolution
295(7)
Questions for Discussion and Review
302(3)
6. Theory of Knowledge
305(46)
Descartes' Method of Doubt
306(13)
Rationalism and Empiricism: Two Responses to Cartesian Doubt
319(5)
Leibniz and Rationalism
324(3)
Hume and Empiricism
327(10)
Kant's Resolution of the Rationalism/Empiricism Debate
337(3)
The Main Points in Chapter Six
340(2)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Virtual Reality
342(6)
Questions for Discussion and Review
348(3)
7. Philosophy of Science
351(38)
The Place of Science in the Modern World
352(1)
Francis Bacon and the Foundations of Scientific Method
353(6)
The Relation Between Theory and Observation
359(3)
Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions
362(7)
Science as a Social Institution
369(7)
The Main Points in Chapter Seven
376(1)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Cold Fusion
377(10)
Questions for Discussion and Review
387(2)
8. Metaphysics and Philosophy of Mind
389(36)
What Is Metaphysics?
390(2)
Hobbes' Materialism
392(6)
Free Will and Determinism
398(7)
The Mind and the Body: Some Puzzles and Odd Cases
405(6)
The Main Points in Chapter Eight
411(1)
(ABCNEWS) CONTEMPORARY APPLICATION: Do Computers Think?
412(11)
Questions for Discussion and Review
423(2)
Appendix: How to Write a Philosophy Paper 425(20)
Glossary 445(8)
Suggested Readings 453(4)
Photo Credits
457(2)
Index
459


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