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AC Electric Motors Control Advanced Design Techniques and Applications,9781118331521
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AC Electric Motors Control Advanced Design Techniques and Applications

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781118331521

ISBN10:
1118331524
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/4/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley
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Summary

The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors.

Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state variable estimation in the absence of mechanical sensors, power factor correction, machine flux optimization, fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control.

Describing the complete control approach, both controller and observer designs are demonstrated using advanced nonlinear methods, stability and performance are analysed using powerful techniques, including implementation considerations using digital computing means.


Other key features:

• Covers the main types of AC motors including triphase, multiphase, and doubly fed induction motors, wound rotor, permanent magnet, and interior PM synchronous motors

• Illustrates the usefulness of the advanced control methods via industrial applications including electric vehicles, high speed trains, steel mills, and more

• Includes special focus on sensorless nonlinear observers, adaptive and robust nonlinear controllers, output-feedback controllers, fault detection and isolation algorithms, and fault tolerant controllers


This comprehensive volume provides researchers and designers and R&D engineers with a single-source reference on AC motor system drives in the automotive and transportation industry. It will also appeal to advanced students in automatic control, electrical, power systems, mechanical engineering and robotics, as well as  mechatronic, process, and applied control system engineers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

1 Introduction to AC Motor Control 1

Marc Bodson and Fouad Giri

1.1 AC Motor Features 1

1.2 Control Issues 3

1.2.1 State-Feedback Speed Control 3

1.2.2 Adaptive Output-Feedback Speed Control 3

1.2.3 Fault Detection and Isolation, Fault-Tolerant Control 4

1.2.4 Speed Control with Optimized Flux 6

1.2.5 Power Factor Correction 7

1.3 Book Overview 8

1.3.1 Control Models for AC Motors 9

1.3.2 Observer Design Techniques for AC Motors 9

1.3.3 Control Design Techniques for Induction Motors 10

1.3.4 Control Design Techniques for Synchronous Motors 11

1.3.5 Industrial Applications of AC Motors Control 12

References 13

Part One Control Models for AC Motors

2 Control Models for Induction Motors 17

Abderrahim El Fadili, Fouad Giri, and Abdelmounime El Magri

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Induction Motors—A Concise Description 18

2.3 Triphase Induction Motor Modeling 20

2.3.1 Modeling Assumptions 20

2.3.2 Triphase Induction Motor Modeling 20

2.3.3 Park Transformations 22

2.3.4 Two-Phase Models of Induction Motors 26

2.3.5 Doubly-Fed Induction Motor Model 31

2.4 Identification of Induction Motor Parameters 32

2.4.1 Identification of Mechanical Parameters 32

2.4.2 Identification of Electrical Parameters 35

2.5 Conclusions 39

References 39

3 Control Models for Synchronous Machines 41

Abdelmounime El Magri, Fouad Giri, and Abderrahim El Fadili

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Synchronous Machine Structures 42

3.3 Preliminaries 43

3.3.1 Modeling Assumptions 43

3.3.2 Three-Phase to Bi-Phase Transformations 44

3.3.3 Concordia-Park Transformation (αβ to dq) 45

3.4 Dynamic Modeling of Wound-Rotor Synchronous Motors 45

3.4.1 Oriented dq-Frame Model of Salient Pole WRSM 48

3.5 Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Modeling 50

3.5.1 PMSM Modeling in abc-Coordinates 50

3.5.2 PMSM Model in the Rotating dq-Frame 51

3.5.3 PMSM Model in the Fixed Bi-Phase αβ-Frame 54

3.6 Conclusions 55

References 56

Part Two Observer Design Techniques for AC Motors

4 State Observers for Estimation Problems in Induction Motors 59

Gildas Besanc¸on and Alexandru T¸ iclea

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Motor Representation and Estimation Issues 60

4.2.1 Problem Statement 60

4.2.2 Short Literature Review 61

4.3 Some Observer Approaches 63

4.3.1 Estimation under known and constant speed and Parameters 63

4.3.2 Estimation under known Speed and Parameters 64

4.3.3 Estimation under unknown Speed and known Parameters 64

4.3.4 Estimation in the presence of unknown Speed and/or Parameters 66

4.4 Some Illustration Results 66

4.4.1 State and Parameter Estimation under known Speed 68

4.4.2 State and Speed Estimation under known Parameters 69

4.4.3 State, Parameter, and Speed Estimation 71

4.4.4 Estimation close to Unobservability 74

4.5 Conclusions 75

References 76

5 State Observers for Active Disturbance Rejection in

Induction Motor Control 78

Hebertt Sira Ram´??rez, Felipe Gonz´alez Monta˜nez, John Cort´es Romero, and

Alberto Luviano-Ju´arez

5.1 Introduction 78

5.2 A Two-Stage ADR Controller Design for the Induction Motor 80

5.2.1 The Flux Simulator 80

5.2.2 Formulation of the Problem and Background Results 81

5.2.3 Assumptions 81

5.2.4 Problem Formulation 81

5.2.5 Control Strategy 82

5.2.6 Experimental Results 86

5.3 Field-Oriented ADR Armature Voltage Control 90

5.3.1 Control Decoupling Property of the Induction Motor System 91

5.3.2 Problem Formulation 92

5.3.3 Control Strategy 92

5.3.4 Experimental Results 95

5.A Appendix 99

5.A.1 Generalities on Ultra-Models and Observer-Based Active

Disturbance Rejection Control 99

5.A.2 Assumptions 99

5.A.3 Observing the uncertain System through the Ultra-Model 101

5.A.4 The Observer-Based Active Disturbance Rejection Controller 102

References 103

6 Observers Design for Systems with Sampled Measurements, Application

to AC Motors 105

Vincent Van Assche Philippe Dorl´eans Jean-Franc¸ois Massieu

and Tarek Ahmed-Ali

6.1 Introduction 105

6.2 Nomenclature 106

6.3 Observer Design 107

6.3.1 Nonlinear System Model 107

6.3.2 Observer Design with a Time-Delay Approach 108

6.3.3 Observer Design with an Output Predictor 113

6.4 Application to the AC Motor 114

6.4.1 Model of the AC Motor 114

6.4.2 Observer for AC Machine with Sampled and Held Measurements 117

6.4.3 Observer for the AC Machine with Predictor 118

6.4.4 Simulation 119

6.5 Conclusions 121

References 121

7 Experimental Evaluation of Observer Design Technique

for Synchronous Motor 123

Malek Ghanes and Xuefang Lin Shi

7.1 Introduction 123

7.1.1 Problem Statement 123

7.1.2 State of the Art and Objectives 124

7.2 SPMSM Modeling and its Observability 125

7.2.1 SPMSM Model 125

7.2.2 Quick Review on the Observability of SPMSM 125

7.3 Robust MRAS Observer 125

7.3.1 Reference Model 125

7.3.2 Adjustable Model 127

7.3.3 Adaptation Mechanism 128

7.3.4 Rotor Position Observer 129

7.4 Experimental Results 129

7.4.1 Nominal Conditions 130

7.4.2 Parameter Variation Effect 132

7.4.3 Load Torque Effect 133

7.5 Conclusions 133

References 134

Part Three Control Design Techniques for Induction Motors

8 High-Gain Observers in Robust Feedback Control of Induction Motors 139

Hassan K. Khalil and Elias G. Strangas

8.1 Chapter Overview 139

8.2 Field Orientation 140

8.3 High-Gain Observers 144

8.4 Speed and Acceleration Estimation using High-Gain Observers 146

8.4.1 Speed Estimation using a Mechanical Sensor 146

8.4.2 Speed and Acceleration Estimation using a Mechanical Sensor 147

8.4.3 Speed Estimation without a Mechanical Sensor 147

8.5 Flux Control 149

8.6 Speed Control with Mechanical Sensor 151

8.7 Speed Control without Mechanical Sensor 153

8.8 Simulation and Experimental Results 156

8.9 Conclusions 157

References 157

9 Adaptive Output Feedback Control of Induction Motors 158

Riccardo Marino, Patrizio Tomei, and Cristiano Maria Verrelli

9.1 Introduction 158

9.2 Problem Statement 159

9.3 Nonlinear Estimation and Tracking Control for Sensorless Induction Motors 161

9.3.1 Estimation and Tracking Control Algorithm 162

9.3.2 Stability Analysis 164

9.4 Nonlinear Estimation and Tracking Control for the Output Feedback Case 175

9.4.1 Estimation and Tracking Control Algorithm 175

9.4.2 Stability Proof 175

9.5 Simulation Results 176

9.5.1 Sensorless Case 177

9.5.2 Output Feedback Case 180

9.6 Conclusions 186

References 186

10 Nonlinear Control for Speed Regulation of Induction Motor with

Optimal Energetic Efficiency 188

Abderrahim El Fadili, Abdelmounime El Magri, Hamid Ouadi, and Fouad Giri

10.1 Introduction 188

10.2 Induction Motor Modeling with Saturation Effect Inclusion 190

10.3 Controller Design 194

10.3.1 Control Objective 194

10.3.2 Rotor Flux Reference Optimization 194

10.3.3 Speed and Flux Control Design and Analysis 197

10.4 Simulation 202

10.5 Conclusions 205

References 205

11 Experimental Evaluation of Nonlinear Control Design Techniques for

Sensorless Induction Motor 207

Jes´us De Le´on, Alain Glumineau, Dramane Traore, and Robert Boisliveau

11.1 Introduction 207

11.2 Problem Formulation 208

11.2.1 Control and Observation Problem 209

11.3 Robust Integral Backstepping 209

11.3.1 Controller Design using an Integral Backstepping Method 209

11.4 High-Order Sliding-Mode Control 212

11.4.1 Switching Vector 214

11.4.2 Discontinuous Input 215

11.5 Adaptive Interconnected Observers Design 215

11.6 Experimental Results 218

11.6.1 Integral Backstepping Control and Adaptive Observer 221

11.6.2 High-Order Sliding-Mode Control and Adaptive Observer 224

11.7 Robust Nonlinear Controllers Comparison 228

11.7.1 High-Order Sliding-Mode Control 229

11.7.2 Integral Backstepping Control 230

11.7.3 Experimental Results: Comparison 230

11.8 Conclusions 231

References 231

12 Multiphase Induction Motor Control 233

Roberto Zanasi and Giovanni Azzone

12.1 Introduction 233

12.2 Power-Oriented Graphs 234

12.2.1 Notations 235

12.3 Multiphase Induction Motor Complex Dynamic Modeling 236

12.3.1 Hypothesis for the Induction Motor Modeling 236

12.3.2 Complex Dynamic Modeling of the Induction Motor 237

12.4 Multiphase Indirect Field-Oriented Control with Harmonic Injection 243

12.4.1 Five-Phase Indirect Rotor Field-Oriented Control 245

12.4.2 Five-Phase IRFOC Simulation Results 247

12.5 Conclusions 251

References 251

13 Backstepping Controller for DFIM with Bidirectional AC/DC/AC

Converter 253

Abderrahim El Fadili, Vincent Van Assche, Abdelmounime El Magri, and Fouad Giri

13.1 Introduction 253

13.2 Modeling “AC/DC/AC Converter—Doubly-Fed Induction Motor”

Association 255

13.2.1 Doubly-Fed Induction Motor Model 255

13.2.2 Modeling of the System “DC/AC Inverter–DFIM” 257

13.2.3 AC/DC Rectifier Modeling 257

13.3 Controller Design 260

13.3.1 Control Objectives 260

13.3.2 Motor Speed and Stator Flux Norm Regulation 260

13.3.3 Power Factor Correction and DC Voltage Controller 266

13.4 Simulation Results 269

13.5 Conclusions 273

References 273

14 Fault Detection in Induction Motors 275

Alessandro Pilloni, Alessandro Pisano, Martin Riera-Guasp, Ruben Puche-Panadero,

and Manuel Pineda-Sanchez

14.1 Introduction 275

14.2 Description and Classification of IMs Faults 276

14.2.1 Electrical Faults 276

14.2.2 Mechanical Faults 277

14.3 Model-Based FDI in IMs 280

14.3.1 Introduction 280

14.3.2 Modeling of IMs with Faults 281

14.3.3 Fault Detection Observer Design for IMs 282

14.3.4 Residual Generation and Evaluation 282

14.3.5 Experimental Results 284

14.4 Classical MCSA Based on the Fast Fourier Transform 287

14.5 Hilbert Transform 289

14.5.1 Bases of the Application of the Hilbert Transform of a Phase

Current to the Diagnosis of Electrical Machines 289

14.5.2 Experimental Results 291

14.6 Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach 292

14.6.1 Basis for the Application of the DWT to Diagnostic

of Electrical Machines 292

14.6.2 Application of the DWT to the Analysis of the Start-up Current

of a Healthy Motor 295

14.6.3 Application of the DWT to the Analysis of the Start-up Current of a

Motor with a Broken Bar in the Rotor 297

14.6.4 Diagnosis of a Machine with Mixed Eccentricity through the

Start-up Current 297

14.7 Continuous Wavelet Transform Approach 298

14.7.1 Application of the CWT to Diagnostic of Electrical Machines 298

14.7.2 Application of the Complex CWT to Diagnostic

of Electrical Machines 300

14.7.3 Experimental Results 300

14.8 Wigner-Ville Distribution Approach 300

14.8.1 Basis for the Application of the WVD to Diagnostic

of Electrical Machines 300

14.8.2 Application of the WVD to Monocomponent Signals 302

14.8.3 Application of the WVD to Multicomponent Signals 303

14.9 Instantaneous Frequency Approach 304

14.9.1 Basis for the Application of the IF Approach to Diagnostic of

Electrical Machines 304

14.9.2 Calculating the IF of a Monocomponent Signal 305

14.9.3 Practical Application of the IF Approach 306

References 307

Part Four Control Design Techniques for Synchronous Motors

15 Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM 313

Dhruv Shah, Gerardo Espinosa–P´erez, Romeo Ortega, and Micha¨el Hilairet

15.1 Introduction 313

15.2 PMSM Models and Problem Formulation 314

15.2.1 Problem Formulation 316

15.3 Controller Structure and Main Result 316

15.4 Unavailability of a Linearization-Based Design 318

15.5 Full Information Control 319

15.5.1 Port-Hamiltonian Model 319

15.5.2 A Full-Information IDA-PBC 320

15.5.3 Certainty Equivalent Sensorless Controller 322

15.6 Position Observer of Ortega et al. (2011) 322

15.6.1 Flux Observer and Stability Properties 322

15.6.2 Description of the Observer in Terms of ραβ 323

15.7 An I&I Speed and Load Torque Observer 324

15.8 Proof of the Main Result 328

15.8.1 Currents and Speed Tracking Errors 328

15.8.2 Estimation Error for ραβ 330

15.8.3 Speed and Load Torque Estimation Errors 330

15.8.4 Proof of Proposition 15.3.1 331

15.9 Simulation and Experimental Results 332

15.9.1 Simulation Results 332

15.9.2 Experimental Results 337

15.10 Future Research 337

15.A Appendix 339

References 340

16 Adaptive Output-Feedback Control of Permanent-Magnet

Synchronous Motors 341

Patrizio Tomei and Cristiano Maria Verrelli

16.1 Introduction 341

16.2 Dynamic Model and Problem Statement 343

16.3 Nonlinear Adaptive Control 344

16.4 Preliminary Result (Tomei and Verrelli 2008) 347

16.5 Main Result (Tomei and Verrelli 2011) 353

16.6 Simulation Results (Bifaretti et al. 2012) 357

16.6.1 Response to Time-Varying Load Torque 357

16.6.2 Response to Parameter Uncertainties 360

16.7 Experimental Setup and Results (Bifaretti et al. 2012) 364

16.8 Conclusions 367

References 368

17 Robust Fault Detection for a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor

Using a Nonlinear Observer 370

Maria Letizia Corradini, Gianluca Ippoliti, and Giuseppe Orlando

17.1 Introduction 370

17.2 Preliminaries 371

17.2.1 PMSM Modeling 371

17.3 Control Design 372

17.3.1 A Robust Observer of Rotor Angular Position and Velocity for the

Tracking Problem 372

17.4 The Faulty Case 375

17.5 Simulation Tests 376

References 380

18 On Digitization of Variable Structure Control for Permanent Magnet

Synchronous Motors 381

Yong Feng, Xinghuo Yu, and Fengling Han

18.1 Introduction 381

18.2 Control System of PMSM 382

18.3 Dynamic Model of PMSM 383

18.4 PI Control of PMSM Servo System 384

18.5 High-Order Terminal Sliding-Mode Control of PMSM Servo System 385

18.5.1 Velocity Controller Design 386

18.5.2 q-Axis Current Controller Design 386

18.5.3 d-Axis Current Controller Design 387

18.5.4 Simulations 387

18.6 Sliding-Mode-Based Mechanical Resonance Suppressing Method 388

18.6.1 Load Speed Controller Design 390

18.6.2 d-Axis Current Controller Design 391

18.6.3 q-Axis Current Controller Design 391

18.6.4 Simulations 392

18.7 Digitization of TSM Controllers of PMSM Servo System 393

18.7.1 Backward Difference Discretization Method 393

18.7.2 Bilinear Transformation 393

18.8 Conclusions 396

References 396

19 Control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines 398

Faz Rahman and Rukmi Dutta

19.1 Introduction 398

19.2 IPM Synchronous Machine Model 401

19.2.1 Torque-Speed Characteristics in the Steady State 403

19.2.2 Optimum Control Trajectories for IPM Synchronous Machines

in the Rotor Reference Frame 405

19.3 Optimum Control Trajectories 408

19.3.1 The MTPA Trajectory 408

19.3.2 The Field-Weakening (Constant-Power) Trajectory 409

19.3.3 Implementation Issues of Current Vector Controlled IPMSM Drive 410

19.4 Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPM Synchronous Machines 412

19.4.1 Control of the Amplitude and Rotation of the Stator

Flux Linkage Vector 414

19.4.2 Optimum Control Trajectories with DTC 416

19.4.3 Implementation of Trajectory Control for DTC 419

19.5 Sensorless DTC with Closed-Loop Flux Estimation 420

19.6 Sensorless Operation at Very Low Speed with High-Frequency Injection 423

19.7 Conclusions 426

References 427

20 Nonlinear State-Feedback Control of Three-Phase Wound Rotor

Synchronous Motors 429

Abdelmounime El Magri, Vincent Van Assche, Abderrahim El Fadili, Fatima-Zahra

Chaoui, and Fouad Giri

20.1 Introduction 429

20.2 System Modeling 431

20.2.1 Three-Phases AC/DC Rectifier Modeling 431

20.2.2 Inverter-Motor Subsystem Modeling 433

20.3 Nonlinear Adaptive Controller Design 435

20.3.1 Control Objectives 435

20.3.2 Inverter-Motor Subsystem Control Design 436

20.3.3 Reactive Power and DC Voltage Controller 443

20.4 Simulation 446

20.4.1 Simulation and Implementation Considerations 446

20.4.2 Simulation Results 448

20.5 Conclusion 450

References 450

Part Five Industrial Applications of AC Motors Control

21 AC Motor Control Applications in Vehicle Traction 455

Faz Rahman and Rukmi Dutta

21.1 Introduction 455

21.1.1 Electromechanical Requirements for Traction Drives

in the Steady-State 460

21.1.2 The Impact of CPSR on Motor Power Rating and Acceleration Time

of a Vehicle 463

21.2 Machines and Associated Control for Traction Applications 464

21.2.1 Induction Machines 465

21.2.2 Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines 471

21.2.3 Switched Reluctance Machines 473

21.3 Power Converters for AC Electric Traction Drives 475

21.4 Control Issues for Traction Drives 478

21.4.1 Torque and Slip-Speed Ratio Control 478

21.4.2 Control of Regenerative Braking 480

21.5 Conclusions 485

References 486

22 Induction Motor Control Application in High-Speed

Train Electric Drive 487

Jaros??aw Guzi´nski, Zbigniew Krzeminski, Arkadiusz Lewicki, Haitham Abu-Rub,

and Marc Diguet

22.1 Introduction 487

22.2 Description of the High-Speed Train Traction System 488

22.2.1 Induction Motor 490

22.2.2 Torque Transmission System 491

22.2.3 High-Power Electronic Converter 493

22.2.4 Motor Control Principle 494

22.3 Estimation Methods 494

22.3.1 Speed Observer 494

22.3.2 Motor Torque Estimation 496

22.4 Simulation Investigations 497

22.5 Experimental Test Bench 497

22.6 Experimental Investigations 501

22.7 Diagnosis System Principles 503

22.7.1 Diagnosis of Speed Sensor 504

22.7.2 Diagnosis of Traction Torque Transmission 505

22.8 Summary and Perspectives 505

References 506

23 AC Motor Control Applications in High-Power Industrial Drives 509

Ajit K. Chattopadhyay

23.1 Introduction 509

23.2 High-Power Semiconductor Devices 510

23.2.1 High-Power SCR 511

23.2.2 High-Power GTO 511

23.2.3 IGCT/GCT 513

23.2.4 IGBT 514

23.2.5 IEGT 514

23.3 High-Power Converters for AC Drives and Control Methods 515

23.3.1 Pulse Width Modulation for Converters 516

23.3.2 Control Methods of High-Power Converter-Fed Drives 516

23.4 Control of Induction Motor Drives 517

23.4.1 Induction Motor Drives with Scalar or Volts/Hz Control 517

23.4.2 Induction Motor Drives with Vector Control 527

23.4.3 Induction Motor Drives with Direct Torque Control (DTC) 531

23.5 Control of Synchronous Motor Drives 534

23.5.1 Synchronous Motor Drives with Scalar Control 534

23.5.2 Synchronous Motor Drives with Vector Control 537

23.6 Application Examples of Control of High-Power AC Drives 539

23.6.1 Steel Mills 539

23.6.2 Cement and Ore Grinding Mills 544

23.6.3 Ship Drive and Marine Electric Propulsion 544

23.6.4 Mine Hoists, Winders, and Draglines 546

23.6.5 Pumps, Fans and Compressors in the Industry 547

23.7 New Developments and Future Trends 548

23.8 Conclusions 548

References 549

Index 553



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