Academic Leadership and Governance of Higher Education : A Guide for Trustees, Leaders, and Aspiring Leaders of Two- and Four-Year Institutions

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 11/30/2012
  • Publisher: Stylus Pub Llc
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To meet the new and rapidly changing demands facing today's higher education managers and leaders from department chairs to trustees this book offers guidance on how to effectively discharge their responsibilities and how to develop their skills for managing their relationships with internal and external stakeholders. It also provides a broad understanding of the structure and functions of their institution and of the appropriate loci of decision-making. The authors go beyond the positions of leadership to emphasize the qualities of creativity, commitment, collaboration, delegation and courage that are essential to steer a unit, college or university through successful and enduring change Recognizing that the hallmark of higher education in the United States is a diversity of institutional types, this book enables the reader to relate issues of environment, organization and management to his or her specific institution, from not only the presidential perspective, but from the vantage point of trustees, provosts, vice presidents, deans, and department heads. By covering all these functions-as well as the role of external stakeholders-in a single volume, this book offers readers a comprehensive view of how institutions respond to external forces and internal issues, and how these impact organizational structure, functions and decision-making in their roles, and the institution at large. The book is informed by these three essential principles: Sound institutional decisions must be based on a clearly articulated mission and set of core values; Successful institutional adaptation to a changed environment must be grounded and aligned with the fundamental mission and core values; and Successful academic leaders must be able to create and foster partnerships, bringing diverse individuals and interests together around a shared vision and mission grounded in common values. This handbook is divided into five units. The first introduces the reader to the scholarly field of higher education and establishes the contextual framework for the rest of the book. The second investigates the multifaceted and often complex relationships that exist between institutions of higher learning and the external constituencies. The third focuses how college and university presidents and their board of trustees keep an institutional mission focused while adapting to changes in the environment, while the fourth analyzes how colleges and universities fulfill their core mission through shared democratic partnerships. The concluding unit concerns how effective academic leaders implement their institution's academic mission. Both scholarly and accessible, this book is intended to be of interest to a broad audience, ranging from graduate students in higher education administration programs to members of institutional governing boards, and everyone in leadership positions in between. All of the authors have completed graduate work in a higher education administration program, and collectively have had experience with academic administration at every level through to the university presidency. Two of the authors are currently faculty in leading higher programs teaching classes in administration and organizational theory and have published widely in the scholarly field. One has been a member of a governing board.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Forewordp. xix
Academic Leadership and Its Consequencesp. xix
Introductionp. 1
Three Essential Principlesp. 2
Organization of This Bookp. 3
History, Politics, Globalization, and Organizational Theory in Higher Educationp. 5
Principles of Academic Leadershipp. 7
Conflicting Goals, Ambiguous Aimsp. 8
Importance of Being Mission Drivenp. 9
Adjusting to an Ever-Changing Environmentp. 11
Importance of Democratic Partnerships in Advancing the Academyp. 13
Understanding Academic Organizationsp. 18
Academic Institutions as Organizations: History, Typology, and Characteristicsp. 20
Historical Development of the Academic Institutionp. 21
The Nature of Organizationsp. 24
Environmentp. 24
Strategy and Goalsp. 25
Work and Technologyp. 25
Formal and Informal Structuresp. 26
Peoplep. 26
Organizational Boundaries and Systemsp. 27
The Study of Academic Organizationsp. 28
Theories About Academic Organizationsp. 29
Organized Anarchyp. 29
Loosely Coupled Systemsp. 29
Professional Bureaucracy/Adhocracyp. 30
Characteristics of Academic Organizationsp. 31
Goal Ambiguityp. 31
Client-Focused Missionsp. 32
Highly Professionalized Staffp. 32
Unclear Decision-Making Processesp. 33
Environmental Vulnerabilityp. 33
Organizational Culture and Climate in Higher Educationp. 34
Operating Structures of Colleges and Universities: Administrative Units and Governance Modelsp. 37
Administrative Unitsp. 38
Academic Affairsp. 38
Athleticsp. 39
Auxiliary Servicesp. 40
Finance and Administrationp. 40
Facilities Managementp. 40
Institutional Developmentp. 40
Student Affairsp. 41
Other Unitsp. 41
Models of Academic Governancep. 42
The Bureaucratic Modelp. 42
The Collegial Modelp. 43
The Political Modelp. 44
Decision Making and Academic Leadershipp. 46
Leading in a Bifurcated Organizationp. 47
Decision Making in Academic Organizationsp. 49
Learning to Frame Situationsp. 50
Conclusionp. 52
Global Engagement of Colleges and Universitiesp. 56
Global Growth and Importance of Higher Educationp. 59
Defining Terminologyp. 62
Organizing the Internationalization of Colleges and Universitiesp. 65
Types of Mobility: Students, Faculty, Programs, and Institutionsp. 68
Studentsp. 69
Facultyp. 70
Programsp. 71
Institutionsp. 72
Accreditation and Federal Regulationsp. 73
Accreditationp. 73
Study Abroad Liabilityp. 74
Federal Financial Aidp. 75
SEVIS Programp. 76
Export Control Lawsp. 76
Conclusionp. 77
External Constituenciesp. 83
Federal Engagement in Higher Educationp. 87
The Evolution of Federal Engagement in Higher Educationp. 89
Primary Areas of Federal Engagementp. 94
Accessp. 96
Accountability and Oversightp. 97
Research and Innovationp. 100
Institutional Developmentp. 102
International Engagementsp. 104
Primary Departments and Agencies for Federal Engagementp. 105
Department of Agriculturep. 106
Department of Energyp. 106
Department of Defensep. 107
National Institutes of Healthp. 107
National Science Foundationp. 108
The Future of Federal Involvementp. 108
State and Local Governments' Relationship With Higher Educationp. 113
State Actors and Institutionsp. 114
Government Actorsp. 114
Legislative Branchp. 114
Executive Branchp. 116
Nongovernmental Actorsp. 117
State Governance of Higher Educationp. 118
Governing Boardsp. 119
Coordinating Boardsp. 121
Community College Governancep. 122
Institutional Licensurep. 123
Quality Assurance and Accountabilityp. 126
State Fundingp. 127
State Aid to Studentsp. 128
State Support of Private Institutionsp. 129
Future Issuesp. 131
The Courts and Higher Educationp. 138
The Legal System in the United Statesp. 139
The Courts' Historical Involvement With Higher Educationp. 139
Federalism and State Authority in Public Educationp. 141
Student Issuesp. 143
Student Due Process Rightsp. 144
Academic Dismissalp. 146
Discrimination in Admissionsp. 146
Gender Discriminationp. 149
Faculty Employment Issuesp. 149
Academic Freedom and First Amendment Speechp. 150
Academic Freedomp. 150
First Amendment Employee Rightsp. 151
Disruptive Speechp. 151
Faculty Contractsp. 152
Denial of Tenurep. 153
Tenure and Termination for Causep. 155
Collective Bargainingp. 156
Employment Discriminationp. 157
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964p. 158
Disparate Impactp. 158
Disparate Treatmentp. 159
Retaliationp. 160
Title VII Summaryp. 160
Equal Pay Act of 1963p. 160
Equal Pay Class Action Suitsp. 162
Age Discriminationp. 163
Discrimination Based on a Disabilityp. 164
Sexual Harassmentp. 165
Hostile Work Environmentp. 166
Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassmentp. 167
Tide IX of the Education Amendments of 1972p. 168
Legal Issues and Board Governancep. 168
Board Member Selectionp. 169
Fiduciary Dutyp. 170
Open Meeting and Sunshine Lawsp. 170
Conclusionp. 171
The Engaged College or University
Three Educational Movementsp. 181
Educating Responsible Citizensp. 181
Service-Learning and Community-Based Learningp. 186
Engaging the Community Through Democratic Partnershipsp. 191
External Influences and the Role of Supporting Organizationsp. 199
Evaluation and the Role of Accrediting Bodiesp. 201
Membership Organizationsp. 208
Regional Compactsp. 208
Consortiap. 209
Institutional Membership Organizationsp. 211
Professional Membership Organizationsp. 213
Foundationsp. 214
Conclusionp. 217
The Boundary Spannersp. 219
Trusteeshipp. 221
Historical Foundations of Lay Governancep. 223
Public, Private, and Coordinating Boardsp. 225
Roles and Responsibilities of Governing Boardsp. 227
Ensuring Outstanding Leadershipp. 229
Articulating the Institution's Missionp. 232
Maintaining Financial Solvencyp. 232
External Relationsp. 233
Self-Assessmentp. 234
Board Effectivenessp. 236
Future Challengesp. 240
The Academic Presidencyp. 243
Increasing Demand and Diminishing Interestp. 244
The Changing Nature of the Academic Presidencyp. 245
The Role of the Academic Presidentp. 248
Demonstrating Respect for Mission and Culturep. 250
Using Symbols to Advance Institutional Objectivesp. 253
Shared Governance: The Creation of Democratic Partnershipsp. 255
Integral Leadership and Emotional Competencyp. 258
Developing and Retaining Academic Presidentsp. 261
The Future of the Academic Presidencyp. 264
The Academic Corep. 267
Governance of the Academic Corep. 269
The Concept of Shared Governancep. 270
Shared Governance Versus Corporate Governancep. 272
The Faculty Senate in Shared Governancep. 275
The CAOp. 277
Academic Deansp. 279
Responsibilities of Academic Leadersp. 281
Curriculum Coordination and Planningp. 282
Governance and Research Policyp. 283
Developing Interdisciplinary Collaborationp. 284
Conclusionp. 286
Academic Departments and Departmental Leadershipp. 290
The Nature of Academic Departmentsp. 290
Departments as Systemsp. 291
Departmental Culture and Climatep. 293
The Role of the Department Chair and Leadershipp. 294
Department Chairs and Department Headsp. 294
The Department Chair s Rolep. 295
Creating a Culture of Adaptation and Changep. 296
Developing a Shared Vision and Missionp. 296
Embracing Conflict Toward Problem Resolutionp. 297
Developing an Academic and Intellectual Communityp. 298
Fostering Growth and Professional Developmentp. 298
Developing Evaluation Processes and Strategic Plansp. 299
Department Facultyp. 299
Recruiting and Hiringp. 299
Annual Reviewsp. 301
Promotion and Tenurep. 303
Posttenure Reviewp. 304
Fostering the Academic Work of the Departmentp. 305
Conclusionp. 306
The Facultyp. 311
Cultural Influences on Faculty Workp. 311
The Faculty's Institutional Rolep. 312
The Nature of Faculty Workp. 315
The Changing Nature of the Faculty Positionp. 316
Contingent Versus Tenure-Track Facultyp. 316
Faculty Demographicsp. 319
Faculty Retirementsp. 321
Faculty Employment Issuesp. 322
A Faculty Employment Planp. 322
Discrimination in Employmentp. 323
Academic Freedom and the First Amendmentp. 324
Faculty Governancep. 326
Faculty Reward Structuresp. 326
Annual Reviews and Merit Payp. 326
Promotion and Tenurep. 327
Posttenure Reviewp. 329
Faculty Developmentp. 330
Faculty and Civic Engagementp. 330
Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Technologyp. 331
Conclusionp. 332
Implementation of the Academic Missionp. 339
The Student Experiencep. 341
College Students in the 21st Centuryp. 342
The Purpose of Educationp. 344
Historical Considerationsp. 347
Theories of Student Developmentp. 350
Student Development and the Curriculump. 354
General Educationp. 354
The Academic Planp. 359
Student Development and Persistencep. 360
Student Development and the Cocurriculump. 363
The College Experience and Student Changep. 366
Conclusionp. 368
Planning, Assessment, and Budgetingp. 374
National Priorities and Higher Education's Responsep. 375
The Growing Need for Strategic Planning and Accountabilityp. 376
A Sense of Purpose and a Deliberate Processp. 378
Developing an Appropriate Planning Modelp. 380
Developing a Culture of Evidence: The Value of Assessmentp. 384
Linking Planning and Assessment to Budgetingp. 387
Conclusionp. 389
About the Authorsp. 393
Indexp. 397
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