9780199947430

Academic Writing with Readings Concepts and Connections

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780199947430

  • ISBN10:

    0199947430

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2/20/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Features

* An emphasis on core academic skills: Academic Writing introduces core concepts used across a variety of disciplines in order to help students recognize patterns that appear in all academic reading and writing situations.
* Connections across contexts: From traditional science reports written for fellow scholars to blogs written for general audiences, this interdisciplinary text contains a wide range of readings, allowing students to examine how context influences academic writing.
* "Concept in Practice" and "Applying the Concepts" features: These features encourage students to apply the critical reading, research, and writing strategies that they learn in composition courses to what they read and write in all of their courses.
* An anthology: This accompanying anthology includes forty-two articles drawn from across a wide range of disciplines-including Sociology, Psychology, Computer Science, Communications, History, Art, Communications, Business, Economics, Geography, and Environmental Science-which are grouped together by engaging interdisciplinary themes: Social Networks (Chapter 13), Perceptions and Perspectives (Chapter 14), Language, Literacy, and Technology (Chapter 15), Violence and Justice (Chapter 16), and Conservation and the Environment (Chapter 17).

Author Biography


Teresa Thonney is Associate Professor of English at Columbia Basin College.

Table of Contents


ACADEMIC WRITING: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS, with Readings
Preface for Instructors
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Academic Writing across the Disciplines
Recognizing Common Features of Academic Writing
Specialized Audiences
Contextualized Writing
Specialized Vocabulary
Disciplinary Perspectives and Modes of Inquiry
Emphasis on Research and Evidence
Transitioning to Reading and Writing in the Disciplines
Consider Your Study Habits and Learning Preferences
Consider Your Prior Writing Knowledge and Beliefs about Learning
Understanding Concepts and Connections in Academic Writing
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading Academic Writing
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Considering Your Learning Preferences
PAIRED READINGS FROM INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
"Disciplinary Cultures and General Education: What Can We Learn from Our Learners" Essays on Teaching Excellence, Sheila Tobias
"For many students, a course . . . is 'hard' not because its content is too difficult for them, but because it is 'packaged' and 'purveyed' in unfamiliar ways."
"Why Poets Just Don't Get It in the Physics Classroom: Stalking the Second Tier in the Sciences," NACADA Journal, Sheila Tobias
"I began a series of studies to ascertain the causes for the hemorrhaging of college students from the science pipeline."
Chapter 2: Strategies for Reading Academic Writing
Strategy 1: Understanding the Context
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation
Know What to Expect While You Read
Concept in Practice 2.1: Considering Context Clues
Use Genre Knowledge to Understand What You're Reading
Recognize the Vocabulary of the Genre or Discipline
Concept in Practice 2.2: Considering the Vocabulary of Research Studies
Keep Your Reason for Reading in Mind
Strategy 2: Making Predictions
Preview the Entire Text
Notice Signal Words and Transitions
Concept in Practice 2.3: Considering Linguistic Clues
Strategy 3: Reading Actively
Highlight, Annotate, or Create Graphical Depictions as You Read
Concept in Practice 2.4: Making Annotations
Make Connections as You Read
Strategy 4: Adjusting How You Read
Learn to Adjust Your Reading Rate
Concept in Practice 2.5: Adjusting How You Read
Learn to Read Critically
Alter Your Reading Style When Reading Onscreen
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Considering the IMRAD Report
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Why Read Original Research Reports?
PAIRED READINGS FROM READING STUDIES
Excerpt from an "Interview with Ellen Rose," conducted by Laureano Ralón for Figure/Ground Communication
"What seems to be happening now is that this state of perpetual distraction is becoming the new normal"-an education professor talks about learning in the digital age.
"The Phenomenology of On-Screen Reading: University Students' Lived Experience of Digitised Text," British Journal of Educational Technology, Ellen Rose
"This study sought to gain insight into university students' experiences of reading digitised texts. . . ."
Chapter 3: Reading Academic Arguments
Defining Academic Arguments
Claims of Observation
Claims of Interpretation of Evidence or Research
Claims of Opinion or Value
Claims that Call for Action
The Intended Audience
Recognizing Persuasive Appeals
Pathos
Consider Imagery and Concrete Details
Consider Figurative Language
Consider Appeals to Shared Values
Concept in Practice 3.1: Appealing to Shared Cultural Values
Ethos
Consider the Author's Experience or Qualifications
Consider the Author's Concern for Others
Consider How the Author Acknowledges Opposing Views
Concept in Practice 3.2: Qualifying Conclusions
Consider the Credentials and Reputations of Sources Cited
Consider the Tone and Writing Style
Logos
Look for Indicators of Trustworthy Quantitative Research
Assess the Reliability of Studies and Surveys
Concept in Practice 3.3: Evaluating Research Methods
Evaluate the Visual Evidence
Look for Indicators of Trustworthy Qualitative Evidence
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Critically Reading Arguments
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Writing a Critical Analysis
PAIRED READINGS FROM SOCIOLOGY
"Promoting Bad Statistics," Society, Joel Best
"It generally is not necessary for a statistic to be accurate-or even plausible-in order to achieve widespread acceptance."
"Birds-Dead and Deadly: Why Numeracy Needs to Address Social Construction," Numeracy, Joel Best
"Most often, when people are trying to arouse concern about some social problem, they incorporate statistics in their claims. Many of these numbers have serious flaws. . . ."
Chapter 4: Writing Academic Arguments
Understanding the Writer-Reader Relationship in College Writing
Deferring Authority in College Papers
Concept in Practice 4.1: Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation in a Biology Writing Prompt
Claiming Authority in College Papers
Recognizing Analysis
Types of Analysis
Find or Delineate a Recurring Pattern
Compare and Contrast
Apply a Specific Analytical Template or Theory to a Situation
Evaluate Worth According to Discipline Standards
Concept in Practice 4.2: Summary vs. Analysis
Making an Argument
Thesis-Driven Arguments
Empirical Arguments
Proposals
Providing Evidence in Analysis and Argument Assignments
Summary, Analysis, and Personal Response
Published Quantitative Data
Personal Observation
Textual Evidence
Responding Effectively to Writing Prompts
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Analyzing a College Writing Prompt from Music Appreciation
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Responding to a Writing Prompt from History
PAIRED READINGS FROM INFORMATION LITERACY
"College Students Eager to Learn but Need Help Negotiating Information http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/2015227485_g uest05head.html Overload, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/2015227485_gu est05head.html The Seattle Times, Alison J. Head and Michael B. Eisenberg
"Information-literacy skills allow us to find what we need, filter out what we do not and chart a course in an ever-expanding frontier of information. Information literacy is the essential skill set that cuts across all disciplines and professions."
Excerpt from "Learning the Ropes: How Freshmen Conduct Course Research Once They Enter College," http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_2013_FreshmenStudy_FullR eport.pdf Project Information Literacy Research Report, Alison J. Head
"Our findings suggest the Google-centric search skills that freshmen bring from high school only get them so far with finding and using trusted sources they need for fulfilling college research assignments."

Chapter 5: Visual Rhetoric in Academic Arguments
An Overview of Visual Rhetoric
Concept in Practice 5.1: Considering Ethical Use of Images
Visual Rhetoric in Academic Arguments
Using Images
Using Images to Explain Concepts or Procedures
Using Images to Evoke Emotion
Concept in Practice 5.2: Combining Images with Other Types of Evidence
Presenting Quantitative Data Visually
Using Tables
Concept in Practice 5.3: Presenting Data in Tables
Using Figures
Pie Charts
Bar Charts (Graphs) and Column Charts
Line Graphs
Concept in Practice 5.4: Comparing Figure Types
Best Practices for Incorporating Visuals into Academic Papers
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading Quantitative Data
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Analyzing Images
PAIRED READINGS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
"Can We Feed the World and Sustain the Planet?" Scientific American, Jonathan A. Foley
"An international team of experts . . . has settled on five steps that, if pursued together, could raise by more than 100 percent the food available for human consumption globally, while significantly lessening greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity losses, water use and water pollution."
"Closing Yield Gaps Through Nutrient and Water Management," Nature, Nathaniel D. Mueller, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Deepak K. Ray, Navin Ramankutty, and Jonathan A. Foley
"Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management."

Chapter 6: Writing with Authority
Reviewing the Past and Announcing the Value of Your Paper
Concept in Practice 6.1: Recognizing Patterns in Introductions
Introducing and Announcing the Purpose of Your Paper
Concept in Practice 6.2: Engaging Readers and Announcing Your Goals
Qualifying Claims and Anticipating Objections
Preparing the Reader for What's to Come
Titles
Forecasting Introductions
Overviews, Topic Sentences, and Headings
Using Specialized Vocabulary and Academic Phrasing
Academic Phrases
Concept in Practice 6.3: Recognizing Academic Vocabulary
Reformulations
Reformulations that Paraphrase
Reformulations that Specify or Illustrate
Reformulations that Define
Concept in Practice 6.4: Recognizing Opportunities for Reformulation
Using First Person to Establish Authority
Bringing the Conversation to a Close
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading Mathematics Writing
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Using the Conventions of Academic Writing
PAIRED READINGS FROM BUSINESS
"First Impressions: The Science of Meeting People." (An interview with Amy Cuddy), Wired. Com, Rob Capps
"A strong handshake and assertive greeting may not be the best way to make a good first impression."
"Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance," Psychological Science, Dana R. Carney, Amy J. C. Cuddy, and Andy J. Yap
The researchers' "findings suggest that, in some situations requiring power, people have the ability to 'fake it 'til they make it.'"

Chapter 7: Conducting Secondary Research
Discovering Topics
Analyze Assignment Prompts
Choose from What You Know
Consult Course Resources
Conduct "Presearch"
Refining Your Topic
Concept in Practice 7.1: Asking Open-Ended Questions to Refine a Topic
Finding Sources
Search Library Databases
Concept in Practice 7.2: Searching for Articles in a Database
Search Online Book Catalogs
Consult Your Sources' Sources
Consult Your Librarians
Concept in Practice 7.3: Using Your Library's Databases
Evaluating Sources
What Is the Publication Source?
Is the Source a Primary or Secondary Source?
Does the Author Have Relevant Credentials?
What Is the Original Context?
What Is the Publication Date?
Are the Author's Sources of Information Identified?
Is the Source Static or Dynamic?
Concept in Practice 7.4: Evaluating a Website
Creating a Working Bibliography
Concept in Practice 7.5: Developing an Annotated Bibliography
Selecting Evidence for an Academic Argument
Reading Academic Research Reports
Choosing between Primary and Secondary Sources of Information
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Evaluating Online Sources
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Creating an Annotated Bibliography that Evaluates Sources
PAIRED READINGS FROM COMPUTER SCIENCE
"YAB [Youth Advisory Board] Interview: Laura Granka, Search User Experience, Google." Ypulse Youth Advisory Board post from Raymond Braun
Laura Granka describes her work as a "user-experience researcher" for Google.
"Eye-Tracking Analysis of User Behavior in WWW Search," SIGIR Forum, Laura A. Granka, Thorsten Joachims, and Geri Gay
"We investigate how users interact with the results page of a WWW search engine using eye-tracking."
Chapter 8: Integrating Source Material into Academic Writing
Summarizing
Summary in Introductions
Summary as Evidence
Comprehensive Summaries
Concept in Practice 8.1: Summarizing an Article
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing a Passage
Understanding Plagiarism
Patchwriting
Common Knowledge
Concept in Practice 8.2: Summarizing and Paraphrasing a Passage
Quoting
Determining When to Quote
Analyzing Quotations
Capitalizing and Punctuating Quotations
Identifying Speakers
Copying Quotations
Concept in Practice 8.3: Quoting Sentences and Phrases
Using Block Quotations
Identifying Sources through Formal Documentation
Similarities and Differences in Documentation Styles
Quoting in Different Documentation Styles
Similarities and Differences in Bibliography Styles
Concept in Practice 8.4: Recognizing Differences in Bibliography Formats
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Combining Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation with Analysis
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Summarizing an Article
PAIRED READINGS FROM RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION
"Sandra Jamieson and Rebecca Moore Howard: Unraveling the Citation Trail," Project Information Literacy.
"Smart Talks"
"We felt-based on our classroom experience!-that what underlay much of what was being interpreted as plagiarism was not based in students' ethical choices, but rather in their practices and skills in source-based writing."
"Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences," Writing & Pedagogy, Rebecca Moore Howard, Tricia Serviss, and Tanya K. Rodrigue
"Instead of focusing on students' citation of sources, educators should attend to the more fundamental question of how well students understand their sources and whether they are able to write about them without appropriating language from the source."

Chapter 9: Writing a Synthesis Paper
Planning a Synthesis Paper
Consider Your Audience, Purpose, and Assignment
Look for Agreements, Disagreements, and Discrepancies between Sources
Think of Research and Writing as Simultaneous Processes
Look for Ways to Graphically Organize Information
Concept in Practice 9.1: Planning a Source-Based Synthesis Paper
Formulating the Central Claim
Categorizing Types of Central Claims
Claims that Summarize the Published Research
Claims of Opinion or Value
Concept in Practice 9.2: Expressing the Central Claim
Drafting Your Paper
Support Claims with Evidence
Write an Original Argument
Use Additional Features of Good Synthesis Writing
Synthesizing Source Material Using MLA Format
Synthesizing Source Material Using APA Format
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading a Source-Based Proposal Documented in APA Format
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Synthesizing Information from Sources
PAIRED READINGS FROM PSYCHOLOGY
Excerpt from "An Interview with Deanna Kuhn," Educational Psychology Review, Michael E. Shaughnessy
"In seeking to develop the intellectual values of students in the American education system, we need to be aware that we are swimming against a cultural tide."
"Jumping to Conclusions," Scientific American Mind, Deanna Kuhn
"Can people be counted on to make sound judgments?" A psychology researcher demonstrates that "the causal reasoning of average adults regarding everyday matters is in fact highly fallible."

Chapter 10: Conducting Primary Research
Secondary Research vs. Primary Research
Choosing a Research Topic
Use Course Resources
Look Around
Use Published Studies
Primary Research Questions
Choosing Your Research Methods
Observation
Limitations of Observation
Guidelines for Conducting Observational Research
Concept in Practice 10.1: Reporting Observational Research
Interviews
Guidelines for Conducting Interviews
Concept in Practice 10.2: Interviewing Research Subjects
Surveys
Guidelines for Creating Survey Questions
Concept in Practice 10.3: Evaluating Survey Questions
Limitations of Survey Research
Textual Analysis
Guidelines for Conducting Textual Analysis
Concept in Practice 10.4: Analyzing Textual Features
Discovering Topics for Textual Analysis Studies
Ethical Considerations When Conducting Primary Research
Reporting Your Original Research
Benefits of Conducting Primary Research
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Analyzing a Description of Methods
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Planning a Research Study
PAIRED READINGS FROM INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
Excerpt from University of Michigan's webpage for the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (Sandra R. Gregerman, director)
University of Michigan researchers describe a program found to have a positive influence on "students' academic achievement, retention, behavior, and post-graduate educational and professional activities."
Excerpt from "Undergraduate Student-Faculty Research Partnerships Affect Student Retention," Review of Higher Education, Biren A. Nagda, Sandra R. Gregerman, John Jonides, William von Hippel, and Jennifer S. Lerner
Researchers find that "students' involvement in investigating, understanding, and producing knowledge wove them into the central mission of the university."

Chapter 11: Revising and Editing Academic Writing
Global vs. Local Changes
Making Global Revisions
Can Readers Predict What's Ahead?
Does the Organization of Main Ideas Make Sense?
Are Main Ideas Repeated?
Are Ideas Linked?
Concept in Practice 11.1: Linking Paragraphs
Are the Body Paragraphs Well Structured?
Are the Sentences within each Paragraph Connected?
Is the Paragraph Unified?
Is the Paragraph Adequately Developed?
Concept in Practice 11.2: Revising Underdeveloped Paragraphs
Does the Writing Address Your Reader's Needs?
Have You Used Feedback from Professors?
Concept in Practice 11.3: Using Instructor Feedback
Making Local Edits
Decide between Active Voice or Passive Voice
Use the "Given-New" Pattern
Concept in Practice 11.4: Using the Given-New Pattern
Help Readers Navigate Complex Sentence Patterns
Edit for Conciseness
Concept in Practice 11.5: Editing for Conciseness
Editing for Correct Grammar and Spelling
Final Revising and Editing Tips
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Making Global Revisions
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Using a Revising Checklist
PAIRED READINGS FROM EDUCATION
"Some Reasons for the Grades We Give Compositions," The English Journal, Sarah Warshauer Freedman
"I designed an experiment to try to discover what causes teachers to score [papers] as they do."
"Why Do Teachers Give the Grades They Do?" College Composition and Communication, Sarah Warshauer Freedman

Why do English teachers give the grades they do? Research from an education professor indicates that "the most significant influence proved to be the strength of the content of the essay."
Chapter 12: Working and Writing in Groups
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in Groups
Keys to Successful Collaboration
Discuss in Advance Your Group Philosophy
Expect Different Approaches to Communication and Work
Consider Other Perspectives
Coordinate Efforts
Concept in Practice 12.1: Engaging in Productive Conflict
Writing Collaboratively
Giving Peer Feedback
Focus on What's Needed at the Time
Consider the Evidence Supporting the Writer's Claims
Notice the Organization and Flow of Ideas
Annotate As You Read
Give Specific Feedback
Benefits of Peer Response
Concept in Practice 12.2: Giving Useful Feedback
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Responding to the Writing of Others
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Writing Collaboratively
PAIRED READINGS FROM BIOLOGY
"The Brains of the Animal Kingdom; New Research Shows that We Have Grossly Underestimated both the Scope and the Scale of Animal Intelligence. Primatologist Frans de Waal on Memory-Champ Chimps, Tool-using Elephants and Rats Capable of Empathy," Wall Street Journal, Frans de Waal
Primatologist Frans de Waal argues that "intelligent life is not something for us to seek in the outer reaches of space but is abundant right here on earth, under our noses" in the animal kingdom.
Excerpt from "Chimpanzees Play the Ultimatum Game," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, Proctor Darby, Rebecca A. Williamson, Frans B. M. de Waal, and Sarah Brosnan
Research from scientists at Georgia State University and Emory University indicates that even monkeys understand the benefits of collaboration.

Works Cited
Credits
Author/Title Index
* Each chapter ends with a works cited
Preface
1. Academic Writing across the Disciplines
Recognizing Common Features of Academic Writing
Specialized Audiences
Contextualized Writing
Specialized Vocabulary
Disciplinary Perspectives and Modes of Inquiry
Emphasis on Research and Evidence
Transitioning to Reading and Writing in the Disciplines
Consider Your Study Habits and Learning Preferences
Consider Your Prior Writing Knowledge and Beliefs about Learning
Understanding Concepts and Connections in Academic Writing
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading Academic Writing
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Considering Your Learning Preferences
PAIRED READINGS FROM INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
"Disciplinary Cultures and General Education," Essays on Teaching Excellence, Sheila Tobias
"Why Poets Just Don't Get It in the Physics Classroom: Stalking the Second Tier in the Sciences," NACADA Journal, Sheila Tobias
2. Strategies for Reading Academic Writing
Strategy 1: Understanding the Context
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation
-- The Writer
-- The Audience
-- The Situation, Genre, and Purpose
Know What to Expect While You Read
Concept in Practice 2.1: Considering Context Clues
Use Genre Knowledge to Understand What You're Reading
Recognize the Vocabulary of the Genre or Discipline
Concept in Practice 2.2: Considering the Vocabulary of Research Studies
Keep Your Reason for Reading in Mind
Strategy 2: Making Predictions
Preview the Entire Text
Notice Signal Words and Transitions
Concept in Practice 2.3: Considering Linguistic Clues
Strategy 3: Reading Actively
Highlight, Annotate, or Create Graphical Depictions as You Read
Concept in Practice 2.4: Making Annotations
Make Connections as You Read
Strategy 4: Adjusting How You Read
Learn to Adjust Your Reading Rate
Concept in Practice 2.5: Adjusting How You Read
Learn to Read Critically
Alter Your Reading Style When Reading Onscreen
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Considering the IMRAD Report
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Why Read Original Research Reports?
PAIRED READINGS FROM READING STUDIES
Excerpt from an "Interview with Ellen Rose," conducted by Laureano Ralón for Figure/Ground Communication
"The Phenomenology of On-Screen Reading: University Students' Lived Experience of Digitised Text," British Journal of Educational Technology, Ellen Rose
3. Reading Academic Arguments
Defining Academic Arguments
Claims of Observation
Claims of Interpretation of Evidence or Research
Claims of Opinion or Value
Claims that Call for Action
The Intended Audience
Recognizing Persuasive Appeals
Pathos
--Consider Imagery and Concrete Details
--Consider Figurative Language
--Consider Appeals to Shared Values
Concept in Practice 3.1: Appealing to Shared Cultural Values
Ethos
--Consider the Author's Experience or Qualifications
--Consider the Author's Concern for Others
--Consider How the Author Acknowledges Opposing Views
Concept in Practice 3.2: Qualifying Conclusions
--Consider the Credentials and Reputations of Sources Cited
--Consider the Tone and Writing Style
Logos
--Look for Indicators of Trustworthy Quantitative Research
--Assess the Reliability of Studies and Surveys
Concept in Practice 3.3: Evaluating Research Methods
--Evaluate the Visual Evidence
--Look for Indicators of Trustworthy Qualitative Evidence
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Critically Reading Arguments
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Writing a Critical Analysis
PAIRED READINGS FROM SOCIOLOGY
"Promoting Bad Statistics," Society, Joel Best
"Birds-Dead and Deadly: Why Numeracy Needs to Address Social Construction," Numeracy, Joel Best
4. Writing Academic Arguments
Understanding the Writer-Reader Relationship in College Writing
Deferring Authority in College Papers
Concept in Practice 4.1: Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation in a Biology Writing Prompt
Claiming Authority in College Papers
Recognizing Analysis
Types of Analysis
--Find or Delineate a Recurring Pattern
--Compare and Contrast
--Apply a Specific Analytical Template or Theory to a Situation
--Evaluate Worth According to Discipline Standards
Concept in Practice 4.2: Summary vs. Analysis
Making an Argument
Thesis-Driven Arguments
Empirical Arguments
Proposals
Providing Evidence in Analysis and Argument Assignments
Summary, Analysis, and Personal Response
Published Quantitative Data
Personal Observation
Textual Evidence
Responding Effectively to Writing Prompts
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Analyzing a College Writing Prompt from Music Appreciation
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Responding to a Writing Prompt from History
PAIRED READINGS FROM INFORMATION LITERACY
"College Students Eager to Learn but Need Help Negotiating Information Overload." The Seattle Times, Alison J. Head and Michael B. Eisenberg
Excerpt from "Learning the Ropes: How Freshmen Conduct Course Research Once They Enter College," Project Information Literacy Research Report, Alison J. Head
5. Visual Rhetoric in Academic Arguments
An Overview of Visual Rhetoric
Visual Rhetoric in Academic Arguments
Passage from an Academic Journal
Using Images
Using Images to Explain Concepts or Procedures
Using Images to Evoke Emotion
Concept in Practice 5.1: Combining Images with Other Types of Evidence
Presenting Quantitative Data Visually
Using Tables
Concept in Practice 5.2: Presenting Data in Tables
Using Figures
-- Pie Charts
-- Bar Charts (Graphs) and Column Charts
-- Line Graphs
Concept in Practice 5.3: Comparing Figure Types
Best Practices for Incorporating Visuals into Academic Papers
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading Quantitative Data
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Analyzing Images
Getting Started
Conducting Your Analysis
Writing the Analysis
PAIRED READINGS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
"Can We Feed the World and Sustain the Planet?" Scientific American, Jonathan A. Foley
"Closing Yield Gaps Through Nutrient and Water Management," Nature, Nathaniel D. Mueller, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Deepak K. Ray, Navin Ramankutty, and Jonathan A. Foley
6. Writing with Authority
Reviewing the Past and Announcing the Value of Your Paper
Concept in Practice 6.1: Recognizing Patterns in Introductions
Introducing and Announcing the Purpose of Your Paper
Concept in Practice 6.2: Engaging Readers and Announcing Your Goals
Qualifying Claims and Anticipating Objections
Preparing the Reader for What's to Come
Titles
Forecasting Introductions
Overviews, Topic Sentences, and Headings
Using Specialized Vocabulary and Academic Phrasing
Academic Phrases
Concept in Practice 6.3: Recognizing Academic Vocabulary
Reformulations
-- Reformulations that Paraphrase
-- Reformulations that Specify or Illustrate
-- Reformulations that Define
Concept in Practice 6.4: Recognizing Opportunities for Reformulation
Using First Person to Establish Authority
Bringing the Conversation to a Close
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading Mathematics Writing
Joining a Conversation
Establishing Territory and Stating the Value of the Research
Expressing Uncertainty
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Using the Conventions of Academic Writing
PAIRED READINGS FROM BUSINESS
"First Impressions: The Science of Meeting People." (An interview with Amy Cuddy), Wired. Com, Rob Capps
"Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance," Psychological Science, Dana R. Carney, Amy J. C. Cuddy, and Andy J. Yap
7. Conducting Secondary Research
Discovering Topics
Analyze Assignment Prompts
Choose from What You Know
Consult Course Resources
Conduct "Presearch"
--Library Resources
--Internet Sources
Refining Your Topic
Concept in Practice 7.1: Asking Open-Ended Questions to Refine a Topic
Finding Sources
Search Library Databases
Concept in Practice 7.2: Searching for Articles in a Database
Search Online Book Catalogs
Consult Your Sources' Sources
Consult Your Librarians
Concept in Practice 7.3: Using Your Library's Databases
Evaluating Sources
What Is the Publication Source?
Is the Source a Primary or Secondary Source?
Does the Author Have Relevant Credentials?
What Is the Original Context?
What Is the Publication Date?
Are the Author's Sources of Information Identified?
Is the Source Static or Dynamic?
Concept in Practice 7.4: Evaluating a Website
Creating a Working Bibliography
Concept in Practice 7.5: Developing an Annotated Bibliography
Selecting Evidence for an Academic Argument
Reading Academic Research Reports
Choosing between Primary and Secondary Sources of Information
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Evaluating Online Sources
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Creating an Annotated Bibliography that Evaluates Sources
PAIRED READINGS FROM COMPUTER SCIENCE
"YAB [Youth Advisory Board] Interview: Laura Granka, Search User Experience, Google." Ypulse Youth Advisory Board post from Raymond Braun
"Eye-Tracking Analysis of User Behavior in WWW Search," SIGIR Forum, Laura A. Granka, Thorsten Joachims, and Geri Gay
Eye-Tracking Analysis of User Behavior in WWW Search
8. Integrating Source Material into Academic Writing
Summarizing
Summary in Introductions
Summary as Evidence
Comprehensive Summaries
--Reading a Text You Will Summarize
Concept in Practice 8.1: Summarizing an Article
--Template for Standalone Summaries
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing a Passage
Understanding Plagiarism
Patchwriting
Common Knowledge
Concept in Practice 8.2: Summarizing and Paraphrasing a Passage
Quoting
Determining When to Quote
Analyzing Quotations
Capitalizing and Punctuating Quotations
--Introducing Quotations
--Integrating Quotations
--Interrupting Quotations
--Introducing a Quotation with a Colon
--Following a Quotation with a Comma or Period
--Following a Quotation with Other Types of Punctuation
Identifying Speakers
Copying Quotations
--Adding Emphasis to a Quotation
--Omitting Words from a Quotation
--Inserting Words into Quotations
--Identifying an Error in a Quotation
Concept in Practice 8.3: Quoting Sentences and Phrases
Using Block Quotations
Identifying Sources through Formal Documentation
Similarities and Differences in Documentation Styles
Quoting in Different Documentation Styles
Similarities and Differences in Bibliography Styles
Concept in Practice 8.4: Recognizing Differences in Bibliography Formats
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Combining Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation with Analysis
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Summarizing an Article
PAIRED READINGS FROM RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION
"Sandra Jamieson and Rebecca Moore Howard: Unraveling the Citation Trail," Project Information Literacy, "Smart Talks."
"Writing from Sources, Writing from Sentences," Writing & Pedagogy, Rebecca Moore Howard, Tricia Serviss, and Tanya K. Rodrigue
9. Writing a Synthesis Paper
Planning a Synthesis Paper
Consider Your Audience, Purpose, and Assignment
Look for Agreements, Disagreements, and Discrepancies between Sources
Think of Research and Writing as Simultaneous Processes
Look for Ways to Graphically Organize Information
Concept in Practice 9.1: Planning a Source-Based Synthesis Paper
Formulating the Central Claim
Categorizing Types of Central Claims
Claims that Summarize the Published Research
Claims of Opinion or Value
Concept in Practice 9.2: Expressing the Central Claim
Central Claim that Summarizes Sources
Central Claim that Expresses the Writer's Opinion
Drafting Your Paper
Support Claims with Evidence
Write an Original Argument
Use Additional Features of Good Synthesis Writing
Synthesizing Source Material Using MLA Format
Synthesizing Source Material Using APA Format
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Reading a Source-Based Proposal Documented in APA Format
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Synthesizing Information from Sources
PAIRED READINGS FROM PSYCHOLOGY
Excerpt from "An Interview with Deanna Kuhn," Educational Psychology Review, Michael E. Shaughnessy
"Jumping to Conclusions," Scientific American Mind, Deanna Kuhn
10. Conducting Primary Research
Secondary Research versus Primary Research
Choosing a Research Topic
Use Course Resources
Look Around
Use Published Studies
Primary Research Questions
Choosing Your Research Methods
Observation
Limitations of Observation
Guidelines for Conducting Observational Research
Concept in Practice 10.1: Reporting Observational Research
Interviews
Guidelines for Conducting Interviews
Concept in Practice 10.2: Interviewing Research Subjects
Surveys
Guidelines for Creating Survey Questions
Concept in Practice 10.3: Evaluating Survey Questions
Limitations of Survey Research
Textual Analysis
Guidelines for Conducting Textual Analysis
Concept in Practice 10.4: Analyzing Textual Features
Discovering Topics for Textual Analysis Studies
Ethical Considerations When Conducting Primary Research
Reporting Your Original Research
Title
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Benefits of Conducting Primary Research
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Analyzing a Description of Methods
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Planning a Research Study
PAIRED READINGS FROM INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
Excerpt from University of Michigan's webpage for the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (Sandra R. Gregerman, director)
Excerpt from "Undergraduate Student-Faculty Research Partnerships Affect Student Retention," Review of Higher Education, Biren A. Nagda, Sandra R. Gregerman, John Jonides, William von Hippel, and Jennifer S. Lerner
11. Revising and Editing Academic Writing
Global vs. Local Changes
Making Global Revisions
Can Readers Predict What's Ahead?
Does the Organization of Main Ideas Make Sense?
Are Main Ideas Repeated?
Are Ideas Linked?
Concept in Practice 11.1: Linking Paragraphs
Are the Body Paragraphs Well Structured?
-- Are the Sentences within each Paragraph Connected?
-- Is the Paragraph Unified?
-- Is the Paragraph Adequately Developed?
Concept in Practice 11.2: Revising Underdeveloped Paragraphs
Does the Writing Address Your Reader's Needs?
Have You Used Feedback from Professors?
Concept in Practice 11.3: Using Instructor Feedback
Making Local Edits
Decide between Active Voice or Passive Voice
Use the "Given-New" Pattern
Concept in Practice 11.4: Using the Given-New Pattern
Help Readers Navigate Complex Sentence Patterns
Edit for Conciseness
Concept in Practice 11.5: Editing for Conciseness
Editing for Correct Grammar and Spelling
Final Revising and Editing Tips
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Making Global Revisions
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Using a Revising Checklist
Revising Checklist
PAIRED READINGS FROM EDUCATION
"Some Reasons for the Grades We Give Compositions," The English Journal, Sarah Warshauer Freedman
"Why Do Teachers Give the Grades They Do?" College Composition and Communication, Sarah Warshauer Freedman
12. Working and Writing in Groups
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in Groups
Keys to Successful Collaboration
--Discuss in Advance Your Group Philosophy
--Expect Different Approaches to Communication and Work
--Consider Other Perspectives
--Coordinate Efforts
Concept in Practice 12.1: Engaging in Productive Conflict
Writing Collaboratively
Giving Peer Feedback
Focus on What's Needed at the Time
Consider the Evidence Supporting the Writer's Claims
Notice the Organization and Flow of Ideas
Annotate As You Read
Give Specific Feedback
Benefits of Peer Response
Concept in Practice 12.2: Giving Useful Feedback
Applying the Concepts to Reading: Responding to the Writing of Others
Applying the Concepts to Writing: Writing Collaboratively
PAIRED READINGS FROM BIOLOGY
"The Brains of the Animal Kingdom; New Research Shows that We Have Grossly Underestimated both the Scope and the Scale of Animal Intelligence. Primatologist Frans de Waal on Memory-Champ Chimps, Tool-using Elephants and Rats Capable of Empathy," Wall Street Journal, Frans de Waal
Excerpt from "Chimpanzees Play the Ultimatum Game," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, Proctor Darby, Rebecca A. Williamson, Frans B. M. de Waal, and Sarah Brosnan
13. Social Networks
(Sociology) Excerpt from Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives, Nicholas A. Christakis and James H. Fowler
(Biology) "The Empathy Instinct," Discover, Frans de Waal
(Economics) "Is Poor Fitness Contagious? Evidence from Randomly Assigned Friends," Journal of Public Economics, Scott E. Carrell, Mark Hoekstra, and James E. West
(Economics) "The Canseco Effect: Wherever He Went, Jose Canseco Made His Teammates Better Power Hitters. Can Statistics Be Used to Find Juicers?" Slate, Ray Fisman
(Sociology) "The Illusion of Diffusion," ociety, Joel Best
(Neuroscience) "Creativity versus Skepticism within Science," The Skeptical Inquirer, V. S. Ramachandran
(Art and Design) "Hackers of the Renaissance," OMNI Reboot, Pablo Garcia
(Psychology) "Culture and Causal Cognition," Current Directions in Psychological Science, Ara Norenzayan and Richard E. Nisbett
(Psychology) "Cultural Variation in Eye Movements during Scene Perception," PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences), Hannah Faye Chua, Julie E. Boland, and Richard E. Nisbett
14. Perceptions and Perspectives
(Psychology) "Kidding Ourselves," excerpt from How the Mind Works, Steven Pinker
(Psychology) "'Why Won't They Admit They're Wrong?' and Other Skeptics' Mysteries," Skeptical Inquirer, Carol Tavris and Elliot Aronson
(Advertising) Excerpt from "'I Smoke But I Am Not a Smoker': Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior," Journal of American College Health, Youjin Choi, Sejung Marina Choi, and Nora Rifon
(Psychology) "The End of History Illusion," Science, Jordi Quoidbach, Daniel T. Gilbert, and Timothy D. Wilson
(Business) "In Hiring and Promoting, Look beyond Results," The Wall Street Journal, Francesca Gino
(Business) Excerpt from "Correspondence Bias in Performance Evaluation: Why Grade Inflation Works," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Don A. Moore, Samuel A. Swift, Zachariah S. Sharek, and Francesca Gino
(Psychology) "Myside Bias in Thinking about Abortion," Thinking and Reasoning, Jonathan Baron
(Neuroscience) "Filling in Gaps in Perception: Part I," Current Directions in Psychological Science, V. S. Ramachandran
15. Language, Literacy, and Technology
(Psychology) "Lost in Translation," The Wall Street Journal, Lera Boroditsky
(Psychology) "Subtle Linguistic Cues Influence Perceived Blame and Financial Liability," Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Caitlin M. Fausey and Lera Boroditsky
(Psychology) "Our 'Deep Reading' Brain: Its Digital Evolution Poses Questions," Nieman Reports, Maryanne Wolf
(Technology) "How Computers Change the Way We Think," The Chronicle of Higher Education, Sherry Turkle
(Communications) "Does the Internet Make You Smarter or Dumber?" The Wall Street Journal, Clay Shirky
(Media Studies) "Using the Internet to Examine Patterns of Foreign Coverage," Nieman Reports, Ethan Zuckerman
(Psychology) "The Effects and Predictor Value of In-Class Texting Behavior on Final Course Grades," College Student Journal, Sylvia E. McDonald
(Computer Science) "The Laptop and the Lecture: The Effects of Multitasking in Learning Environments," Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Helene Hembrooke and Geri Gay
16. Violence and Justice
(Art History) "Another Report on the Age of Extinction," Canadian Review of American Studies, John O'Brian
(History) "Getting Away with Murder," American Historical Review, Elizabeth Dale
(Social Work) "Taking a Juvenile into Custody: Situational Factors That Influence Police Officers' Decisions," Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, Terrence T. Allen
(Law) "The Government Wants Your DNA," Scientific American, Erin Murphy
(Psychology) "How I Got Started: From Semantic Memory to Expert Testimony," Applied Cognitive Psychology, Elizabeth F. Loftus
(Psychology) "Repeated Information in the Courtroom," Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges, Jeffrey L. Foster, Maryanne Garry, and Elizabeth F. Loftus
(Management) "It's a Crime What Some People Do with Statistics," The Wall Street Journal, Arnold Barnett
(International Relations and Psychology) "War Really Is Going Out of Style," The New York Times, Joshua S. Goldstein and Steven Pinker
17. Conservation and the Environment
(Interdisciplinary) "Conservation-Reliant Species," BioScience, Dale D. Goble, John A. Wiens, J. Michael Scott, Timothy D. Male, and John A. Hall
(Marine Science) "Finding Nemo on Your Plate," The Nature Conservancy blog, Stephanie Wear
(Wildlife Ecology) "Survival of Neonatal White-Tailed Deer in an Exurban Population," The Journal of Wildlife Management, Sarah T. Saalfeld and Stephen S. Ditchkoff
(Environmental Science) "The Trial," Conservation Biology, David W. Orr
(Interdisciplinary) "Conservation and the Social Sciences," Conservation Biology, Michael B. Mascia, J. Peter Brosius, Tracy A. Dobson, Bruce C. Forbes, Leah Horowitz, Margaret A. McKean, and Nancy J. Turner
(Geography) "Alpine Areas in the Colorado Front Range as Monitors of Climate Change and Ecosystem Response," The Geographical Review, Mark W. Williams, Mark V. Losleben, and Hillary B. Hamann.
(Economics) "Climate Change and Agriculture: Economic Impacts," Choices, John M. Antle
(Geography) "The Last Americans," Harper's Magazine, Jared Diamond
(Geography) "Will Big Business Save the Earth?" The New York Times Upfront, Jared Diamond

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