Action Analysis for Animators

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 6/5/2012
  • Publisher: Focal Press
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Action Analysis is one of the fundamental princples of animation that underpins all types of animation: 2d, 3d, computer animation, stop motion, etc. This is a fundamental skill that all animators need to create polished, believable animation. An example of Action Analysis would be Shrek's swagger in the film, Shrek. The animators clearly understood (through action analysis) the type of walk achieved by a large and heavy individual (the real) and then applied their observations to the animated character of an ogre (the fantastic). It is action analysis that enabled the animation team to visually translate a real life situation into an ogre's walk, achieving such fantastic results. Key animation skills are demonstrated with in-depth illustrations, photographs and live action footage filmed with high speed cameras. Detailed Case Studies, practical assignments and industry interviews ground action analysis methodology with real life examples. Action Analysis for Animators is a essential guide for students, amateurs and professionals. * A title that unites classic principles of Action Analysis with contemporary workflows. Apply the practices of action analysis to any animaton process. * Extensive illustrations of people and animals in motion that break down the action of animals and humans in a step-by-step manner. * Tips included throughout the book on how to capture motion and analyse action. * Detailed case studies illustrated with line drawings, diagrams, photographs and live action footage, integrate real world examples with practical knowledge. * DVD included as a resource for amateur and experience animators, featuring Short Animations and Live Action examples juxtaposed with stills of animals and humans in motion.

Author Biography

Chris Webster is an animator who has worked for twenty years in the industry and has extensive experience as an educator, teaching across a broad range of levels from schools, higher education and professional training programs, and within the studio environment. He is currently Head of Animation at the Bristol School of Animation and the University of the West of England.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
The Study of Motionp. 1
Asking Ourselves Some Key Questionsp. 1
Pioneers of Action Analysisp. 8
Books About Animationp. 13
Dynamics and the Laws of Motionp. 15
An Approach to Study: What You Need to Knowp. 15
Forces of Naturep. 16
The Weak Nuclear Forcep. 17
The Strong Nuclear Forcep. 18
The Electromagnetic Forcep. 18
Gravityp. 18
Newton's Theory of Gravitationp. 20
Newtononian Laws of Motionp. 22
Newton's First Law of Motionp. 23
Newton's Second Law of Motionp. 25
Newton's Third Law of Motionp. 28
Animation Principlesp. 31
A Little Historyp. 31
Approaches to Animationp. 32
Simulationp. 32
Representationp. 33
Interpretationp. 34
Four A's of Animationp. 34
Activityp. 35
Actionp. 37
Animationp. 38
Actingp. 40
Timing for Animationp. 42
Pacingp. 42
Phrasingp. 43
Animation Timingp. 44
The Hierarchy of Animated Actionsp. 44
Primary Actionp. 45
Secondary Actionp. 46
Tertiary Actionp. 47
The Principles of Animationp. 50
Timing, Secondary Action, and Slow In and Slow Outp. 52
Straight-Ahead Action and Pose-to-Posep. 52
Squash and Stretchp. 54
Anticipationp. 56
Stagingp. 57
Follow-through and Overlapping Actionp. 58
Arcsp. 60
Exaggerationp. 61
Solid Drawingp. 62
Appealp. 62
Dragp. 63
Balance and Weightp. 64
Solid Modelingp. 64
Energy Flowp. 64
Animals in Motionp. 67
The Richness of Life on Earthp. 67
Human Understanding of the Animal Kingdomp. 69
The Principles of Locomotionp. 73
Speedp. 73
Maneuverabilityp. 74
Endurance and Economy of Energyp. 75
Stability and Gaitp. 77
Quadrupedsp. 83
Quadruped Anatomyp. 83
Musclep. 84
Tendonsp. 85
Anatomyp. 86
Horsesp. 89
Catsp. 90
Dogsp. 92
Cowsp. 93
Other Quadrupedsp. 94
Crocodilesp. 95
Squirrelsp. 96
Quadruped Animationp. 98
Birdsp. 119
Bird Anatomyp. 121
Small Birdsp. 129
Medium-Sized and Large Land-Based Birdsp. 130
Water Birdsp. 131
Hummingbirdsp. 134
Birds of Preyp. 134
Seabirdsp. 135
Other Birdsp. 135
Bird Animationp. 136
Principles of Flightp. 136
Types of Wingsp. 140
Types of Flightp. 146
Fishp. 154
Fish Anatomyp. 156
Fish Movementp. 160
Fish Animationp. 167
Figures in Motionp. 177
Human Anatomyp. 178
Human Skeletal Structurep. 180
Human Musculaturep. 185
Human Animationp. 194
The Sagittal or Median Planep. 195
The Frontal or Coronal Planep. 195
The Transverse or Horizontal Planep. 196
Objectives of Movementp. 198
Balancep. 198
Locomotionp. 198
Projectionp. 198
Manipulationp. 199
Effortp. 199
Movement Given to One's Own Bodyp. 206
Movement Given to External Objectsp. 206
Movement under Loadsp. 207
Figurative Interactionp. 210
Children in Motionp. 215
Movement in the Elderlyp. 215
Movement and the Environmentp. 216
Walkingp. 217
The Stridep. 219
The Passing Positionp. 220
A Child Walkp. 228
An Elderly Walkp. 229
A Heavy Walkp. 231
Walking with a Limpp. 232
Walking with an Aidp. 234
A Happy Walkp. 235
A Sad Walkp. 236
Runningp. 237
Timing a Runp. 243
Sprintingp. 244
Steady Runsp. 245
Joggingp. 245
Child Runningp. 247
Liftingp. 248
Lifting a Heavy Weightp. 248
Lifting a Light Weightp. 251
Lifting a Light Weight with One Handp. 252
Cooperation in Lifting Weightp. 253
Carryingp. 254
Pushingp. 260
Pullingp. 262
Throwing and Catchingp. 264
Kickingp. 271
Jumpingp. 273
Strikingp. 275
Using Hands and Articulationp. 279
Facial Movementp. 283
Action in Performance and Actingp. 287
Timing Gives Meaning to Motionp. 290
Body Languagep. 290
Mood and Psychologyp. 293
Facial Motion and Expressionp. 295
The Thinking Processp. 299
Lip Syncp. 301
Motivated Movementsp. 304
Characterizationp. 304
Character Typesp. 304
Personalityp. 305
Performance Dynamicsp. 306
Action Analysis and Actingp. 307
Group Actions and Dynamicsp. 309
Dance and Choreographyp. 310
Capturing and Analyzing Actionp. 313
Capturing Actionp. 314
First-Hand Observationp. 315
Photographing Actionp. 337
Filming Actionp. 352
Motion Capturep. 354
Analyzing Actionp. 358
Four A's of Animationp. 359
Analyzing the Moving Imagep. 360
Reading a Sequencep. 368
Staging Actions and Choreographyp. 370
Analysis of Performancep. 371
Analyzing Still Imagesp. 373
Analyzing Animationp. 374
Researchp. 383
Reference and Researchp. 383
Primary Researchp. 386
Secondary Researchp. 387
Quantitative Researchp. 388
Qualitative Researchp. 388
Research Methodsp. 389
Heuristicp. 389
Phenomenologyp. 390
Action Researchp. 390
Participant Observerp. 391
Ethnographic Researchp. 391
Sourcesp. 392
Creating Your Own Reference Libraryp. 392
Further Reading and Viewingp. 393
Action Analysisp. 393
Practical Guidesp. 394
Theoryp. 395
Indexp. 397
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