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Action Research : A Guide for the Teacher Researcher

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131722767

ISBN10:
013172276X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL SCHOOL GROUP

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Summary

Action Research: A Guide for the Teacher Researcher, Third Edition Geoffrey E. Mills This text provides a step-by-step, how-to approach of "doing" action research--backed by the most extensive theory and research coverage on the market today. The author guides future and current educators through the action research process with numerous concrete illustrations and a wealth of on-line resources, positioning action research as a fundamental component of teaching alongside curriculum development, assessment, and classroom management. Key changes in the new edition of this market-leading text are: More Balanced Coverage of Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection Techniques bull; bull;NEW! Increased coverage of the most frequently used quantitative data collection techniques in action research, including teacher-made tests, standardized tests, and report cards, is included in Chapter 3, "Data Collection Techniques." More Balanced Coverage of How to Analyze Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data bull; bull;Chapter 6, "Data Analysis and Interpretation," and Appendix B, "Descriptive Statistics and Action Research," guide students through the data analysis process and provide techniques, coding guidelines, and examples for analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data. bull;NEW! An expanded discussion of descriptive statistics in Appendix B includes step-by-step guidance on how to calculate standard deviation by hand with the help of a calculator rather than using SPSS. Rearranged Order of Chapters Pertaining to Writing and Sharing of Action Research bull; bull;NEW! "Writing Up Action Research" (Chapter 8) precedes, "Sharing, Critiquing, and Celebrating Action Research" (Chapter 9) to present a more logical and clearer path to understanding. Separate Chapter Completely Devoted to Ethics bull; bull;NEW! Chapter 5 provides an expanded discussion of ethical issues, principles, and guidelines. To view the website that accompanies this text, please go to http://www.prenhall.com/mills.

Table of Contents

Understanding Action Research
1(21)
What Motivates Unmotivated Students?
1(1)
A Brief Overview of Educational Research
2(3)
Defining Action Research
5(1)
Origins of Action Research
5(1)
Theoretical Foundations of Action Research
6(2)
Critical Action Research
Practical Action Research
Goals and Rationale for Action Research
8(2)
Justifying Action Research: The Impact of Action Research on Practice
10(4)
Action Research Is Persuasive and Authoritative
Action Research Is Relevant
Action Research Allows Teachers Access to Research Findings
Action Research Challenges the Intractability of Reform of the Educational System
Action Research Is Not a Fad
Making Action Research a Part of Daily Teaching Practices
14(1)
The Process of Action Research
15(5)
Summary
20(1)
For Further Thought
20(2)
Deciding on an Area of Focus
22(28)
Interactive Teen Theater
23(2)
Clarifying a General Idea and an Area of Focus
25(1)
Criteria for Selecting a General Idea/Area of Focus
Reconnaissance
26(3)
Gaining Insight Into Your Area of Focus Through Self-Reflection
Gaining Insight Into Your Area of Focus Through Descriptive Activities
Gaining Insight Into Your Area of Focus Through Explanatory Activities
Review of Related Literature
29(15)
Searching Online Resources
Searching the Internet and the World Wide Web
Becoming a Member of Professional Organizations
Visiting a University Library
Evaluating Your Sources
Abstracting
Analyzing, Organizing, and Reporting the Literature
Writing Tools and Suggestions
The Action Research Plan
44(4)
Write an Area-of-Focus Statement
Define the Variables
Develop Research Questions
Describe the Intervention or Innovation
Describe the Membership of the Action Research Group
Describe Negotiations That Need to Be Undertaken
Develop a Timeline
Develop a Statement of Resources
Develop Data Collection Ideas
Put the Action Plan Into Action
Summary
48(1)
For Further Thought
48(2)
Data Collection Techniques
50(30)
Reflection on Action Research
51(5)
Qualitative Data Collection Techniques
56(1)
Triangulation
Experiencing Through Direct Observation
57(4)
Participant Observation
Fieldnotes
Enquiring: When the Researcher Asks
61(7)
Informal Ethnographic Interview
Structured Formal Interviews
Focus Groups
E-Mail Interviews
Questionnaires
Examining: Using and Making Records
68(5)
Archival Documents
Journals
Making Maps, Videotapes, Audiotapes, Photographs, Film, and Artifacts
Quantitative Data Collection Techniques
73(3)
Teacher-Made Tests
Standardized Tests
School-Generated Report Cards
Attitude Scales
Other Measurement Techniques
Realign Your Area of Focus and Action Research Plan When Necessary
76(1)
Summary
77(1)
For Further Thought
77(3)
Data Collection Considerations: Validity, Reliability, and Generalizability
80(20)
Improving Student Understanding and Motivation of Multiplication Facts
81(3)
Validity
84(10)
Guba's Criteria for Validity of Qualitative Research
Maxwell's Criteria for Validity of Qualitative Research
Anderson, Herr, and Nihlen's Criteria for Validity in Action Research
Wolcott's Strategies for Ensuring the Validity of Action Research
Reliability
94(2)
The Difference Between Reliability and Validity
Generalizability
96(1)
Personal Bias in the Conduct of Action Research
97(1)
Propositions
Summary
98(1)
For Further Thought
98(2)
Ethics
100(16)
The Use of Technology to Enhance Mathematics Achievement
101(2)
The Ethics of Research
103(4)
Informed Consent and Protection from Harm
Deception
Doing the Right Thing: The Role of Ethics in Action Research
107(7)
Ethical Guidelines
Flinders's Conceptual Framework for Ethics in Qualitative Research
Summary
114(1)
For Further Thought
114(2)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
116(24)
Emphasizing Learning by Deemphasizing Grades
117(4)
Ongoing Analysis and Reflection
121(1)
Avoid Premature Action
The Role of Analysis and Interpretation
122(1)
Data Analysis Techniques
123(12)
Identifying Themes
Coding Surveys, Interviews, and Questionnaires
Analyzing an Interview
Asking Key Questions
Doing an Organizational Review
Developing a Concept Map
Analyzing Antecedents and Consequences
Displaying Findings
Stating What's Missing
Using Computer Software to Assist with Data Analysis
Data Interpretation Techniques
135(2)
Extend the Analysis
Connect Findings with Personal Experience
Seek the Advice of ``Critical'' Friends
Contextualize Findings in the Literature
Turn to Theory
Know When to Say ``When''!
Sharing Your Interpretations Wisely
137(1)
Summary
138(1)
For Further Thought
138(2)
Action Planning for Educational Change
140(22)
Reflecting on Admission Criteria
141(2)
Developing Action Plans
143(8)
Levels of Action Planning
Action Should Be Ongoing
The Importance of Reflection
Some Challenges Facing Teacher Researchers
151(4)
Lack of Resources
Resistance to Change
Reluctance to Interfere with Others' Professional Practices
Reluctance to Admit Difficult Truths
Finding a Forum to Share What You Have Learned
Making Time for Action Research Endeavors
Facilitating Educational Change
155(4)
Teachers and Administrators Need to Restructure Power and Authority Relationships
Both Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategies of Change Can Work
Teachers Must Be Provided with Support
Every Person Is a Change Agent
Change Tends Not to Be Neat, Linear, or Rational
Teacher Researchers Must Pay Attention to the Culture of the School
The Outcome of Any Change Effort Must Benefit Students
Being Hopeful Is a Critical Resource
What Do Teachers Gain Through All of This Work?
159(1)
Summary
160(1)
For Further Thought
160(2)
Writing Up Action Research
162(26)
Why Should I Formally Write About My Action Research?
164(1)
Format and Style
165(1)
Sample Annotated Action Research Article
166(7)
Rituals and Writing
173(2)
Establishing a Writing Routine
An Outline for an Action Research Report
175(1)
Other Structures in Action Research Reports
176(2)
General Guidelines for Submissions to Journals
178(8)
Choosing a ``Journal'' Style
APA Publication Manual Conventions
Self-Assessing Your Write-Up
Integrating Teaching, Research, and Writing
How Long Should the Write-Up Be?
Seeking Feedback
What's in a Title?
Polishing the Text
Summary
186(1)
For Further Thought
187(1)
Sharing, Critiquing, and Celebrating Action Research Online
188(23)
Reflecting on Reflective Teaching
189(2)
Sharing Action Research
191(1)
Electronic Means for Sharing Action Research
192(1)
A Word on Quality Control on the Internet
Using the Internet to Get Connected
193(1)
What Different Types of Online Resources Can I Use?
194(8)
Action Research Web Sites
Listservs
Online Journals
Online Action Research: Challenges and Cautions
202(2)
The Challenge of Technophobia
The Challenge of the Ever-Evolving Internet
Caution: Monitor Your Time Online
But Is It Really Research?---Criteria for Judging Action Research
204(2)
Personal Reflection
206(1)
Celebration---It's Time to Party!
207(1)
This Is Just the Beginning!
208(1)
Summary
209(1)
For Further Thought
209(2)
Appendix A: Action Research in Action: A Case Study of Curtis Elementary School and an Article Critique
211(12)
The Setting: Curtis Elementary---A Professional Development School
211(2)
The Area of Focus: Constructing Meaning in Reading
213(2)
Reviewing the Literature
215(1)
Creating an Action Plan
215(1)
Creating Meaning in Reading
215(4)
Sharing the Findings
219(1)
Critiquing Action Research
220(2)
Audience
Format
Prejudices
Professional Disposition
Reflective Stance
Life Enhancing
Action
Action-Data Connection
Impact
Changes
Colleague Response
Celebrating Action Research
222(1)
Final Thoughts
222(1)
Summary
222(1)
For Further Thought
222(1)
Appendix B: Descriptive Statistics and Action Research
223(8)
Count What Counts! Using Descriptive Statistics
223(8)
Why Use Descriptive Statistics?
Measures of Central Tendency
Measure of Variability: Standard Deviation
An Illustration
Be Careful About Your Claims
Appendix C: Displaying Data Visually
231(10)
Example 1: Writers Workshop and ESL Students' Written Work and Attitudes
231(3)
Example 2: Teaching Mathematics Using Manipulatives
234(3)
Example 3: The Impact of Book Sharing on Student Motivation to Read
237(1)
Example 4: Mapping Teacher's ``Locus of Control'' and ``Movement''
237(1)
Example 5: Concept Map
237(2)
Summary
239(2)
References 241(3)
Author Index 244(2)
Subject Index 246


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