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Adolescent, The: Development, Relationships, and Culture

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205332397

ISBN10:
0205332390
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $98.40
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Summary

The Adolescent continues to be the best and most comprehensive text in its subject area, setting the standard for adolescent psychology books since its first publication more than twenty years ago. This text emphasizes the eclectic approach to adolescence, presenting not just one theory on the subject, but many, and discussing the contributions, strengths, and weaknesses of each. The authors also take into consideration current and important topics such as ethnic identity formation and gender issues. With the addition of co-author Kim G. Dolgin, current and important topics, such as ethnic identity formation and gender issues, have been emphasized. The result is a treatment of the adolescent that offers a current scholarship as well as an understanding of what it means to be an adolescent in the 21st century.

Table of Contents

Features xi
Preface xii
PART ONE Adolescence
Adolescents in Social Context
1(23)
The Changing Face of American Adolescence
3(1)
Our Society in Revolution
4(1)
The Computer Revolution
4(3)
The Internet
5(1)
Inappropriate Materials
5(1)
Effects on Children and Adolescents
6(1)
The Materialistic Revolution
7(2)
Earnings, Income, and Real Dollars
7(1)
Multiple Jobholders and Overtime Work
7(1)
Working Women
8(1)
Adolescent Employment
8(1)
Advertising and Consumption
8(1)
The Education Revolution
9(2)
Educational Attainment
9(1)
Adult Education
10(1)
Early Intervention
11(1)
Embracing the New Technology
11(1)
The Family Revolution
11(6)
Changes in Family Function
11(1)
Romantic Love
12(1)
The Rise of the Democratic Family
12(1)
The Rise of the Child-Centered Family
13(1)
Further Changes in Marriage and Parenthood
13(1)
Nonmarital Cohabitation
14(1)
Divorce
14(3)
The Sexual Revolution
17(2)
Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution
17(1)
Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution
18(1)
The Violence Revolution
19(5)
Violent Crime
19(1)
Violence in Society
20(1)
Violence in the Home
20(1)
Violent Deaths
20(4)
Adolescents in Theoretical Context
24(26)
Biological Views of Adolescence
25(2)
Sturm and Drang
25(1)
G. Stanley Hall
Spiral Growth Patterns
Arnold Gesell
26(1)
Psychoanalytical Views of Adolescence
27(3)
Sigmund Freud
27(2)
Anna Freud
29(1)
Psychosocial Views of Adolescence
30(5)
Ego Identity
30(2)
Erik Erikson
Developmental Tasks
32(1)
Robert Havighurst
Field Theory
33(2)
Kurt Lewin
Cognitive Views of Adolescence
35(1)
Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget
36(1)
Social Cognition
Robert Selman
37(2)
Ecological View of Adolescence
39(3)
An Ecological Model
39(3)
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Social-Cognitive Learning View of Adolescence
42(2)
Social Learning Theory
42(1)
Albert Bandura
Social-Cognitive Theory
43(1)
Anthropological Views of Adolescence
44(6)
Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict
44(1)
Extended Adolescence versus Early Adulthood
44(1)
Cultural Continuity versus Discontinuity
45(1)
Storm and Stress versus Cultural Conditioning
46(1)
Cross-Cultural Views on Parent-Adolescent Relations
46(4)
Adolescents in Ethnic Context
50(38)
Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status
52(7)
Limitations of Low Socioeconomic Status
53(1)
Cycle of Poverty and Deprivation
53(1)
Low Level of Education
53(1)
Family Instability
54(1)
Female-Headed Households
55(1)
Two-Parent Families
56(1)
Working Mothers
56(1)
Homelessness
57(1)
Childrearing Goals and Philosophies
57(1)
Peer Orientation
58(1)
Social Outcasts
58(1)
Neighborhood Danger
58(1)
Mental Health
59(1)
Adolescents of Minority Groups
59(21)
African American Adolescents
60(6)
Hispanic American Adolescents
66(1)
Mexican American Adolescents
66(4)
Puerto Rican Adolescents
70(2)
Native American Adolescents
72(5)
Asian American Adolescents
77(1)
Chinese American Adolescents
77(3)
Immigrants and Refugees
80(8)
Southeast Asian American Adolescents
81(7)
PART TWO Physical
Sexual Maturation and Physical Growth
88(22)
The Endocrine Glands and Hypothalamus
89(4)
The Pituitary Gland
89(1)
The Gonads
90(2)
The Adrenal Glands
92(1)
The Hypothalamus
92(1)
Maturation and Functions of Male Sex Organs
93(3)
Spermatogenesis
94(1)
The Developing Penis
95(1)
The Cowper's Glands
95(1)
Nocturnal Emissions
95(1)
Maturation and Functions of Female Sex Organs
96(7)
The Developing Vagina
96(1)
Changes in the Vulva and Uterus
96(1)
Ovarian Changes
96(1)
Menarche
97(1)
The Menstrual Cycle
97(3)
Menstrual Problems and Concerns
100(3)
Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics
103(4)
Males
104(1)
Females
105(2)
Growth in Height and Weight
107(3)
Growth Trends
107(1)
Determinants of Height
107(3)
Body Image
110(20)
The Body Beautiful
111(3)
Physical Attractiveness
111(1)
Body Types
111(1)
Concepts of the Ideal
112(2)
Individual Body Characteristics
114(1)
Weight
114(3)
Obesity
114(3)
Underweight
117(1)
Eating Disorders
117(3)
Anorexia Nervosa
117(2)
Bulimia
119(1)
Exercise
120(1)
Benefits of Exercise
120(1)
Sleep
121(1)
Nutrition
122(1)
Digestion
122(1)
Importance of Nutrition
122(1)
Deficiencies
122(1)
Nutrition Education
123(1)
Acne
123(1)
Skin Gland Development
123(1)
Causes
124(1)
Treatment
124(1)
Early and Late Maturation
124(6)
Early-Maturing Boys
124(1)
Late-Maturing Boys
125(1)
Early-Maturing Girls
126(1)
Late-Maturing Girls
127(1)
Off-Time Maturation
127(3)
PART THREE Intellectual
Traditional Views of Cognitive Growth: Piaget and Elkind
130(20)
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
131(7)
Sensorimotor Stage
132(1)
Preoperational Stage
132(1)
Concrete Operational Stage
133(2)
Formal Operational Stage
135(3)
Effects of Adolescent Thought on Personality and Behavior
138(4)
Idealism
138(1)
Long-Term Values
138(1)
Hypocrisy
139(1)
Creativity
140(1)
Pseudostupidity
140(1)
Egocentrism
140(1)
Daydreaming
141(1)
Self-Concept
142(1)
Decentering and a Life Plan
142(1)
Critique of Piaget's Formal Operational Stage
142(5)
Age and Development
142(1)
Test Criteria
143(1)
Beyond Formal Operations
143(1)
Maturation and Intelligence
144(1)
Culture and Environment
145(1)
Motivation and Response
146(1)
Role of School and Education
146(1)
What Can We Retain from Formal Operations?
147(3)
Intelligence, Information Processing, and Decision Making
150(20)
Intelligence
151(5)
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
151(1)
Seven Frames of Mind
152(1)
Intelligence Tests
153(1)
Changes with Age
153(1)
Factors Influencing Test Results
154(1)
Limitations of IQ
155(1)
Dangers of Labeling
155(1)
Scholastic Aptitude
156(2)
The Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)
156(1)
Revisions of the SAT
157(1)
Information Processing
158(5)
Meaning
158(1)
Steps in Information Processing
158(1)
Stimuli
158(1)
Selection
158(1)
Interpretation
159(1)
Memory
160(1)
Processing Speed
161(1)
Higher-Order Thought Processes
161(2)
Problem Solving
163(1)
Decision Making
163(2)
The Process
164(1)
The Nine Cs of Decision Making
164(1)
Epistemiological Understanding
165(5)
PART FOUR Psychosexual
Self-Concept, Identity, Ethnicity, and Gender
170(32)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
171(10)
Importance of an Adequate Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
173(3)
Development of a Positive Self-Concept
176(4)
Changes or Stability in Self-Concept
180(1)
Identity
181(11)
Seven Conflicts
183(1)
Identity Status
184(4)
Identity as a Process
188(1)
Ethnic Identity
188(4)
Gender
192(10)
Biological Bases
192(1)
Cognitive-Developmental Theories
193(1)
Environmental Influences
193(4)
Androgyny
197(1)
Gender and Identity
197(5)
Sexual Values, Behavior, and Education
202(40)
Changing Attitudes and Behavior
204(7)
Premarital Sexual Behavior
204(2)
Correlates
206(3)
Other Mutual Sexual Behaviors
209(1)
Masturbation
209(2)
Sex and Its Meaning
211(5)
Sex and Emotional Intimacy
211(1)
What Are Adolescents Seeking?
211(1)
Sexual Pluralism and the Individual Ethic
212(2)
Gender Differences in Sexual Ethics
214(1)
Sexual Aggression
214(2)
Contraceptives and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
216(8)
Use of Contraceptives among Adolescents
217(1)
Why Contraceptives Are Not Used
218(2)
Should Adolescents Have Contraceptives?
220(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
221(1)
AIDS
221(3)
Unwed Pregnancy and Abortion
224(6)
Incidence
224(1)
Causation Theories
225(1)
Pregnancy-Resolution Decisions
226(1)
Problems of Adolescent Parents
227(1)
Adolescent Fathers
228(2)
Homosexuality
230(3)
Causation Theories
230(2)
Identity Adjustment
232(1)
Sex Knowledge and Sex Education
233(9)
Sources of Sex Information
234(1)
The Role of Parents
234(2)
The Role of Public Schools
236(1)
Availability in the Schools
236(6)
PART FIVE Social
Adolescent Society, Culture, and Subculture
242(24)
Culture and Society
243(1)
The Adolescent Subculture
244(3)
A False Dichotomy
244(2)
Distinctive Social Relationships and Culture
246(1)
Adolescent Societies
247(1)
Formal Societies
247(1)
Informal Societies
247(1)
Age-Grade Societies
248(1)
Social Class and Status
248(1)
In-School Subsystem
248(3)
The Formal, Academic Subsystem
248(1)
The Semiformal, Activities Subsystem
249(1)
The Friendship Subsystem
250(1)
Extremist Subcultures
251(3)
Satanists
251(2)
Goths
253(1)
Neo-Nazi Skinheads
253(1)
Material Concerns of Adolescent Culture
254(4)
Clothing
254(2)
The Automobile
256(1)
The Telephone
257(1)
Nonmaterial Aspects of Adolescent Culture
258(8)
Slang
258(1)
Music
259(7)
Social Development, Relationships, Dating, Nonmarital Cohabitation, and Marriage
266(38)
Companionship
268(7)
The Need for Friends
268(2)
Family and Peer Relationships
270(1)
Early Adolescent Friendships
271(1)
Broadening Early Friendships
272(1)
Youth Culture Activities
272(3)
Group Acceptance and Popularity
275(4)
Conformity
275(1)
Achievement
276(1)
Participation
276(1)
Personality and Social Skills
277(1)
Shyness
277(1)
Deviance
278(1)
Heterosociality
279(3)
Psychosocial Development
279(2)
Adolescent Love and Crushes
281(1)
Loss of Love
281(1)
Dating
282(5)
Age Patterns for Dating
284(1)
Common Problems
284(1)
Violence
285(1)
Going Steady
285(2)
Nonmarital Cohabitation
287(6)
Incidence
287(1)
Meanings Attached to Cohabitation
287(2)
Reactions to Cohabitation
289(1)
Adjustments to Cohabitation
289(2)
Cohabiting and Marriage Differences
291(1)
Effects on Subsequent Marriage
292(1)
Cohabiting and Premarital Childbearing
293(1)
Adolescent Marriage
293(11)
Trends and Incidence
294(1)
Prospects and Prognosis
294(1)
A Profile of the Young Married
294(1)
Reasons for Adolescent Marriage
295(1)
Adjustments and Problems
296(2)
Early Marriage and Education
298(6)
Development of Moral Judgment, Character, Values, Beliefs, and Behavior
304(28)
Cognitive-Socialization Theories of Development
305(11)
Jean Piaget
305(3)
Lawrence Kohlberg
308(5)
Later Developments and Critique of Kohlberg
313(1)
Gilligan's Theory of Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning
313(2)
Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior
315(1)
Family Factors and Moral Learning
316(3)
The Family's Role
316(1)
Parental Acceptance and Trust
317(1)
Frequency and Intensity of Parent-Teen Interaction
317(1)
Type of Discipline
317(1)
Parental Role Models
318(1)
Independence Opportunities
319(1)
Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices
319(2)
Religious Variables
320(1)
Family Variables
320(1)
Impact on Behavior
321(1)
Social Reinforcement, Influences, Values, and Behavior
321(11)
Social Reinforcement
321(1)
Peer and Reference Groups
321(2)
Television
323(2)
Moral Education
325(7)
PART SIX Familial
Adolescents and Their Families
332(24)
Adolescent-Parent Expectations
333(10)
What Kind of Parents Do Adolescents Want?
333(1)
Connection
334(3)
Attachment Style
337(3)
Regulation
340(3)
Parent-Adolescent Tension
343(4)
Personality Differences
343(1)
Focus of Conflict
344(2)
Variables Affecting Conflict
346(1)
Conflicts with Parents versus Conflicts with Peers
347(1)
Results of Conflict
347(1)
Relationships with Other Family Members
347(3)
Adolescent-Sibling Relationships
347(2)
Relationships with Other Relatives
349(1)
Maltreatment
350(6)
Child Abuse
350(1)
Sexual Abuse
351(1)
Incest
351(1)
Neglect
352(4)
Divorced, Parent-Absent, and Blended Families
356(20)
Divorce and Adolescents
357(8)
Attitudes toward Divorce
357(1)
Short-Term Emotional Reactions
358(1)
Long-Term Effects
358(2)
Factors Influencing Divorce Effects
360(5)
Marriage and Divorce Behavior
365(1)
Parent-Absent Families
365(4)
Psychological Health
365(1)
Development of Masculinity/Femininity
366(1)
Association with Delinquency
366(1)
Influences on School Performance, Achievement, and Vocational Aspirations
367(1)
Attitudes toward Self and Parents
367(1)
Substance Abuse
368(1)
Development of Autonomy
369(1)
Blended Families
369(4)
Family Combinations
369(4)
Adopted Adolescents
373(3)
PART SEVEN Educational and Vocational
Education and School
376(24)
Trends in U.S. Education
377(4)
Traditionalists versus Progressives
377(1)
Rise of Progressive Education
378(1)
Sputnik and After
378(1)
1960s and 1970s
378(1)
1980s
379(1)
1990s
379(2)
How Adolescents View Their Schools
381(2)
Students Grade Their Schools
381(1)
Quality of Teachers
381(1)
Teachers as Significant Others
381(1)
Student Responsibility
382(1)
The Secondary School Teacher
383(2)
What Makes a Good Teacher?
383(1)
Personality Traits and Character
383(1)
Teachers' Relationships with Others
384(1)
Professional Qualifications
384(1)
Curriculum Considerations
385(1)
Three Curricula
385(1)
Curriculum Improvement
386(1)
Middle Schools
386(2)
Private versus Public Schools
388(1)
Achievement and Dropping Out
388(12)
Enrollment Figures
388(1)
Who Drops Out and Why
389(1)
Changing Schools
390(1)
Truancy
390(1)
Socioeconomic Factors
391(1)
Racial and Ethnic Considerations
392(1)
Congruence between School and Home
392(1)
Family Relationships
392(2)
Personality Characteristics
394(1)
Sense of Academic Competence
394(1)
Social Adjustment and Peer Associations
394(1)
Employment and Money
394(1)
School Stress
395(1)
School Failure, Apathy, and Dissatisfaction
396(1)
Alienation
396(1)
Pregnancy and Marriage
396(1)
Teenage Fathers
396(1)
Dropouts and Unemployment
397(3)
Work and Vocation
400(26)
Motives for Choice
401(1)
Theories of Vocational Choice
402(3)
Ginzberg's Compromise with Reality Theory
402(3)
Holland's Occupational Environment Theory
405(1)
People Influencing Choice
405(3)
Parents
405(2)
Peers
407(1)
School Personnel
407(1)
Sex Roles and Vocational Choice
408(3)
Other Crucial Determinants of Vocational Choice
411(1)
Intelligence
411(1)
Aptitudes and Special Abilities
411(1)
Interests
412(1)
Job Opportunities
412(1)
Job Rewards and Satisfactions
412(1)
Socioeconomic Status and Prestige Factors
412(4)
Choosing the Familiar
412(2)
Prestige and Value
414(1)
Social Class and Aspirations
414(1)
Occupational Attainment
415(1)
Race/Ethnicity and Aspirations
415(1)
Youth Employment
416(3)
Working for Wages
416(2)
Volunteerism
418(1)
Adolescents and Unemployment
419(2)
Numbers of Unemployed Youths
419(1)
Causes of Unemployment
420(1)
Career Education
421(5)
PART EIGHT Psychosocial Problems
Adolescent Alienation
426(28)
Running Away
427(5)
Reasons
428(1)
Typologies
428(1)
Life on the Street
429(1)
Help
430(1)
Worldwide Scope
431(1)
Suicide
432(5)
Frequency
432(1)
Causes and Motives
433(3)
Copycat Suicides
436(1)
Unsuccessful Attempts
437(1)
Survivors
437(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
437(17)
Incidence
438(2)
Causes
440(5)
Juvenile Street Gangs
445(1)
The Juvenile Justice System
446(3)
Private Community Programs
449(1)
Prevention
450(4)
Substance Abuse, Addiction, and Dependency
454(27)
Drug Abuse
455(14)
Physical Addiction and Psychological Dependency
455(1)
Narcotics
456(1)
Stimulants
457(1)
Depressants
458(1)
Hallucinogens
459(3)
Patterns and Intensity of Use
462(2)
Why Drugs Are First Used
464(1)
Demographic Differences
464(1)
Compulsive Drug Use
465(2)
Prevention and Treatment
467(2)
Tobacco and Smoking
469(4)
Incidence
469(1)
Why Adolescents Start Smoking
469(1)
Effects of Cigarette Advertising
470(1)
Why Adolescents Continue Smoking
471(1)
Keeping Adolescents from Starting
472(1)
Alcohol and Excessive Drinking
473(8)
Incidence
473(2)
Correlations with Drinking
475(1)
Why Adolescents Drink
476(2)
Theories of Problem Drinking
478(3)
Glossary 481(8)
Bibliography 489(56)
Index 545


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