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Adolescent, The: Development, Relationships, and Culture

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780205407835

ISBN10:
0205407838
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $131.80

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This is the 12th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2008.
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Summary

----EXAM COPY EDITION--- Contemporary and inclusive, The Adolescent continues to be the best-selling and most comprehensive text in its subject area, setting the standard for adolescent psychology books since publication more than twenty years ago. The Adolescent offers an eclectic, interdisciplinary approach to the study of adolescence, presenting both psychological and sociological viewpoints as well as educational, demographic, and economic data. This text discusses not just one theory on the subject, but many, and outlines the contributions, strengths, and weaknesses of each. The authors also take into consideration current and important topics such as ethnic identity formation, gender issues, the Internet, effects of single-parent families, etc. The result is a treatment of the adolescent that offers current scholarship as well as an understanding of what it means to be an adolescent today. New To This Edition New paperback format and lower price makes the text more appealing and usable for students! Expanded coverage of cross-cultural issues throughout provides a richer and deeper understanding of adolescence across different cultural groups. ";In Their Own Words"; mini-essays include thoughts and comments from real students about various topics throughout the text, providing them with the perspectives offered by peers. A new Epilogue discusses the differences between adolescence and young adulthood and brings a nice sense of closure to the material, focusing students in on where they're at now and where they're headed. More than 450 new references, including such topics as sleep deprivation in adolescence, brain development, down-turn in adolescent pregnancy, keep students abreast of the most contemporary research being done and topics being discussed in the field. ----STUDENT COPY EDITION---- What's inside The Adolescent: Development, Relationships and Culture, 11/e Contemporary and inclusive, The Adolescent continues to be the best-selling and most comprehensive text in its subject area, setting the standard for adolescent psychology books since publication more than twenty years ago. The Adolescent offers an eclectic, exciting approach to the study of adolescence, presenting both psychological and sociological viewpoints as well as educational, demographic, and economic data. This text discusses not just one theory on the subject, but many, and outlines the contributions, strengths, and weaknesses of each. The authors also take into consideration current and important topics such as ethnic identity formation, gender issues, the Internet, effects of single-parent families, etc. The result is a treatment of the adolescent that offers current scholarship as well as an understanding of what it means to be an adolescent today. What's New To This Edition New paperback format and lower price makes the text more appealing and usable! Expanded coverage of cross-cultural issues throughout provides a richer and deeper understanding of adolescence across different cultural groups. ";In Their Own Words"; mini-essays include thoughts and comments from students like yourself about various topics throughout the text, providing you with the perspectives offered by your peers. A

Table of Contents

Features xi
Preface xiii
PART ONE: Adolescence
1 Adolescents in Social Context
1(22)
Approaches to Studying Adolescence
2(1)
The Changing Face of American Adolescence
3(1)
Our Society in Revolution
4(1)
The Prolongation of Adolescence
5(1)
The Revolution in Information Technology
5(2)
The Internet
6(1)
Inappropriate Materials
6(1)
Effects on Children and Adolescents
6(1)
The Revolution in the Workplace
7(2)
Multiple Jobholders and Overtime Work
7(1)
Working Women
8(1)
Adolescent Employment
8(1)
Advertising and Consumption
9(1)
The Education Revolution
9(2)
Educational Attainment
9(1)
Embracing the New Technology
10(1)
Innovations in Career Education
10(1)
The Family Revolution
11(2)
Changes in Marriage and Parenthood
11(1)
Changes in Family Dynamics
12(1)
Nonmarital Cohabitation
13(1)
Out-of-Wedlock Births
13(1)
Divorce
13(1)
The Sexual Revolution
13(3)
Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution
13(2)
Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution
15(1)
The Violence Revolution
16(3)
Violent Crime
16(1)
Violence in Society
17(1)
Violence in the Home
18(1)
Violent Deaths
18(1)
A Caveat to Understanding Adolescence
19(4)
2 Adolescents in Theoretical Context
23(24)
Biological Views of Adolescence
23(2)
G. Stanley Hall: Sturm and Drang
24(1)
Arnold Gesell: Spiral Growth Patterns
24(1)
Psychoanalytical and Psychosocial Views of Adolescence
25(5)
Sigmund Freud: Individuation
25(1)
Anna Freud: Defense Mechamisms
26(2)
Erik Erikson: Ego Identity
28(2)
Cognitive Views of Adolescence
30(4)
Jean Piaget: Adaptation and Equilibrium
30(1)
Robert Selman: Social Cognition
31(2)
Lev Vygotsky: Social Influences on Cognition
33(1)
Social-Cognitive Learning View of Adolescence
34(2)
Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory
34(1)
Social-Cognitive Theory
35(1)
The Impact of Culture on Adolescents
36(11)
Robert Havighurst: Developmental Tasks
36(1)
Kurt Lewin: Field Theory
37(1)
Urie Bronfenbrenner: An Ecological Model
38(2)
Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: Anthropological Views
40(1)
Cultural Continuity versus Discontinuity
40(2)
Storm and Stress Revisited
42(5)
3 Adolescent Diversity: Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity
47(30)
Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status
48(7)
Limitations of Low Socioeconomic Status
49(1)
Cycle of Poverty and Deprivation
50(5)
Minority Adolescents
55(15)
African American Adolescents
55(5)
Latino Adolescents
60(4)
Native American Adolescents
64(4)
Asian American Adolescents
68(2)
Immigrants and Refugees
70(7)
Southeast Asian American Adolescent Refugees
72(5)
PART TWO: Physical
4 Body Issues: Sexual Maturation and Physical Growth
77(22)
Biochemical Basis of Puberty
77(4)
The Hypothalamus
78(1)
The Pituitary Gland
78(1)
The Gonads
78(2)
The Adrenal Glands
80(1)
Sex Hormone Regulation in Males
80(1)
Sex Hormone Regulation in Females
81(1)
Maturation and Functions of Male Sex Organs
81(3)
Spermatogenesis
81(1)
The Developing Penis
82(1)
The Cowper's Glands
83(1)
Nocturnal Emissions
83(1)
Maturation and Functions of Female Sex Organs
84(5)
The Developing Vagina
84(1)
Changes in the Vulva and Uterus
84(1)
Ovarian Changes
84(1)
Menarche and the Menstrual Cycle
84(3)
Menstrual Concerns
87(2)
Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics
89(4)
Males
90(1)
Females
91(2)
Results of Sexual Maturation
93(1)
Growth in Height and Weight
93(6)
Growth Trends
93(1)
Determinants of Height
93(1)
Other Physical Changes
93(6)
5 Body Issues: Health Behaviors and Attitudes
99(22)
Health Status
99(3)
Mortality
99(1)
Health Decisions
100(2)
Adolescent Health in the Third World
102(1)
Body Image
102(3)
Physical Attractiveness
102(1)
Body Types and Ideals
102(3)
Early and Late Maturation
105(2)
Early-Maturing Boys
105(1)
Late-Maturing Boys
106(1)
Early-Maturing Girls
106(1)
Late-Maturing Girls
106(1)
Off-Time Maturation
107(1)
Weight
107(3)
Obesity
107(1)
Personal Contributors to Being Overweight
107(2)
Interpersonal Interactions and Being Overweight
109(1)
Environmental Influences
109(1)
Broader Social Influences
109(1)
Eating Disorders
110(2)
Anorexia Nervosa
110(1)
Bulimia
111(1)
Health-Related Behaviors
112(5)
Nutrition
112(2)
Exercise
114(2)
Sleep
116(1)
Acne
117(4)
Skin Gland Development
117(1)
Causes
117(1)
Treatment
117(4)
PART THREE: Intellectual
6 Traditional Approaches to Cognitive Development: Piaget and Elkind
121(20)
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
121(7)
Sensorimotor Stage
122(1)
Preoperational Stage
122(2)
Concrete Operational Stage
124(2)
Formal Operational Stage
126(2)
Effects of Adolescent Thought on Personality and Behavior
128(5)
Idealism
129(1)
Long-Term Values
130(1)
Hypocrisy
130(1)
Creativity
131(1)
Pseudostupidity
131(1)
Egocentrism
131(2)
Introspection
133(1)
Self-Concept
133(1)
Critique of Piaget's Formal Operational Stage
133(4)
Age and Development
133(1)
Consistency
134(1)
Beyond Formal Operations
134(1)
Culture and Environment
135(1)
Motivation and Response
136(1)
Role of School and Education
137(1)
What Can We Retain from Formal Operations?
137(4)
7 New Approaches to Cognitive Development: Information Processing, Decision Making, and Assessment Issues
141(24)
Information Processing
142(6)
Steps in Information Processing
142(1)
Stimuli
142(1)
Selection
143(1)
Interpretation
143(1)
Memory
143(2)
Processing Speed
145(1)
Higher-Order Thought Processes
145(2)
Problem Solving
147(1)
The Role of Knowledge
147(1)
Decision Making
148(2)
The Process
148(1)
The Nine Cs of Decision Making
149(1)
Epistemological Understanding
150(2)
Brain Development during Adolescence
152(2)
Assessing Cognition
154(5)
Theories of Intelligence
154(1)
Intelligence Tests
155(1)
Changes with Age
156(1)
Factors Influencing Test Results
157(1)
Limitations of IQ
158(1)
Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests
158(1)
Achievement Tests
159(6)
The Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)
159(6)
PART FOUR: Psychosexual
8 Self-Concept, Identity, Ethnicity, and Gender
165(28)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
166(8)
Importance of Having a Good Self-Concept
167(3)
Development of a Positive Self-Concept
170(4)
Changes in Self-Concept during Adolescence
174(1)
Identity
174(10)
Seven Conflicts
175(1)
Identity Status
176(4)
Identity as a Process
180(1)
Ethnic Identity
181(3)
Gender
184(9)
Biological Sex
185(1)
Cognitive-Developmental Theories
185(1)
Societal Influences
186(3)
Androgyny
189(1)
Gender and Identity
189(4)
9 Sexual Values and Behavior
193
Changing Attitudes and Behavior
194(6)
Premarital Sexual Behavior
194(2)
Correlates
196(3)
Other Mutual Sexual Behaviors
199(1)
Masturbation
199(1)
Sex and Its Meaning
200(5)
What Are Adolescents Seeking?
200(1)
Sexual Pluralism
200(3)
Gender Differences in Sexual Ethics
203(1)
Sexual Aggression
203(2)
Contraceptives and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
205(7)
Use of Contraceptives among Adolescents
205(2)
Why Contraceptives Are Not Used
207(1)
Should Adolescents Have Contraceptives?
207(2)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
209(1)
AIDS
210(2)
Unwed Pregnancy and Abortion
212(6)
Incidence of Teen Pregnancy
212(2)
Causation Theories
214(1)
Pregnancy-Resolution Decisions
215(1)
Adolescent Mothers
216(1)
Adolescent Fathers
217(1)
Homosexuality
218(4)
Causation Theories
219(2)
Identity Adjustment
221(1)
Sex Knowledge and Sex Education
222(9)
Sources of Sex Information
222(1)
The Role of Parents
223(1)
The Role of Schools
224(7)
PART FIVE: Familial
10 Adolescents and Their Families
231(24)
Parenting Adolescents
231(11)
What Kind of Parents Do Adolescents Want?
232(1)
Connection
232(4)
Trust
236(1)
Attachment Style
236(1)
Autonomy
236(2)
Regulation
238(4)
Parent-Adolescent Tension
242(4)
Differences in Outlook
242(1)
Focus of Conflict
243(2)
Variables Affecting Conflict
245(1)
Conflicts with Parents versus Conflicts with Peers
246(1)
Results of Conflict
246(1)
Relationships with Other Family Members
246(2)
Adolescent-Sibling Relationships
246(2)
Relationships with Other Relatives
248(1)
Maltreatment
248(7)
Child Abuse
249(1)
Sexual Abuse
249(1)
Incest
250(1)
Neglect
250(5)
11 Divorced, Parent-Absent, and Blended Families
255(22)
With Whom Do American Adolescents Live?
255(1)
Divorce and Adolescents
256(9)
Attitudes toward Divorce
256(1)
Short-Term Emotional Reactions
257(1)
Long-Term Effects
258(2)
Factors Influencing the Effects of Divorce
260(5)
Parent-Absent Families
265(4)
Psychological Health
265(1)
Development of Masculinity/Femininity
266(1)
Association with Delinquency
267(1)
Influences on School Performance, Achievement, and Vocational Aspirations
268(1)
Substance Abuse
268(1)
Development of Autonomy
269(1)
Blended Families
269(3)
Adopted Adolescents
272(5)
PART SIX: Social
12 Social Development: The Changing Nature of Friendship and Romance
277(32)
Companionship
277(6)
The Need for Friends
278(1)
Loneliness
278(2)
Family and Peer Relationships
280(1)
Early Adolescent Friendships
280(2)
Broadening Early Friendships
282(1)
Friendship Activities
282(1)
Group Acceptance and Popularity
283(5)
Paths to Popularity
284(2)
Criteria for Popularity
286(1)
Shyness
287(1)
Heterosociality
288(3)
Psychosocial Development
288(1)
Adolescent Love and Crushes
289(2)
Loss of Love
291(1)
Dating
291(4)
Common Problems
293(1)
Violence
293(1)
Going Steady
294(1)
Nonmarital Cohabitation
295(5)
Incidence
295(1)
Meanings Attached to Cohabitation
295(2)
Reactions to Cohabitation
297(1)
Adjustments to Cohabitation
298(1)
Cohabitation versus Marriage
299(1)
Effects on Subsequent Marriage
299(1)
Cohabitation and Premarital
Childbearing
300(1)
Adolescent Marriage
300(9)
Trends and Incidence
301(1)
Prospects and Prognosis
301(1)
A Profile of the Young Married
302(1)
Reasons for Adolescent Marriage
302(1)
Adjustments and Problems
303(2)
Early Marriage and Education
305(4)
13 Adolescent Society, Culture, and Subculture
309(22)
Culture and Society
309(1)
The Adolescent Subculture
310(2)
A False Dichotomy
310(1)
Distinctive Social Relationships and Culture
311(1)
Adolescent Societies
312(1)
Formal Societies
312(1)
Informal Societies
312(1)
Division by Grade
313(1)
Social Class and Status
313(1)
In-School Subsystems
313(3)
The Formal Academic Subsystem
313(1)
The Semiformal Activities Subsystem
313(2)
The Friendship Subsystem
315(1)
Extremist Subcultures
316(2)
Satanists
316(2)
Goths
318(1)
Neo-Nazi Skinheads
318(1)
Material Concerns of Adolescent Culture
318(6)
Clothing
319(1)
The Automobile
320(2)
The Telephone
322(2)
Nonmaterial Concerns of Adolescent Culture
324(7)
Slang
324(1)
Music
324(7)
14 The Development of Moral Values
331(26)
Cognitive-Socialization Theories of Development
332(10)
Piaget and Children's Moral Development
332(1)
Kohlberg and Levels of Moral Development
333(5)
Gilligan and Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning
338(2)
The Social-Cognitive Domain Approach to Moral Reasoning
340(1)
Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior
341(1)
Family Factors and Moral Learning
342(2)
The Family's Role
342(2)
Extrafamilial Influences on Morality
344(13)
Peers
344(1)
Religion
345(2)
Television
347(3)
Moral Education
350(7)
PART SEVEN: Educational and Vocational
15 Education and School
357(22)
Trends in U.S. Education
357(4)
Traditionalists versus Progressives
357(1)
Rise of Progressive Education
358(1)
Sputnik and After
358(1)
1960's and 19705
358(1)
1980's
359(1)
1990's
359(2)
Early Twenty-First Century
361(1)
Middle Schools
361(2)
Characteristics of Good Schools
363(4)
Size
363(1)
Atmosphere
364(1)
Teachers
364(1)
Curriculum
365(2)
Private versus Public Schools
367(1)
Achievement and Dropping Out
367(12)
Enrollment Figures
367(1)
Who Drops Out and Why
368(2)
Changing Schools
370(1)
Truancy
370(1)
Socioeconomic Factors
370(1)
Racial and Ethnic Considerations
370(1)
Congruence between School and Home
371(1)
Family Relationships
371(1)
Personality Characteristics
372(1)
Sense of Academic Competence
372(1)
Social Adjustment and Peer Associations
372(1)
Employment and Money
372(1)
School Stress
373(1)
School Failure, Apathy, and Dissatisfaction
373(1)
Alienation
374(1)
Pregnancy and Marriage
374(1)
Dropouts and Unemployment
375(4)
16 Work and Vocation
379(26)
Motives for Choice
379(1)
Theories of Vocational Choice
380(4)
Ginzberg's Compromise with Reality Theory
380(2)
Holland's Occupational Environment Theory
382(1)
Gati's Sequential Elimination Model
383(1)
People Influencing Vocational Choice
384(2)
Parents
384(2)
Peers
386(1)
School Personnel
386(1)
Gender Roles and Vocational Choice
386(3)
Other Crucial Determinants of Vocational Choice
389(3)
Intelligence
389(1)
Aptitudes and Special Abilities
390(1)
Interests
390(1)
Job Opportunities
390(1)
Salary
391(1)
Prestige
391(1)
Socioeconomic Factors
392(2)
Familiarity
392(1)
Social Status and Aspirations
393(1)
Race/Ethnicity and Aspirations
393(1)
Youth Employment
394(4)
Working for Wages
394(3)
Volunteerism
397(1)
Adolescents and Unemployment
398(1)
Numbers of Unemployed Youths
398(1)
Causes of Unemployment
398(1)
Career Education
399(6)
PART EIGHT: Psychosocial Problems
17 Adolescent Alienation
405(26)
Running Away
405(5)
Classes of Runaways
406(1)
Reasons for Running Away
406(1)
Throwaways
407(1)
Life on the Street
408(1)
Help for Runaways
408(1)
Worldwide Scope
409(1)
Suicide
410(5)
Frequency of Suicide
410(1)
Causes and Motives of Suicide
411(4)
Copycat Suicides
415(1)
Unsuccessful Attempts
415(1)
Survivors
415(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
415(16)
Incidence of Delinquency
416(2)
Causes of Delinquency
418(3)
Juvenile Gangs
421(1)
The Juvenile Justice System
422(3)
The Restorative Justice Movement
425(1)
Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
426(5)
18 Substance Abuse, Addiction, and Dependency
431(28)
Drug Use and Abuse
431(17)
Physical Addiction and Psychological Dependency
432(1)
Patterns and Intensity of Drug Use
432(1)
Types of Drugs
433(6)
Frequency of Adolescent Drug Use
439(2)
Reasons for First Drug Use
441(1)
Demographic Differences
442(1)
Compulsive Drug Use
443(2)
Prevention and Treatment
445(3)
Tobacco and Smoking
448(3)
Incidence of Tobacco Use
448(1)
Reasons Adolescents Start Smoking
448(1)
Effects of Cigarette Advertising
449(1)
Reasons Adolescents Continue Smoking
450(1)
Keeping Adolescents from Starting
450(1)
Alcohol and Excessive Drinking
451(8)
Incidence of Alcohol Use
451(1)
Reasons for Drinking during Adolescence
452(2)
Adult and Peer Influences
454(1)
Harmful Consequences of Alcohol Use
455(1)
Drinking in Young Adulthood
456(3)
Epilogue 459(2)
Glossary 461(8)
Bibliography 469(76)
Index 545


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