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Advanced Engine Performance Diagnosis,9780131132542
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Advanced Engine Performance Diagnosis

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131132542

ISBN10:
0131132547
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $103.00
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Summary

Based on the premise that simple problems should always be checked first, this practical, hands-on book introduces the diagnosis and troubleshooting of automotive engine control systems. With a very technical but easy-to-read and understand presentation this book serves as a single source for information on advanced engine performance diagnosis. Topics include digital storage oscilloscopes, fuel injection and ignition system diagnoses, five-gas exhaust analysis, emission testing, and more. This edition has been updated to include even more detailed scope (DSO) and current ramping tests plus extensive scan tool diagnosis. For those who need to pass the ASE Engine Performance certification test as well as the Advanced Level Engine Performance (L1) test.

Table of Contents

The Diagnostic Process
1(24)
Learning Objectives
1(1)
Terms to Learn
1(1)
Just-in-Time Knowledge
1(2)
Think of a Funnel
3(1)
Finding the Root Cause
3(2)
The Eight-Step Diagnostic Procedure
5(13)
Troubleshooting Fundamentals
18(1)
Diagnostic Charts
18(1)
Typical Noncomputer Problems
19(6)
Summary
22(1)
Review Questions
23(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
23(2)
Diagnostic Trouble Code Retrieval
25(26)
Learning Objectives
25(1)
Terms to Learn
25(1)
Computer Precautions
25(1)
How Diagnostic Trouble Codes Are Set
26(1)
Using a Scan Tool
27(1)
Pending and Mature Codes
28(1)
Methods for Clearing Diagnostic Trouble Codes
29(1)
Flash Code Retrieval on OBD I General Motors Vehicles
30(1)
Scan Tool DTC Retrieval on General Motors OBD I Vehicles
31(1)
Retrieving Ford Diagnostic Codes
32(3)
Flash Code Retrieval on DaimlerChrysler Vehicles
35(1)
Scan Tool DTC Retrieval on DaimlerChrysler Vehicles
35(5)
Honda Problem Diagnosis
40(2)
Retrieving Honda Diagnostic Trouble Codes
42(1)
Clearing Honda DTCs
42(1)
Toyota Problem Diagnosis
42(1)
Toyota OBD I Diagnostic Trouble Codes
42(2)
Clearing Toyota DTCs
44(1)
Retrieving OBD II Codes---16 Pin
44(1)
DTC Numbering Explanation
44(1)
OBD II Active Tests
44(1)
Types of DTCs
44(1)
Retrieving OBD II DTCs
45(1)
Generic OBD II Diagnostic Trouble Codes
46(3)
Clearing OBD II DTCs
49(2)
Summary
49(1)
Review Questions
49(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
50(1)
Technical Service Bulletins and Scan Tool Data
51(20)
Learning Objectives
51(1)
Terms to Learn
51(1)
Technical Service Bulletins
51(1)
Vehicle Identification
52(1)
Vehicle Safety Certification Label
52(1)
VECI Label
52(1)
Calibration Codes
53(1)
Casting Numbers
53(1)
Service Information
53(2)
Types of Technical Service Bulletins
55(1)
Scan Tool Testing
55(1)
Scan Data Retrieval Procedure
56(2)
Injector Pulse Width Problem Diagnosis
58(2)
Oxygen Sensor Activity
60(1)
The Need for Fuel Trim
60(1)
Short-Term Fuel Trim
61(1)
Long-Term Fuel Trim
61(1)
Using Fuel Trim as a Diagnostic Aid
62(1)
Fuel Trim Cells
62(1)
Fuel Trim Cell Diagnosis
63(1)
Fuel Trim Monitor
64(1)
Generic and OEM Data
64(7)
Summary
69(1)
Review Questions
69(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
69(2)
OBD II
71(12)
Learning Objectives
71(1)
Terms to Learn
71(1)
Onboard Diagnostics Generation-II (OBD II) Systems
71(1)
Diagnostic Executive and Task Manager
72(1)
Monitors
72(1)
Diagnostic Trouble Code Priority
73(1)
OBD II Monitor Information Summary
74(1)
Enabling Criteria
74(1)
Monitor Running Conditions
75(1)
OBD II Drive Cycle
75(1)
OBD II DTC Numbering Designation
76(2)
Freeze Frame and Failure Records
78(1)
Fuel Trim and Misfire Codes
79(1)
Generic OBD II
79(2)
Diagnosing Problems Using Mode Six
81(2)
Summary
81(1)
Review Questions
81(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
82(1)
Digital Meters and Scopes
83(33)
Learning Objectives
83(1)
Terms to Learn
83(1)
Test Lights
83(1)
Self-Powered Test Lights
84(1)
Led Test Light
84(1)
Logic Probe
85(1)
Digital Multimeters
85(2)
Measuring Amperes
87(1)
AC/DC Clamp-On Digital Multimeter
88(1)
Measuring Voltage
89(1)
Measuring Resistance
90(2)
Electrical Unit Prefixes
92(2)
How to Read Digital Meters
94(1)
RMS Versus Average
95(1)
Resolution, Digits, and Counts
96(1)
Accuracy
96(1)
Analog Versus Digital Storage Oscilloscope
97(1)
Oscilloscope Display Grid
97(1)
Setting the Time Base
98(1)
Setting the Volts per Division
99(1)
DC Coupling
99(1)
AC Coupling
99(1)
Pulse Trains
100(1)
Triggering
100(1)
Using Scope Leads
100(3)
Measuring Battery Voltage with a Scope
103(1)
Scope Probe Attenuation
103(13)
Summary
114(1)
Review Questions
115(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
115(1)
Advanced Starting and Charging Systems Diagnosis
116(48)
Learning Objectives
116(1)
Terms to Learn
116(1)
Purpose and Function of a Battery
116(1)
Battery Ratings
117(1)
Symptoms of a Weak or Defective Battery
117(1)
Battery Service Safety Considerations
118(1)
Battery Visual Inspection
118(1)
Battery Voltage Test
119(2)
Battery Load Testing
121(1)
Capacitance Testing
122(1)
Jump Starting
122(1)
Battery Charging
123(1)
Battery Service
124(1)
Battery Electrical Drain Test
125(3)
Battery Electrical Drain Testing Using an Ammeter
128(1)
Procedure for Battery Electrical Drain Test
128(1)
Finding the Source of the Drain
129(1)
What to Do If a Battery Drain Still Exists After All the Fuses Are Disconnected
130(1)
Cranking Circuit
130(3)
Diagnosing Starter Problems Using Visual Inspection
133(1)
Starter Testing on the Vehicle
133(3)
Testing a Starter Using a Scan Tool
136(1)
Voltage-Drop Testing
137(5)
Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
142(1)
How a Generator Works
142(2)
Generator Construction
144(1)
Checking Charging System Voltage
144(2)
Testing a Generator Using a Voltmeter
146(1)
Testing a Generator Using a Scan Tool
147(1)
AC Ripple Voltage Check
148(2)
AC Current Check
150(1)
Charging System Voltage-Drop Testing
150(2)
Generator Output Test
152(1)
How to Determine Minimum Required Generator Output
153(2)
Testing a Generator Using a Scope
155(1)
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Safety Issues
156(8)
Summary
162(1)
Review Questions
162(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
162(2)
Ignition System Components and Operation
164(22)
Learning Objectives
164(1)
Terms to Learn
164(1)
Ignition System Operation
164(1)
Ignition Coils
165(1)
Switching and Triggering
166(2)
Primary Circuit Operation
168(4)
Distributor Ignition
172(4)
Waste-Spark Ignition Systems
176(2)
Ignition Control Circuits
178(2)
Compression Sensing Ignition
180(1)
Coil-on-Plug Ignition
180(1)
Ion-Sensing Ignition
181(1)
Ignition Timing
182(1)
Initial Timing
182(1)
Knock Sensors
182(2)
Spark Plugs
184(2)
Summary
184(1)
Review Questions
185(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
185(1)
Ignition System Diagnosis and Service
186(34)
Learning Objectives
186(1)
Terms to Learn
186(1)
Checking for Spark
186(1)
Electronic Ignition Troubleshooting Procedure
187(1)
Ignition Coil Testing Using an Ohmmeter
188(1)
Pickup Coil Testing
188(1)
Testing Magnetic Sensors
189(1)
Testing Hall-Effect Sensors
190(1)
Testing Optical Sensors
190(2)
Ignition System Diagnosis Using Visual Inspection
192(1)
Testing for Poor Performance
192(1)
Testing for a No-Start Condition
193(1)
Ignition System Service
194(1)
Firing Order
194(1)
Distributor Cap and Rotor Inspection
194(2)
Spark Plug Wire Inspection
196(1)
Spark Plug Service
197(3)
Quick and Easy Secondary Ignition Tests
200(1)
Ignition Timing
201(4)
Scope-Testing the Ignition System
205(8)
Distributor Indexing
213(1)
Scope-Testing a Waste-Spark Ignition System
214(1)
Ignition System Troubleshooting Guide
215(5)
Summary
218(1)
Review Questions
218(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
218(2)
Gasoline and Alternative Fuels
220(25)
Learning Objectives
220(1)
Terms to Learn
220(1)
Gasoline
220(1)
Volatility
220(2)
Distillation Curve
222(1)
Normal and Abnormal Combustion
222(2)
Octane Rating
224(1)
Gasoline Grades and Octane Number
224(1)
Regionally Blended Gasoline
225(5)
Octane Improvers
230(1)
Oxygenated Fuels
230(1)
Alcohol Additives---Advantages and Disadvantages
231(1)
Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content
232(1)
Combustion Chemistry
232(1)
Air-Fuel Ratios
233(1)
High-Altitude Octane Requirements
234(1)
Valve Recession and Unleaded Fuel
234(1)
Reformulated Gasoline
234(1)
General Gasoline Recommendations
235(1)
Alternative Fuels
236(3)
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
239(1)
Fuel Cells
240(5)
Summary
243(1)
Review Questions
244(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
244(1)
Temperature and Throttle Position Sensors Diagnosis
245(23)
Learning Objectives
245(1)
Terms to Learn
245(1)
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensors
245(1)
Stepped ECT Circuits
246(2)
Testing the Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
248(4)
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
252(1)
Testing the Intake Air Temperature Sensor
253(2)
Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor
255(1)
Temperature Sensor Diagnostic Trouble Codes
256(1)
Throttle Position Sensors
257(1)
TP Sensor Computer Input Functions
258(1)
PCM Uses for the TP Sensor
258(1)
Testing the Throttle Position Sensor
259(1)
Testing a TP Sensor Using the MIN/MAX Function
260(1)
Testing the TP Sensor Using a Scan Tool
261(1)
TP Sensor Diagnostic Trouble Codes
261(7)
Summary
266(1)
Review Questions
266(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
266(2)
Map and Maf Sensors Diagnosis
268(17)
Learning Objectives
268
Terms to Learn
265(3)
Air Pressure---High and Low
268(1)
Principles of Pressure Sensors
268(2)
Construction of Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensors
270(2)
Ceramic Disc MAP Sensor
272(1)
PCM Uses of the MAP Sensor
272(2)
Barometric Pressure Sensor
274(1)
Testing the Map Sensor Using a DMM
275(1)
Testing The MAP Sensor Using a Scan Tool
276(1)
Fuel-Rail Pressure Sensor
276(1)
MAP/BARO Diagnostic Trouble Codes
276(1)
Air Flow Sensors
276(1)
Analog and Digital MAF Sensors
277(1)
Mass Air Flow Sensor Types
277(2)
Karman Vortex Sensors
279(1)
PCM Uses for Air Flow Sensors
280(1)
Testing Mass Air Flow Sensors
280(5)
Summary
283(1)
Review Questions
283(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
284(1)
Oxygen Sensor Diagnosis
285(26)
Learning Objectives
285(1)
Terms to Learn
285(1)
Oxygen Sensors
285(2)
Zirconia Oxygen Sensors
287(1)
Titania Oxygen Sensor
288(1)
Wide-Band Oxygen Sensors
288(1)
Closed Loop and Open Loop
289(1)
PCM Uses of the Oxygen Sensor
289(2)
Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Digital Voltmeter
291(2)
Testing the Oxygen Sensor Using the MIN/MAX Method
293(1)
Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Scan Tool
294(1)
Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Scope
295(3)
Oxygen Sensor Waveform Analysis
298(1)
Frequency
299(1)
Hash
299(1)
Classifications of Hash
300(1)
Hash Interpretation
301(1)
Negative O2S Voltage
302(1)
False O2S Readings
302(1)
Postcatalytic Converter Oxygen Sensor Testing
303(1)
Oxygen Sensor Inspection
304(1)
Oxygen Sensor-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes
305(6)
Summary
309(1)
Review Questions
309(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
309(2)
Fuel Delivery System Diagnosis
311(22)
Learning Objectives
311(1)
Terms to Learn
311(1)
Fuel Delivery System
311(1)
Fuel Supply System
311(3)
Electric Fuel Pumps
314(4)
Fuel Filters
318(2)
Fuel-Pump Testing
320(6)
Fuel-Pump Current Draw Test
326(2)
Fuel-Pump Current Ramping
328(1)
Fuel-Pump Replacement
329(1)
Fuel Supply-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes
330(3)
Summary
330(1)
Review Questions
331(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
331(2)
Fuel-Injection System Diagnosis and Service
333(33)
Learning Objectives
333(1)
Terms to Learn
333(1)
Port Fuel-Injection Pressure Regulator Diagnosis
333(1)
Diagnosing Electronic Fuel-Injection Problems Using Visual Inspection
334(1)
Scan Tool Vacuum Leak Diagnosis
335(1)
Port Fuel-Injection System Diagnosis
335(1)
Testing for an Injector Pulse
336(2)
Checking Fuel-Injector Resistance
338(8)
Measuring Resistance of Grouped Injectors
346(1)
Pressure-Drop Balance Test
346(1)
Injector Voltage Drop Test
347(1)
Exhaust Gas Balance Test
348(1)
Scope Testing Fuel Injectors
348(3)
Injector Current Ramping
351(1)
Idle Air Speed Control Diagnosis
352(2)
Fuel-Injection Service
354(4)
Fuel-System Scan Tool Diagnostics
358(8)
Summary
364(1)
Review Questions
364(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
364(2)
Emission Control Devices Operation and Diagnosis
366(35)
Learning Objectives
366(1)
Terms to Learn
366(1)
Vehicle Emissions
366(1)
Need for Evaporative Emission Control
367(1)
Vapor Canister Storage
368(1)
Vapor Purging
368(2)
Evaporative Control Systems
370(1)
Enhanced Evaporative Control System
370(1)
Diagnosing the Evap System
371(1)
Locating Leaks in the System
372(1)
Evaporative System Monitor
373(2)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems
375(1)
NOx Formation
375(1)
Controlling NOx
375(1)
EGR System Operation
376(1)
Positive and Negative Back Pressure EGR Valves
376(1)
Computer-Controlled EGR
376(2)
EGR Valve Position Sensors
378(2)
OBD II EGR Monitoring Strategies
380(1)
Diagnosing a Defective EGR System
381(1)
OBD II EGR System Monitor
382(1)
Crankcase Ventilation
383(1)
PCV Valves
384(1)
Orifice-Controlled Systems
385(1)
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System Diagnosis
385(2)
PCV Monitor
387(1)
Air Pump System
387(1)
Air Distribution Manifolds and Nozzles
388(3)
Air Pump System Diagnosis
391(1)
Catalytic Converters
392(1)
Ceramic Monolith Catalytic Converter
392(2)
OBD II Catalytic Converter Performance
394(1)
Converter Damaging Conditions
394(1)
Diagnosing Catalytic Converters
395(3)
OBD II Catalytic Converter Monitor
398(1)
Catalytic Converter Replacement Guidelines
398(3)
Summary
399(1)
Review Questions
399(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
399(2)
Exhaust Emission Testing
401(22)
Learning Objectives
401(1)
Terms to Learn
401(1)
Exhaust Analysis Testing
401(5)
Exhaust Analysis and Combustion Efficiency
406(3)
Baselining a Failed Vehicle
409(1)
What to Do After Baselining
409(1)
HC Too High
409(1)
CO Too High
409(1)
Measuring Oxygen (O2) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
410(1)
Photochemical Smog Formation
410(1)
Testing for Oxides of Nitrogen
411(1)
Correcting High HC Emissions
411(1)
Correcting High CO Emissions
412(1)
Correcting High HC and CO Emissions
412(2)
Correcting High NOx Emissions
414(9)
Summary
421(1)
Review Questions
421(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
421(2)
Engine Condition Diagnosis
423(30)
Learning Objectives
423(1)
Terms to Learn
423(1)
Typical Engine-Related Complaints
423(1)
Engine Smoke Diagnosis
423(1)
Diesel Exhaust Smoke Diagnosis
424(2)
Engine Noise Diagnosis
426(2)
Oil Pressure Testing
428(1)
Oil Pressure Warning Lamp
428(1)
Compression Test
428(2)
Wet Compression Test
430(1)
Running (Dynamic) Compression Test
430(1)
Cylinder Leakage Test
431(1)
Cylinder Power Balance Test
431(1)
Power Balance Test Procedure
432(1)
HC Balance Test
432(1)
Relative Compression Test
433(1)
Vacuum Testing
433(2)
Exhaust Restriction Test
435(2)
Testing Back Pressure with a Vacuum Gauge
437(1)
Testing Back Pressure with a Pressure Gauge
437(1)
Timing Chain Slack Diagnosis
437(1)
Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure
438(1)
Dash Warning Lights
439(14)
Summary
451(1)
Review Questions
451(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
451(2)
Symptom-Based Diagnosis
453(19)
Learning Objectives
453(1)
Terms to Learn
453(1)
Engine Hesitates, Sags, or Stumbles During Acceleration
454(2)
Rough Idle or Stalling
456(2)
Spark Knock (Ping or Detonation)
458(1)
Engine Cranks Okay, But Is Hard to Start
458(1)
Engine Does Not Crank or Cranks Slowly
459(1)
Poor Fuel Economy
460(2)
Dieseling or Run-On
462(1)
Backfire
462(1)
Lack of Power
463(1)
Surges
464(1)
Cuts Out or Misfires
464(1)
Rich Exhaust
465(1)
Lean Exhaust
465(1)
Symptoms of a Defective Component
465(1)
Excessive CO Exhaust Emissions
466(1)
Excessive HC Exhaust Emissions
467(1)
Excessive NOx Exhaust Emissions
468(4)
Summary
468(1)
Review Questions
469(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
469(3)
Appendix I Sample Ase Engine Performance (A8) Certification Test 472(6)
Appendix 2 Sample Ase Advanced Level (LI) Engine Performance Certification Test 478(11)
Appendix 3 Engine Performance (A8) Ase Certification Test Correlation Chart 489(4)
Appendix 4 Engine Performance (A8) Natef Task List Correlation Chart 493(4)
English Glossary 497(7)
Spanish Glossary 504(8)
Index 512


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