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Advances in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 2,9781118137093
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Advances in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 2

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This book comprehensively reviews research on new developments in all areas of food chemistry/science and technology. It covers topics such as food safety objectives, risk assessment, quality assurance and control, good manufacturing practices, food process systems design and control and rapid methods of analysis and detection, as well as sensor technology, environmental control and safety. The book focuses on food chemistry and examines chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions, and applications.

Author Biography

Visakh P.M. is a Senior Researcher at the School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, India. He has been invited as a visiting student/researcher to approximately fifteen European universities and is a prolific editor with seven books already published. His research interests include polymer nanocomposites, bio-nanocomposites, and rubber-based nanocomposites, fire-retardant polymers, and liquid crystalline polymers as well as silicon sensors.

Laura B. Iturriaga is a food engineer, researcher, and lecturer in the food physics and chemistry field at the Faculty of Agriculture and Industrial Agriculture, Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. She successfully defended her PhD at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Argentina.

Pablo Daniel Ribotta studied chemical engineering at the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Argentina, and completed his PhD at the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, in 2002. Currently, he is Research Member of the National Research Council of Republica Argentina (CONICET), as well as full professor of food technology and Director of Instituto Superior de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios en Alimentos, at UNC. He has approximately seventy research papers, three books, and eight book chapters to his credit.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

List of Contributors xvii

1 Recent Advances in Food Science and Nutrition: State of Art, New Challenges and Opportunities 1
Visakh. P.M., Laura B. Iturriaga and Pablo Daniel Ribotta

1.1 Potato Production, Composition and Starch Processing 2

1.2 Milk and Different Types of Milk Products 4

1.3 Processing and Preservation of Meat, Poultry and Seafood 5

1.4 Food Ingredients 7

1.5 Fruits and Fruit Processing 7

1.6 Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals and Their Method of Analysis 9

1.7 Indispensable Tools in Food Science and Nutrition 10

1.8 Transformation of Food Flavours Due to Industrial Processing Elaboration 11

1.9 New Trends in Sensory Characterization of Food Products 12

1.10 Effect of Food Processing on Bioactive Compounds 13

1.11 Recent Advances in Storage Technologies for Fresh Fruits 14

1.12 Ultrasound Applications in Food Technology 16

References 17

2 Potato: Production, Composition and Starch Processing 23
Narpinder Singh, Amritpal Kaur, Khetan Shevkani and Rajarathnam Ezekiel

2.1 Introduction 24

2.2 Composition 24

2.3 Starch Production 34

2.4 Starch Properties 36

References 41

3 Milk and Different Types of Milk Products 49
Yantyati Widyastuti and Andi Febrisiantosa

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Milk Production and Quality 51

3.3.1 Effect of Animal Diet on Milk Productivity 51

3.2.2 Organic Milk 56

3.3 Types of Milk Products 56

3.3.1 Liquid Milk as Beverage 57

3.3.2 Cream 59

3.3.3 Butter 59

3.3.4 Ice Cream 60

3.3.5 Fermented Milk Product 62

3.4 Conclusion 65

References 65

4 Processing and Preservation of Meat, Poultry and Seafood 69
Elisabete M.C. Alexandre, Cristina L.M. Silva and Teresa R.S. Brandão

4.1 Introduction 70

4.2 Food Quality Characteristics 71

4.3 Deterioration and Microbial Contamination 73

4.4 Physical Methods of Preservation 74

4.4.1 Preliminary Processes 74

4.4.2 Water Spray-Washings 76

4.4.3 Control of Temperature 77

4.4.4 Control of Moisture 81

4.4.5 Radiation Technologies 82

4.4.6 Other Technologies 87

4.5 Chemical Methods of Preservation 89

4.5.1 Curing 89

4.5.2 Smoking 90

4.5.3 Other Methods/Compounds 91

4.6 Microbiological Contributions to Meat Preservation 93

4.6.1 Competition 93

4.6.2 Fermentation 94

4.6.3 Bacteriocins 94

4.7 Hurdle Combinations of Methods 95

4.8 Atmosphere Inside Package 95

Acknowledgments 96

References 96

5 Food Ingredients 105
Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse

5.1 Introduction 106

5.2 Useful Terminology and Definitions 107

5.3 Food Additives 109

5.4 Novel and Natural Plant-Based Ingredients 113

5.5 Properties and Applications of Plant-Derived Ingredients 120

5.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 125

References 126

6 Fruits and Fruit Processing 133
Ariel R. Fontana and Romina P. Monasterio

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Fruits 136

6.2.1 Low Temperature 136

6.2.2 Modified and Controlled Atmosphere Storage 137

6.2.3 Modified Atmosphere Packaging 140

6.2.4 Edible Coatings 141

6.3 Fruit Processing 142

6.3.1 Factors Affecting Fruit Conservation Method 143

6.3.2 Traditional Preservation Methods 144

6.3.3 Modern Preservation Methods with Minimal Processing 146

References 150

7 Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals and Their Method of Analysis 153
Ashish Rawson, Ankit Patras, B. Dave Oomah, Rocio Campos-Vega and Mohammad B. Hossain

7.1 Introduction 154

7.2 Importance of Antioxidants in Human Health (Their Mechanism of Action) 155

7.3 Natural Antioxidants 158

7.3.1 Sources of Natural Antioxidants 158

7.3.2 Uses of Natural Antioxidants 160

7.4 Overview of Methods Used to Measure Total Antioxidant Activity 163

7.4.1 Measurement of Antioxidant Activity 165

7.4.2 Assays Involving a Biological Substrate 165

7.4.3 Assays Involving a Non-Biological Substrate 166

7.5 Problems in Comparing Various Methods of Antioxidant Activity and Discrepancies over Their Measurement 188

7.6 Methods for Antioxidant Phytochemical Analysis 191

7.6.1 Spectrophotometer 191

7.6.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC) 191

7.6.3 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS) 214

7.6.4 Liquid Chromatography–Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LC–NMR) 215

7.7 Concluding Remarks 237

References 238

8 Indispensable Tools in Food Science and Nutrition 257
Sneha P. Bhatia

8.1 Introduction: Food Safety – From Farm to the Dinner Plate 257

8.2 Foodborne Pathogens 259

8.3 Probiotics in Food 264

8.4 Genetically Modified (GM) Foods – Friends or Foe? 270

8.5 Bioavailability of Nutrients 273

8.6 Food Safety Regulations 275

8.7 Conclusion 276

References 276

9 Transformations of Food Flavor Due to Industrially Processing of Elaboration 279
Romina P. Monasterio

9.1 Introduction 280

9.2 Aroma Compounds 292

9.3 Chemical Reactions that Contribute to Food Flavor 292

9.3.1 Maillard Reaction 293

9.3.2 Flavor from Lipids 298

9.3.3 Flavors Formed via Fermentation 302

9.4 Special Industrial Process and Flavor 309

9.5 Industrial Production of Flavor 312

9.6 Summary 315

References 315

10 New Trends in Sensory Characterization of Food Products 321
Gastón Ares and Ana Giménez

10.1 Introduction 321

10.1.1 Sensory Characterization 321

10.1.2 Descriptive Analysis 322

10.2 New Trends in Sensory Characterization of Food Products 325

10.2.1 Overview 325

10.2.2 Methodologies Based on Specific Attributes 327

10.2.3 Methodologies that Provide a Verbal Description of the Products 332

10.2.4 Holistic Methodologies 338

10.2.5 Methods Based on the Comparison with References 345

10.2.6 Comparison of the Methodologies 348

10.3 Conclusions and Recommendations 352

References 354

11 Effect of Food Processing on Bioactive Compounds 361
Sarana Sommano

11.1 Bioactive Compounds 362

11.1.1 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) 362

11.1.2 Antioxidant Defenses Against ROS 363

11.1.3 Bioactive Compounds or Natural Antioxidants 364

11.1.4 Other Significant Bioactive Compounds 371

11.2 Processing of Foods Containing Bioactive Components 372

11.2.1 Effect of Postharvest Handling Methods and Shelf Life Determination 372

11.2.2 Effect of Processing 373

11.2.3 Effects of Storage 377

11.3 Methods for the Determination of Antioxidants 378

11.3.1 Measuring Antioxidants Activity 378

11.3.2 Radical–Scavenging Methods 378

11.3.3 Methods for Measuring the Oxidation of an Oil or Food Sample 380

11.3.4 Techniques Involving Bioactive Compound Determination 383


12 Recent Advances in Storage Technologies for Fresh Fruits 391
Sukhvinder P. Singh and Leon A. Terry

12.1 Introduction 392

12.2 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Based Storage Technology 393

12.3 Palladium Based Ethylene Adsorbers 394

12.4 Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) Storage Technology 397

12.5 Dynamic Controlled Atmosphere (DCA) Storage Technology 398

12.6 Microcontrolled Atmosphere (MCA) and Bulk Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) Technologies 400

12.7 Nitric Oxide Based Technology 401

12.8 Biosensors 403

12.9 Conclusions 405

References 406

13 Ultrasound Applications in Food Technology: Equipment, Combined Processes and Effects on Safety and Quality Parameters 413
Rui M.S. Cruz, Igor Khmelinskii and Margarida C. Vieira

13.1 Introduction 414

13.2 Equipment Design 416

13.3 Ultrasound Application for Improving Processing Efficiency 420

13.4 Food Preservation Applications 424

13.4.1 Enzymes 424

13.4.2 Microorganisms 424

13.5 Ultrasound Effects on Food Quality Attributes 430

13.6 Conclusions 432

References 432

Index 445

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