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Preface | p. XIII |
List of Contributors | p. XVII |
Radial Speckle Interferometry and Applications | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Out-of-Plane Radial Measurement | p. 2 |
Radial Deformation Measurement of Short Internal Cylinders | p. 3 |
Radial Deformation Measurement of Long Internal Cylinders | p. 7 |
Radial Deformation Measurement of External Cylinders | p. 11 |
In-Plane Measurement | p. 13 |
Configuration Using Conical Mirrors | p. 17 |
Configuration Using a Diffractive Optical Element | p. 19 |
Applications | p. 24 |
Translation and Mechanical Stress Measurements | p. 24 |
Residual Stress Measurement | p. 27 |
Conclusions | p. 33 |
p. 34 | |
Depth-Resolved Displacement Field Measurement | p. 37 |
Introduction | p. 37 |
Low-Coherence Electronic Spedde Pattern Interferometry | p. 39 |
Wavelength Scanning Interferometry | p. 43 |
WSI with a Single Scattering Surface | p. 44 |
Fourier Transform for Measurement of Optical Path Length | p. 46 |
Fourier Transform for Calculation of Interference Phase | p. 47 |
Range and Resolution of Optical Path Difference Measurement | p. 48 |
Determination of Scattering Point Location | p. 49 |
Gauge Volume and Displacement Sensitivity | p. 52 |
WSI with Volume Scatterers | p. 54 |
Proof-of-Prindple Experiments: Two Scattering Layers | p. 57 |
Comparison of WSI with LCSI | p. 59 |
Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography | p. 60 |
Phase Contrast SOCT for 2D Out-of-Plane Displacement Field Measurement | p. 61 |
PC-SOCT for 2D In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Displacement Field Measurement | p. 66 |
Hyperspectral Interferometry for 3D Surface Pronlometry | p. 69 |
Tilt Scanning Interferometry | p. 71 |
Depth-Dependent Phase Shift Introduced hy a Tilting Wavefront | p. 72 |
Extraction of the Scattered Amplitude Distribution | p. 75 |
Depth-Resolved Displacements | p. 77 |
Gauge Volume, Depth Range, and Displacement Sensitivity | p. 79 |
Experimental Implementation | p. 80 |
Depth-Resolved Techniques Viewed as Linear Filtering Operations | p. 83 |
Methods Viewed as Linear Filtering Operations | p. 84 |
Relationship Between W(K) and Spatial Resolution | p. 85 |
Relationship Between W(K) and Displacement Sensitivity | p. 86 |
Ewald Sphere for a Wavelength Scanning Interferometer | p. 87 |
Ewald Sphere for a Tilt Scanning Interferometer | p. 89 |
Comparison of Spatial Resolution for WSI and TSI | p. 89 |
Phase Unwrapping in Three Dimensions | p. 91 |
Phase Singularities in Two-Dimensional Phase Data | p. 91 |
Phase Singularity Loops in Three-Dimensional Phase Data | p. 93 |
3D Phase Unwrapping Algorithm | p. 95 |
Remaining Ambiguities | p. 96 |
Example: Dynamic Deformation of Carbon-Fiber Composite Panel | p. 96 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 98 |
References | p. 99 |
Single-Image Interferogram Demodulation | p. 105 |
Introduction | p. 105 |
Spatial Carrier Frequency Techniques | p. 105 |
Spatial Demodulation Without Carrier | p. 106 |
The Fourier Spatial Demodulating Method | p. 106 |
Linear Spatial Phase Shifting | p. 109 |
Nonlinear Spatial Phase Shifting | p. 113 |
Regularized Phase Tracking | p. 115 |
Local Adaptive Robust Quadrature Filters | p. 118 |
Single Interferogram Demodulation Using Fringe Orientation | p. 122 |
Orientation in Interferogram Processing | p. 122 |
Fringe Orientation and Fringe Direction | p. 124 |
Orientation Computation | p. 126 |
Gradient-Based Orientation Computation | p. 127 |
Plane Fit Orientation Calculation | p. 129 |
Minimum Directional Derivative | p. 131 |
Direction Computation | p. 132 |
Regularized Phase Tracking Direction Estimation | p. 132 |
Vector Field-Regularized Direction Estimation | p. 134 |
Quadrature Operators | p. 135 |
Phase Demodulation of ID Interferograms | p. 135 |
Phase Demodulation from a Single Interferogram: the Vortex Transform | p. 136 |
Vortex Transform-Based Orientation Computation | p. 138 |
The General n-Dimensional Quadrature Transform | p. 139 |
2D Steering of ID Phase Shifting Algorithms | p. 142 |
Conclusions | p. 143 |
References | p. 144 |
Phase Evaluation in Temporal Speckle Pattern Interferometry Using Time-Frequency Methods | p. 147 |
Introduction | p. 147 |
The Temporal Speckle Pattern Interferometry Signal | p. 148 |
The Temporal Fourier Transform Method | p. 151 |
Time-Frequency Representations of the TSPI Signals | p. 153 |
Preliminaries | p. 154 |
The Asymptotic Signal and the Exponential Model | p. 154 |
Fidelity Measures | p. 155 |
The Windowed Fourier Transform | p. 156 |
The Wavelet Transform | p. 160 |
Evaluation of the Ridge of a Wavelet Transform | p. 163 |
Applications of the Morlet Transform Analysis in TSPI and Other Related Techniques | p. 166 |
The Chirped Wavelet Transform | p. 168 |
Other Wavelet Transforms | p. 171 |
The Quadratic Time-Frequency Distribution | p. 172 |
The Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert Transform | p. 176 |
The Empirical Mode Decomposition Method | p. 178 |
The Hilbert Transform | p. 179 |
The Generalized S-Transform | p. 182 |
Two and Three Dimensional Approaches | p. 188 |
The Windowed Fourier Transform Method | p. 189 |
Wavelet Transform Methods | p. 190 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 199 |
References | p. 200 |
Optical Vortex Metrology | p. 207 |
Introduction | p. 207 |
Speckle and Optical Vortices | p. 207 |
Core Structure of Optical Vortices | p. 209 |
Principle of Optical Vortex Metrology | p. 211 |
Complex Signal Representation of a Speckle-like Pattern | p. 211 |
Principle of Optical Vortex Metrology | p. 213 |
Some Applications | p. 214 |
Nanometric Displacement Measurement | p. 214 |
Linear and Angular Encoder | p. 217 |
Fluid Mechanical Analysis | p. 224 |
Biological Kinematic Analysis | p. 230 |
Conclusion | p. 235 |
References | p. 236 |
Speckle Coding for Optical and Digital Data Security Applications | p. 239 |
Introduction | p. 239 |
Double Random Fourier Plane Encoding | p. 242 |
Influence of Coded Image Perturbations, Noise Robustness, and SNR | p. 245 |
Variants of the DRPE and Various Other Encryption Techniques | p. 245 |
Fresnel and Fractional Fourier Transform Domain Encoding | p. 245 |
Color Image Encoding and Digital Simulation/Virtual Optics-Based Techniques | p. 246 |
Phase Retrieval- and Polarization-Based Techniques | p. 246 |
Interference and Joint Transform Correlator Architecture-Based Techniques | p. 246 |
Fully Phase Encryption Techniques and Encrypted Holographic Memory | p. 246 |
Attacks against Random Encoding | p. 247 |
Speckle Coding for Optical and Digital Data Security | p. 247 |
Encryption Using a Sandwich Phase Mask Made of Normal Speckle Patterns | p. 248 |
Theoretical Analysis | p. 248 |
Description of the Experimental Work | p. 250 |
Preparation of Speckle Phase Masks | p. 250 |
Making a Sandwich Phase Mask | p. 251 |
Technique for Easy Alignment of the Constituent Speckle Phase Masks | p. 251 |
Experimental Results | p. 252 |
Computer Simulation | p. 253 |
Optical Encryption Using a Sandwich Phase Mask Made of Elongated Speckle Patterns | p. 256 |
Preparation of the Elongated Speckle Phase Mask | p. 256 |
Description of the Method | p. 256 |
Computer Simulation Results | p. 257 |
Speckles for Multiplexing in Encryption and Decryption | p. 262 |
Multiplexing in Encryption Using Apertures in the FT Plane | p. 264 |
Methodology | p. 264 |
Computer Simulation | p. 266 |
Effect of Aperture Size on the Encryption and Decryption | p. 267 |
Effect of Increasing the Number and Size of the Apertures | p. 267 |
Multiplexing in Encryption Using Circular Apertures | p. 272 |
Multiplexing in Encryption Using Square Apertures | p. 271 |
Multiplexing by In-Plane Rotation of Sandwich Phase Diffuser and Aperture Systems | p. 272 |
Methodology | p. 273 |
Effect on Decrypted Images of Rotation of One of the Constituent Phase Diffusers | p. 274 |
Multiplexing in Encryption Using the Rotation of the RPM R | p. 277 |
Multiplexing by Using Set of Apertures and Angular Rotation of R | p. 278 |
Speckles in Digital Fresnel Field Encryption | p. 282 |
Digital Recording and Numerical Reconstruction of an Off-Axis Fresnel Hologram | p. 282 |
Digital Fresnel Field Encryption | p. 283 |
Digital Encryption of Fresnel Field Using Single Random Phase Encoding | p. 284 |
Direct Decryption of 3D Object Information from Encrypted Fresnel Field | p. 284 |
Experiment | p. 286 |
Results and Discussion | p. 288 |
Discussion of Encryption and Decryption by the Proposed Method | p. 288 |
Some General Remarks on Digital Encryption of Holographic Information | p. 290 |
Conclusions | p. 291 |
References | p. 292 |
Index | p. 301 |
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