Advertising Media Planning, Seventh Edition

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 8/6/2010
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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The long-time industry standardfully updated to include the latest ad technologiesFor the past 30 years, the definitive guide to media planning has been providing both students and professionals with the information and insight they need to devise the most effective advertising plans.This new edition ofAdvertising Media Planningretains all the information about traditional mediaincluding TV, radio, and printwhile bringing you completely up to date on the latest media forms and explaining how to build them into your strategy. You'll find comprehensive coverage of: WiFi-enabled laptops Elevator video iPods Cell phones Social networks Gas station video Word-of-mouth Sponsored blogs Google search Taxi cab videoAdvertising Media Planningis the one and only resource you need for creative, results-based media planning and buying.

Author Biography

About the Authors
Jack Z. Sissors
was a profession of media planning and strategy at Northwestern University. He created and edited The Journal of Media Planning and spent many years working with Leo Burnett and other top advertising agencies.

Roger Baron is the senior vice president and director of media research at DRAFTFCB in Chicago, whose clients include Kraft Foods, SC Johnson, CoorsMiller Brewing Company, Boeing Aircraft, Starbucks, Quaker Oats, Taco Bell and Merck Pharmaceuticals. A member of the ARF Media Communications Council, he is the past president of the Media Research Club of Chicago. He is a frequent speaker at Advertising Research Foundation and other industry conferences.

Table of Contents

Foreword by David L. Smith, CEO and Founder, Mediasmith Inc., San Francisco
Media: A Message Delivery System
Media Planning
Changing Face of Media Planning
Changing Role of Media Planners
Classes of Media
Traditional Mass Media
Nontraditional Media
Online Media
Specialized Media
General Procedures in Media Planning
Principles for Selecting Media Vehicles
Problems in Media Planning
Insufficient Media Data
Time Pressures
Institutional Influences on Media Decisions
Lack of Objectivity
Measuring Advertising Effectiveness
Sample Media Plan Presentation
Background to Hypothetical Plan
Media Objectives
Competitive Analysis
Media Selection
Timing of Media Delivery
Target Audience Analysis
Media Habits
Media Selection Rationale
Creative Media Options
Media Strategy
Flowchart and Budget
Post-Buy Evaluation
The Relationship Among Media, Advertising, and Consumers
How Consumers Choose Media: Entertainment and Information

Strong Feelings Loyalty
Media Usage and Subsequent Behavior
Interactive Television
Varied Relationships Between Audiences and Media
Video Consumer Mapping Study
How Consumers Perceive Digital Advertising
How Audiences Process Information from Media
The Media’s Importance in the Buying Process
Media Planning and the Marketing Mix
Exposure: The Basic Measurement of Media Audiences
Need for Better Media Vehicle Measurements
Response Function
Measurements of Audiences to Advertising Vehicles
Cost per Thousand
Cost per Rating Point
Is There a Better Way of Measurement?
The Top Five Perennial Questions That Media Research Cannot Answer
How Much is Enough?
Which Medium is Most Effective?
What is the Best Environment?
Which is Better: Flighting or Continuity?
When is My Commercial Worn Out?
Basic Measurements and Calculations
How Media Vehicles Are Measured
Nielsen Television Ratings
Proposed Set-Top Box (STB) Alternatives for Measuring Television
Arbitron Radio Ratings
Magazines and Newspapers
Recent Reading
Frequency of Reading
Yesterday Reading
How the Data is Interpreted
General Uses of Vehicle Audience Measurements
Various Concepts of Audience Measurements
Actual or Potential Audience Size Measurements
Print Circulation Measurements
Audience Accumulation
Audience Accumulation in Magazines
Audience Accumulation in Broadcast
Newspaper Coverage
Magazine Coverage
Local Television and Radio Coverage
Spot Radio and Television Coverage in Multiple Markets
Network Television Coverage
Cable Television Coverage
Internet Coverage
Out-of-Home Media Coverage
Households Using Television (HUT)
Broadcast Impressions and Ratings
Average Audience Rating
The Three-Day Commercial Audience (C3) Rating
Share of Audience
Advanced Measurements and Calculations
Gross Rating Points
GRPs in Broadcast Media
GRPs in Other Media
Gross Impressions
Why Audience is Only Counted Once
Types of Reach
Relationship Between Reach and Coverage
How Reach Builds over Time
Reach in Print Media
Multi-Media Reach
Random Duplication
Duplication Between Media Vehicles
Frequency Distribution
Weighted Frequency Distribution
Relationship of Reach to Frequency
Effective Frequency
Response Curves and Effective Frequency
Effective-Frequency Numbers
Effective Reach: The Other Side of the Coin
Brief History of Effective Frequency
Naples Study
Questions Regarding Effective-Frequency Research
Is There a Need for Product Category Differentiation?
Is There a Threshold?
What is the Relationship Between Good Advertising and Effective Frequency?
Does Advertising Wear out When There Is Too Much Frequency?
Recency and the Shelf-Space Model of Media Planning
Recent Studies of Effective Frequency
Marketing Strategy and Media Planning
What a Media Planner Needs to Know
Situation Analysis
Marketing Strategy Plan
Marketing Objectives
Marketing Mix and Strategy
Creative Strategy
Dealers and Distribution
Overall Sales Strategy
Test Marketing
Competitive Media Expenditure Analysis
Principal Sources of Expenditure Data
Nielsen Monitor-Plus Syndicated Reports
Custom Competitive Reports
Online Buzz
Gathering and Assembling the Data
Analyzing the Data
Using Competitive Media Expenditure Analyses
International Competitive Analysis
Managing Media Planning and Buying
Sources of Marketing Data
Major Data Services
Other Sources of Data
Strategy Planning I: Who, Where, and When
Target Selection
Index Number Analysis
Lifestyle Analysis
Psychographics, Attitudes and Buying Styles
Leisure Styles and Consumer Innovators
Focus Groups
Where to Advertise
Classification of Geographic Areas
Designated Market Area (DMA)
Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSA)
Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA and µSA)
City Zone and Retail Trading Zone
Newspaper Designated Market
Sales Analysis
Product Usage by DMA
Heavy-User Data
Buying Power Indices
Brand Development Index (BDI)
Category Development Index (CDI)
Weighted BDIs and CDIs
Using Buying Power Indices
Cutoff Points
When to Advertise
Monthly Sales Patterns
Budget Constraints
Competitive Activities
Specific Goals for the Brand
Product Availability
Promotional Requirements
Strategy Planning II: Weighting, Reach, Frequency, and Scheduling
Geographic Weighting
Forms of Weighting
Share of Voice (Message Weight Distribution)
Guidelines for Geographic Weighting
Case Study 8-2 Weighting Markets on the Basis of Minimum BDIs and CDIs
Reach and Frequency
When to Emphasize Reach
When to Emphasize Frequency
Effective Frequency and Reach
Final Thoughts about Reach and Frequency
Selecting Media Classes: Intermedia Comparisons
Comparing Media
Consumer Media Classes
Newspapers—Reasons for Using
Magazines—Reasons for Using
Newspaper Supplements—Reasons for Using
Newspaper Supplements—Limitations
Television—Reasons for Using
Cable TV—Reasons for Using
Cable TV—Limitations
Product placement TV – Reasons for Using
Product placement TV - Limitations
Radio—Reasons for Using
Internet display—Reasons for Using
Internet display—Limitations
Sponsored search (SEM) – Reasons for Using
Sponsored search (SEM) - Limitations
Mobile digital – Reasons for Using
Mobile digital - Limitations
Direct Mail—Reasons for Using
Direct Mail—Limitations
Outdoor Advertising—Reasons for Using
Outdoor Advertising—Limitations
Transit Media—Reasons for Using
Transit Media—Limitations
Out-of-home Video – Reasons for Using
Out-of-home Video - Limitations
New Media Concepts
Place-Based Media
Database Media Planning
Cross-Media (or Multimedia Integration)
Intermedia Comparisons for Nonmeasured Media
Media Mix
When to Use a Media Mix
Criteria for Media Selection Beyond the Numbers
Principles of Planning Media Strategy
Media Strategy Concepts
Dominant Brand Presence in Media
Advertise When People Are Buying
Creative Strategy’s Impact on Media Strategy
Alternative Media Strategies
What Media Planners Should Know Before Starting to Plan
Marketing Problems
Recommended Actions
Complexities of a Strategy
How the Product Will Be Sold
How Advertising Sells a Product to One Customer
How to Neutralize the Competition’s Strategy
Cost of Strategies
Other Elements of Media Strategy
Media Targets
Creative Strategy
Reach and Frequency
Budget Constraints
Creative Media Strategy
Guidelines for a Creative Media Strategy
Examples of Creative Media Strategies
Media Strategy Is Not Science
Relationships Among Reach, Frequency, Continuity, Number of Markets, and Ad Size
Weighing Alternatives
Setting Priorities
Choosing Media Strategies
Prevailing Wisdom
Typical Media Strategies and Alternatives
Channel Planning Software
Evaluating and Selecting Media Vehicles
Determining Media Values for Magazines
Target Reach, Composition, and Cost-Efficiency
Magazine Planning Process
Other Media Values
Secondary Audiences
Editorial Environment
Special Opportunities in Magazines
Media Comparatives
Position Alternatives
Advertising Clutter and Product Protection
Circulation Trends
Advertising Copy Checking and Product Restrictions
Response to Coupons, Information, or Recipes
Available Discounts
Geographic Flexibility
Issue-to-issue Volatility
Qualitative Values of Media
Types of Qualitative Values
Subjective Qualitative Values
Using Qualitative Values
Ad Positions Within Media
Problems of Positioning Research
Some Position Effects
Internet Media Vehicles
Evaluating and Selecting Internet Media
Buying Internet Display Advertising
Buying Internet Search Advertising
A Continuously Evolving Online World
Media Costs and Buying Problems
Some Considerations in Planning and Buying Media
Media Costs
Cable TV
Out-of-Home Media
Media-Buying Problems
Network TV
Buying Network TV
Spot TV
Syndicated TV
Cable TV
Setting and Allocating the Budget
Setting the Budget
Traditional Methods of Budget Setting
Experimental Methods of Budget Setting
Factors in Determining the Size of an Advertising Budget
Allocating the Advertising Budget
Geographic Allocations
Payout Planning
Testing, Experimenting, and Media Planning
Tests and Experiments
Why Test or Experiment?
How They Differ
Which Is Better?
Market Mix Modeling
Test Marketing
Purposes of Test Marketing
Advertiser-Run Market Tests
Research Designs Used in Test Marketing
Media Testing
Types of Media Testing
Requirements for Selecting Media Test Markets
Media Translations
Little U.S.A. versus “As It Falls” Philosophy
Translations in Radio and Television
Translations in Print
What Successful Media Tests Have In Common
Media-Planning Resources on the Internet
General Media-Planning Sites
Single Source Media/Marketing Research Sites
Broadcast-Planning Sites
Print-Planning Sites
Outdoor-Planning Sites
Internet-Planning Sites
Advertising Publication Sites
Advertising Industry Sites

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