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Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation,9780205295838
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Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205295838

ISBN10:
0205295835
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $65.60

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This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 7/1/1999.
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  • Advocacy and Opposition : An Introduction to Argumentation
    Advocacy and Opposition : An Introduction to Argumentation




Summary

Advocacy and Opposition is a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginning student who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy both orally and in writing. This text offers a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
What Is Argumentation?
1(16)
The Nature of Argumentation
2(3)
The Historical Development of Argumentation
5(2)
The Usefulness of Argumentation
7(3)
Limitations in the Use of Argumentation
10(1)
Ethical Standards for Argumentation
11(4)
The Research Responsibility
12(1)
The Common Good Responsibility
12(1)
The Reasoning Responsibility
13(1)
The Social Code Responsibility
14(1)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
15(1)
References
16(1)
Where Do I Begin in Argumentation?
17(16)
Fields of Argumentation
18(2)
Presumption
20(4)
Burden of Proof
24(2)
The Prima Facie Case
26(5)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
31(1)
References
32(1)
What Am I Going to Argue About?
33(22)
The Nature of Propositions
33(9)
Selecting Terms for Definition
34(1)
Specifying Direction of Change
35(3)
Identifying Key Issues
38(4)
The Classification of Propositions
42(4)
Propositions of Fact
42(1)
Propositions of Value
43(1)
Propositions of Policy
44(2)
Phrasing the Proposition
46(1)
Defining the Key Terms
47(7)
Rules of Definition
48(2)
Terms Needing Definition
50(1)
How to Define Terms
51(3)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
54(1)
References
54(1)
How Do I Analyze Propositions?
55(18)
Locating the Immediate Cause
55(3)
Immediate Cause in Factual Propositions
56(1)
Immediate Cause in Value Propositions
57(1)
Immediate Cause in Policy Propositions
57(1)
Investigating the History
58(3)
Historical Background in Factual Propositions
58(1)
Historical Background in Value Propositions
58(2)
Historical Background in Policy Propositions
60(1)
Defining Key Terms and Creating the Primary Infernece
61(4)
Key Terms in Factual Propositions
63(1)
Key Terms in Value Propositions
64(1)
Key Terms in Policy Propositions
65(1)
Determining the Issues
65(7)
Stock Issues for Factual Propositions
66(1)
Stock Issues for Value Propositions
67(3)
Stock Issues for Policy Propositions
70(2)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
72(1)
References
72(1)
How Is a Unit of Argument Created?
73(20)
The Toulmin Model of Argument
73(17)
Claims
74(5)
Grounds
79(4)
Warrant
83(3)
Backing
86(1)
Qualifiers
87(2)
Rebuttals
89(1)
Simple, Chain, and Cluster Arguments
90(2)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
92(1)
References
92(1)
How Do I Prove My Argument?
93(29)
The Discovery of Evidence
93(8)
Subject Heading Searches
95(1)
Books
96(1)
Periodicals
97(1)
Newspapers
98(1)
Government Documents
99(1)
Fact Books, Encyclopedias, and Other Printed Resources
99(2)
Types and Tests of Evidence
101(16)
Evidence of Fact
101(12)
Evidence from Opinion
113(4)
Recording Evidence
117(3)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
120(1)
References
121(1)
How Do I Reason with My Audience?
122(24)
Argument from Cause
123(4)
Argument from Sign
127(3)
Argument from Generalization
130(3)
Argument from Parallel Case
133(3)
Argument from Analogy
136(2)
Argument from Authority
138(4)
Argument from Dilemma
142(2)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
144(1)
References
145(1)
What Should I Avoid?
146(26)
Fallacies in Reasoning
147(11)
Hasty Generalization
147(1)
Transfer
148(3)
Irrelevant Arguments
151(1)
Circular Reasoning
152(1)
Avoiding the Issue
153(4)
Forcing a Dichotomy
157(1)
Fallacies of Appeal
158(8)
Appeal to Ignorance
159(1)
Appeal to the People
160(1)
Appeal to Emotion
161(1)
Appeal to Authority
162(1)
Appeal to Tradition
163(2)
Appeal to Humor
165(1)
Fallacies in Language
166(4)
Ambiguity and Equivocation
167(1)
Emotionally Loaded Language
168(1)
Technical Jargon
169(1)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
170(1)
References
171(1)
How Are Factual Propositions Argued?
172(18)
Advocating Propositions of Fact
175(7)
Building the Prima Facie Case
176(2)
Preempting Opposing Arguments
178(1)
Argument in Action
179(3)
Opposing Propositions of Fact
182(6)
Evaluating the Primary Inference
182(1)
Using Presumption to Dispute the Primary Inference
183(1)
Refuting by Denial and Extenuation
184(1)
Responding to Preemptive Arguments
185(1)
Argument in Action
185(3)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
188(1)
References
189(1)
How Are Propositions of Value Argued?
190(22)
Advocating Propositions of Value
195(9)
Defining the Value Object
195(1)
Identifying the Hierarchy
196(1)
Specifying the Criteria
197(3)
Measuring the Value Object
200(1)
Argument in Action
201(3)
Opposing Propositions of Value
204(6)
Establishing Strategy
204(1)
Examining Definitions and Hierarchy
204(2)
Challenging the Criteria
206(1)
Refuting the Measurement
206(1)
Argument in Action
207(3)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
210(1)
References
211(1)
How Are Propositions of Policy Argued?
212(24)
Advocating Policy Propositions
213(10)
Advocacy of the First Stock Issue
215(2)
Advocacy of the Second Stock Issue
217(1)
Advocacy of the Third Stock Issue
218(2)
Argument in Action
220(3)
Opposing Policy Propositions
223(12)
Establish Strategy
224(1)
Examine Definitions
225(1)
Refute the Reasons for Change
226(1)
Refute the Consequences of Change
226(3)
Offer a Counterproposal
229(1)
Argument in Action
230(5)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
235(1)
References
235(1)
How Do I Present My Arguments to an Audience?
236(18)
Audience Analysis
237(2)
The General Audience
237(1)
The Actual Audience
238(1)
Language Choice and Style
239(6)
Words as Symbols
239(1)
The Elements of Style
240(4)
Introductions, Transitions, and Conclusions
244(1)
Delivery Techniques
245(5)
Use of Voice
245(2)
Use of Body
247(2)
Use of Visual Aids
249(1)
Building Credibility with an Audience
250(3)
External Credibility
250(1)
Internal Credibility
251(1)
Managing Your Credibility
251(2)
Suggested Supplementary Readings
253(1)
References
253(1)
Appendix A: What Are the Rules of the Game? 254(11)
Debate Formats
254(2)
Speaker Responsibilities
256(6)
Burden of Clash
259(1)
Cross-Examination
260(2)
Flow Sheeting
262(1)
Debate Judges
263(1)
Reference
264(1)
Appendix B: How Do I Write an Argumentative Brief? 265(10)
Formats for Brief Writing
267(1)
A Brief Example
268(1)
References
268(7)
Glossary 275(6)
Index 281


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