Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentationpresents a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginner who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy. Advocacy and Oppositionoffers a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument. By blending traditional and contemporary views on the nature of argument (including multicultural perspectives on the purpose and process of argument, ethics, and values), Advocacy and Oppositionmakes students more aware of both the development of theory and practice, providing a well-rounded approach to their study of argumentation.
1. What is argumentation?
The nature of argumentation
The nature of the audience
The historical development of argumentation
Ethical standards for argumentation
2. Where do I begin in argumentation?
Fields of argumentation
Burden of proof
The prima facie case
3. What am I going to argue about?
The nature of propositions
The classification of propositions
Phrasing the proposition
Defining key terms
4. How do I analyze propositions?
Locating the immediate cause
Defining key terms and creating the primary inference
Determining the issues
5. How is a unit of argument created?
The Toulmin model of argument
6. How do I prove my argument?
The discovery of evidence
Types and tests of evidence
7. How do I reason with my audience?
Argument from cause
Argument from sign
Argument from generalization
Argument from parallel case
Argument from analogy
Argument from authority
Argument from dilemma
8. What should I avoid?
Fallacies of reasoning
Fallacies of appeal
Fallacies of language
9. How are factual propositions argued?
Advocating propositions of fact
Opposing propositions of fact
10. How are value propositions argued?
The nature of values
Advocating propositions of value
Opposing propositions of value
11. How are policy propositions argued?
Advocating propositions of policy
Opposing propositions of policy
Appendix A: What are the rules of the game?