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Advocacy and Opposition An Introduction to Argumentation,9780205781188
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Advocacy and Opposition An Introduction to Argumentation

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    Advocacy and Opposition : An Introduction to Argumentation


Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentationpresents a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginner who needs to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy. Advocacy and Oppositionoffers a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument. By blending traditional and contemporary views on the nature of argument (including multicultural perspectives on the purpose and process of argument, ethics, and values), Advocacy and Oppositionmakes students more aware of both the development of theory and practice, providing a well-rounded approach to their study of argumentation.

Table of Contents

1.      What is argumentation?

            The nature of argumentation

            The nature of the audience

            The historical development of argumentation

            Ethical standards for argumentation


2.      Where do I begin in argumentation?

            Fields of argumentation


            Burden of proof

            The prima facie case


3.      What am I going to argue about?

            The nature of propositions

            The classification of propositions

            Phrasing the proposition

            Defining key terms


4.      How do I analyze propositions?

            Locating the immediate cause

            Investigating history

            Defining key terms and creating the primary inference

            Determining the issues


5.      How is a unit of argument created?

            The Toulmin model of argument


6.      How do I prove my argument?

            The discovery of evidence

            Types and tests of evidence

            Recording evidence


7.      How do I reason with my audience?

            Argument from cause

            Argument from sign

            Argument from generalization

            Argument from parallel case

            Argument from analogy

            Argument from authority

            Argument from dilemma


8.      What should I avoid?

            Fallacies of reasoning

            Fallacies of appeal

            Fallacies of language


9.      How are factual propositions argued?

            Advocating propositions of fact

            Opposing propositions of fact


10.  How are value propositions argued?

            The nature of values

            Advocating propositions of value

            Opposing propositions of value


11.  How are policy propositions argued?

            Advocating propositions of policy

            Opposing propositions of policy


Appendix A: What are the rules of the game?

Debate formats

Speaker responsibilities

Flow sheeting





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