9780471194101

Aerosol Technology : Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780471194101

  • ISBN10:

    0471194107

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1/19/1999
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Summary

The #1 guide to aerosol science and technology -now better than ever Since 1982, Aerosol Technology has been the text of choice among students and professionals who need to acquire a thorough working knowledge of modern aerosol theory and applications. Now revised to reflect the considerable advances that have been made over the past seventeen years across a broad spectrum of aerosol-related application areas - from occupational hygiene and biomedical technology to microelectronics and pollution control -this new edition includes: * A chapter on bioaerosols * New sections on resuspension, transport losses, respiratory deposition models, and fractal characterization of particles * Expanded coverage of atmospheric aerosols, including background aerosols and urban aerosols * A section on the impact of aerosols on global warming and ozone depletion. Aerosol Technology, Second Edition also features dozens of new, fully worked examples drawn from a wide range of industrial and research settings, plus new chapter-end practice problems to help readers master the material quickly.

Author Biography

WILLIAM C. HINDS, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the UCLA School of Public Health. His primary research interest is fundamental and applied research related to aerosols and industrial control of airborne contaminants, including respiratory protection. A Diplomate of the American Board of Industrial Hygiene (comprehensive practice) and a Fellow of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, he has published numerous articles on aerosols.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition xi(2)
Preface to the Second Edition xiii(2)
List of Principal Symbols
xv
1 Introduction
1(14)
1.1 Definitions
3(5)
1.2 Particle Size, Shape, and Density
8(2)
1.3 Aerosol Concentration
10(2)
Problems
12(1)
References
13(2)
2 Properties of Gases
15(27)
2.1 Kinetic Theory of Gases
15(3)
2.2 Molecular Velocity
18(3)
2.3 Mean Free Path
21(2)
2.4 Other Properties
23(4)
2.5 Reynolds Number
27(4)
2.6 Measurement of Velocity, Flow Rate, and Pressure
31(8)
Problems
39(2)
References
41(1)
3 Uniform Particle Motion
42(33)
3.1 Newton's Resistance Law
42(2)
3.2 Stokes's Law
44(2)
3.3 Settling Velocity and Mechanical Mobility
46(2)
3.4 Slip Correction Factor
48(3)
3.5 Nonspherical Particles
51(2)
3.6 Aerodynamic Diameter
53(2)
3.7 Settling at High Reynolds Numbers
55(7)
3.8 Stirred Settling
62(3)
3.9 Instruments That Rely on Settling Velocity
65(2)
3.10 Appendix: Derivation of Stokes's Law
67(3)
Problems
70(3)
References
73(2)
4 Particle Size Statistics
75(36)
4.1 Properties of Size Distributions
75(7)
4.2 Moment Averages
82(2)
4.3 Moment Distributions
84(6)
4.4 The Lognormal Distribution
90(4)
4.5 Log-Probability Graphs
94(3)
4.6 The Hatch-Choate Conversion Equations
97(3)
4.7 Statistical Accuracy
100(4)
4.8 Appendix 1: Distributions Applied to Particle Size
104(1)
4.9 Appendix 2: Theoretical Basis for Aerosol Particle Size Distributions
105(1)
4.10 Appendix 3: Derivation of the Hatch-Choate Equations
105(3)
Problems
108(2)
References
110(1)
5 Straight-Line Acceleration and Curvilinear Particle Motion
111(30)
5.1 Relaxation Time
111(1)
5.2 Straight-Line Particle Acceleration
112(5)
5.3 Stopping Distance
117(2)
5.4 Curvilinear Motion and Stokes Number
119(2)
5.5 Inertial Impaction
121(7)
5.6 Cascade Impactors
128(6)
5.7 Virtual Impactors
134(2)
5.8 Time-of-Flight Instruments
136(2)
Problems
138(2)
References
140(1)
6 Adhesion of Particles
141(9)
6.1 Adhesive Forces
141(3)
6.2 Detachment of Particles
144(1)
6.3 Resuspension
145(1)
6.4 Particle Bounce
146(1)
Problems
147(1)
References
148(2)
7 Brownian Motion and Diffusion
150(21)
7.1 Diffusion Coefficient
150(4)
7.2 Particle Mean Free Path
154(2)
7.3 Brownian Displacement
156(4)
7.4 Deposition by Diffusion
160(5)
7.5 Diffusion Batteries
165(3)
Problems
168(1)
References
169(2)
8 Thermal and Radiometric Forces
171(11)
8.1 Thermophoresis
171(5)
8.2 Thermal Precipitators
176(2)
8.3 Radiometric and Concentration Gradiant Forces
178(2)
Problems
180(1)
References
180(2)
9 Filtration
182(24)
9.1 Macroscopic Properties of Filters
182(8)
9.2 Single-Fiber Efficiency
190(1)
9.3 Deposition Mechanisms
191(5)
9.4 Filter Efficiency
196(4)
9.5 Pressure Drop
200(2)
9.6 Membrane Filters
202(2)
Problems
204(1)
References
204(2)
10 Sampling and Measurement of Concentration
206(27)
10.1 Isokinetic Sampling
206(7)
10.2 Sampling from Still Air
213(3)
10.3 Transport Losses
216(1)
10.4 Measurement of Mass Concentration
217(5)
10.5 Direct-Reading Instruments
222(3)
10.6 Measurement of Number Concentration
225(3)
10.7 Sampling Pumps
228(2)
Problems
230(1)
References
231(2)
11 Respiratory Deposition
233(27)
11.1 The Respiratory System
233(2)
11.2 Deposition
235(7)
11.3 Deposition Models
242(3)
11.4 Inhalability of Particles
245(4)
11.5 Respirable and Other Size-Selective Sampling
249(8)
Problems
257(1)
References
258(2)
12 Coagulation
260(18)
12.1 Simple Monodisperse Coagulation
260(8)
12.2 Polydisperse Coagulation
268(4)
12.3 Kinematic Coagulation
272(4)
Problems
276(1)
References
277(1)
13 Condensation and Evaporation
278(26)
13.1 Definitions
278(3)
13.2 Kelvin Effect
281(2)
13.3 Homogeneous Nucleation
283(2)
13.4 Growth by Condensation
285(3)
13.5 Nucleated Condensation
288(4)
13.6 Condensation Nuclei Counters
292(2)
13.7 Evaporation
294(7)
Problems
301(1)
References
302(2)
14 Atmospheric Aerosols
304(12)
14.1 Natural Background Aerosol
304(3)
14.2 Urban Aerosol
307(5)
14.3 Global Effects
312(2)
Problems
314(1)
References
315(1)
15 Electrical Properties
316(33)
15.1 Units
316(2)
15.2 Electric Fields
318(2)
15.3 Electrical Mobility
320(3)
15.4 Charging Mechanisms
323(8)
15.5 Corona Discharge
331(2)
15.6 Charge Limits
333(2)
15.7 Equilibrium Charge Distribution
335(3)
15.8 Electrostatic Precipitators
338(3)
15.9 Electrical Measurement of Aerosols
341(5)
Problems
346(1)
References
347(2)
16 Optical Properties
349(30)
16.1 Definitions
350(2)
16.2 Extinction
352(6)
16.3 Scattering
358(6)
16.4 Visibility
364(6)
16.5 Optical Measurement of Aerosols
370(6)
Problems
376(1)
References
377(2)
17 Bulk Motion of Aerosols
379(7)
Problems
385(1)
References
385(1)
18 Dust Explosions
386(8)
Problems
392(1)
References
392(2)
19 Bioaerosols
394(8)
19.1 Characteristics
394(2)
19.2 Sampling
396(4)
Problems
400(1)
References
400(2)
20 Microscopic Measurement of Particle Size
402(26)
20.1 Equivalent Sizes of Irregular Particles
402(6)
20.2 Fractal Dimension of Particles
408(5)
20.3 Optical Microscopy
413(3)
20.4 Electron Microscopy
416(6)
20.5 Asbestos Counting
422(2)
20.6 Automatic Sizing Methods
424(1)
Problems
425(1)
References
426(2)
21 Production of Test Aerosols
428(19)
21.1 Atomization of Liquids
428(6)
21.2 Atomization of Monodisperse Particles in Liquid Suspensions
434(4)
21.3 Dispersion of Powders
438(5)
21.4 Condensation Methods
443(2)
Problems
445(1)
References
446(1)
Appendices 447(18)
A1. Useful Constants and Conversions Factors 447(2)
A2. Some Basic Physical Laws 449(2)
A3. Relative Density of Common Aerosol Materials 451(1)
A4. Standard Sieve Sizes 451(1)
A5. Properties of Gases and Vapors at 293 K [20(degree)C] and 101 kPa [1 atm] 452(1)
A6. Viscosity and Density of Air versus Temperature 452(1)
A7. Pressure, Temperature, Density, and Mean Free Path of Air versus Altitude 453(2)
A8. Properties of Water Vapor 455(1)
A9. Properties of Water 455(1)
A10. Particle Size Range of Aerosol Properties and Measurement Instruments 456(2)
A11. Properties of Airborne Particles at Standard Conditions 458(2)
A12. Slip Correction Factor for Standard and Nonstandard Conditions 460(1)
A13. Properties of Selected Low-Vapor-Pressure Liquids 461(1)
A14. Reference Values for Atmospheric Properties at Sea Level and 293 K [20(degree)C] 462(2)
A15. Greek Symbols Used in This Book 464(1)
A16. SI Prefixes 464(1)
Index 465

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