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African Americans : A Concise History, Combined Volume (Chapters 1-23 and Epilogue)

by ; ;
Edition:
COMBINED
ISBN13:

9780131114418

ISBN10:
0131114417
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
About the Authors xxviii
Part I Becoming African American
Africa
1(14)
The Birthplace of Humanity
1(1)
Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments
1(3)
Kush, Meroe, and Axum
3(1)
West Africa
4(5)
Ancient Ghana
5(1)
The Empire of Mali, 1230--1468
5(1)
The Empire of Songhai, 1464--1591
6(1)
The West African Forest Region
7(2)
Kongo and Angola
9(1)
West African Society and Culture
9(2)
Families and Villages
9(1)
Women
10(1)
Class and Slavery
10(1)
Religion
10(1)
Art and Music
11(1)
Literature: Oral Histories, Poetry, and Tales
11(1)
Conclusion
11(3)
Review Questions
14(1)
Recommended Reading
14(1)
Middle Passage
15(13)
The European Age of Exploration and Colonization
15(1)
The Slave Trade in Africa
15(1)
The Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade
16(1)
Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade
16(2)
The African-American Ordeal from Capture to Destination
18(3)
The Crossing
18(2)
Sanitation, Disease, and Death
20(1)
Resistance and Revolt at Sea
20(1)
Cruelty
20(1)
African Women on Slave Ships
21(1)
Landing and Sale in the West Indies
21(1)
Seasoning
22(2)
The End of the Journey: Masters and Slaves in the Americas
24(1)
The Ending of the Atlantic Slave Trade
25(1)
Conclusion
25(1)
Review Questions
25(1)
Recommended Reading
26(2)
Black People in Colonial North America, 1526--1763
28(19)
The Peoples of Eastern North America
28(2)
Eastern Woodlands Indians
28(1)
The British and Jamestown
29(1)
Africans Arrive in the Chesapeake
30(1)
Black Servitude in the Chesapeake
30(3)
Race and the Origins of Black Slavery
31(1)
The Emergence of Chattel Slavery
32(1)
Plantation Slavery, 1700--1750
33(3)
Low-Country Slavery
34(2)
Slave Life in Early America
36(1)
Miscegenation and Creolization
37(1)
The Origins of African-American Culture
37(4)
The Great Awakening
38(1)
Music and Folk Literature
39(1)
The African-American Impact on Colonial Culture
40(1)
Slavery in the Northern Colonies
41(1)
Slavery in Spanish Florida and French Louisiana
42(1)
Black Women in Colonial America
43(1)
Black Resistance and Rebellion
43(1)
Conclusion
44(1)
Review Questions
45(1)
Recommended Reading
46(1)
Rising Expectations: African Americans and the Struggle for Independence, 1763--1783
47(16)
The Crisis of the British Empire
47(1)
The Declaration of Independence and African Americans
48(2)
The Impact of the Enlightenment
49(1)
African Americans in the Revolutionary Debate
49(1)
Black Enlightenment
50(3)
Phillis Wheatley
50(2)
Benjamin Banneker
52(1)
African Americans in the War for Independence
53(2)
Black Loyalists
53(2)
Black Patriots
55(1)
The Revolution and Emancipation
55(5)
The Revolutionary Impact
58(2)
The Revolutionary Promise
60(1)
Conclusion
60(2)
Review Questions
62(1)
Recommended Reading
62(1)
African Americans in the New Nation, 1783--1820
63(18)
Forces for Freedom
63(4)
Northern Emancipation
63(2)
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
65(1)
The Louisiana Purchase and African Americans in the Lower Mississippi Valley
66(1)
Antislavery Societies in the North and the Upper South
66(1)
Manumission and Self-Purchase
67(1)
The Emergence of a Free Black Class in the South
67(1)
Forces for Slavery
67(3)
The United States Constitution
68(1)
Cotton
68(1)
Conservatism and Racism
69(1)
The Emergence of Free Black Communities
70(3)
The Origins of Independent Black Churches
71(1)
The First Black Schools
72(1)
Black Leaders and Choices
73(3)
Migration
74(1)
Slave Uprisings
74(2)
The White Southern Reaction
76(1)
The War of 1812
76(1)
The Missouri Compromise
77(1)
Conclusion
77(1)
Review Questions
78(2)
Recommended Reading
80(1)
Part II Slavery, Abolition, and the Quest for Freedom: The Coming of the Civil War, 1793--1861
Life in the Cotton Kingdom
81(18)
The Expansion of Slavery
81(2)
Slave Labor in Agriculture
83(2)
House Servants and Skilled Slaves
85(1)
Urban and Industrial Slavery
86(1)
Punishment
87(1)
The Domestic Slave Trade
88(1)
Slave Families
88(6)
Children
90(1)
Sexual Exploitation
91(1)
Diet
91(2)
Clothing
93(1)
Health
93(1)
The Socialization of Slaves
94(1)
Religion
95(1)
The Character of Slavery and Slaves
95(1)
Conclusion
96(1)
Review Questions
97(1)
Recommended Reading
98(1)
Free Black People in Antebellum America
99(20)
Demographics of Freedom
99(1)
The Jacksonian Era
99(2)
Limited Freedom in the North
101(4)
Black Laws
101(2)
Disfranchisement
103(1)
Segregation
104(1)
Black Communities in the Urban North
105(4)
The Black Family
105(1)
The Struggle for Employment
106(1)
The Northern Black Elite
106(1)
Black Professionals
107(1)
Artists, Musicians, and Authors
107(2)
African-American Institutions
109(4)
Free African Americans in the Upper South
113(2)
Free African Americans in the Deep South
115(3)
Conclusion
118(1)
Review Questions
118(1)
Recommended Reading
118(1)
Opposition to Slavery, 1800--1833
119(14)
A Country in Turmoil
119(2)
The Second Great Awakening
120(1)
Abolitionism Begins in America
121(3)
From Gabriel to Denmark Vesey
123(1)
The American Colonization Society
124(3)
Black Women Abolitionists
127(1)
The Baltimore Alliance
127(1)
David Walker's Appeal
128(1)
Nat Turner
129(1)
Conclusion
130(2)
Review Questions
132(1)
Recommended Reading
132(1)
Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 1833--1850
133(17)
A Rising Tide of Racism and Violence
133(1)
Texas and the War against Mexico
134(2)
The Response of the Antislavery Movement
136(3)
The American Anti-Slavery Society
136(1)
Black and Women's Antislavery Societies
137(1)
The Black Convention Movement
138(1)
Black Community Institutions
138(1)
Moral Suasion
139(1)
The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and the Liberty Party
140(1)
A More Aggressive Abolitionism
141(2)
The Amistad and the Creole
142(1)
The Underground Railroad
142(1)
Black Militancy
143(2)
Frederick Douglass
145(1)
Black Nationalism
146(1)
Conclusion
147(2)
Review Questions
149(1)
Recommended Reading
149(1)
``And Black People Were at the Heart of It'': The United States Disunites over Slavery
150(20)
Free Labor versus Slave Labor
150(2)
The Wilmot Proviso
150(1)
California and the Compromise of 1850
151(1)
Fugitive Slave Laws
151(1)
Fugitive Slaves
152(3)
The Crafts and Shadrach
153(1)
The Battle at Christiana
154(1)
Anthony Burns
154(1)
Margaret Garner
154(1)
The Rochester Convention, 1853
155(1)
Nativism and the Know-Nothings
156(1)
Uncle Tom's Cabin
156(1)
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
157(2)
The Dred Scott Decision
159(1)
White Northerners and Black Americans
160(1)
Abraham Lincoln and Black People
161(1)
John Brown and the Raid on Harpers Ferry
162(2)
The Election of Abraham Lincoln
164(2)
Disunion
166(1)
Conclusion
166(1)
Review Questions
167(1)
Recommended Reading
167(3)
Part III The Civil War, Emancipation, and Black Reconstruction: The Second American Revolution
Liberation: African Americans and the Civil War
170(23)
Lincoln's Aims
170(1)
Union Policies toward Confederate Slaves
170(3)
Lincoln Moves toward Emancipation
172(1)
Black People Reject Colonization
173(1)
The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
173(1)
The Emancipation Proclamation
174(2)
Limits of the Proclamation
174(1)
Effects of the Proclamation on the South
175(1)
Black Men Fight for the Union
176(7)
The First South Carolina Volunteers
176(1)
The 54th Massachusetts Regiment
177(1)
Black Soldiers Confront Discrimination
178(1)
Black Men in Combat
178(3)
The Confederate Reaction to Black Soldiers
181(1)
Black Men in the Union Navy
182(1)
Liberators, Spies, and Guides
182(1)
Violent Opposition to Black People
183(2)
The New York City Draft Riot
183(1)
Union Troops and Slaves
183(1)
Refugees
184(1)
Black People and the Confederacy
185(4)
The Impressment and Reenslavement of Black People
185(1)
Black Confederates
186(1)
Black Men Fighting for the South
187(1)
The Confederate Debate on Black Troops
188(1)
Conclusion
189(3)
Review Questions
192(1)
Recommended Reading
192(1)
The Meaning of Freedom: The Promise of Reconstruction, 1865--1868
193(22)
The End of Slavery
193(1)
Reuniting Black Families
194(1)
Land
194(2)
Special Field Order #15
195(1)
The Port Royal Experiment
195(1)
The Freedmen's Bureau
196(1)
The Black Church
197(2)
Education
199(3)
Black Teachers
200(1)
Black Colleges
200(1)
Response of White Southerners
201(1)
Violence
202(1)
The Crusade for Political and Civil Rights
203(1)
Presidential Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson
204(1)
Black Codes
204(2)
Black Conventions
206(1)
The Radical Republicans
206(2)
Radical Proposals
207(1)
The Freedmen's Bureau Bill and the Civil Rights Bill
207(1)
The Fourteenth Amendment
208(1)
Radical Reconstruction
208(2)
Conclusion
210(1)
Review Questions
211(1)
Recommended Reading
211(4)
The Meaning of Freedom: The Failure of Reconstruction, 1868--1877
215(18)
Constitutional Conventions
215(1)
Black Political Leaders
216(1)
The Issues
217(3)
Education and Social Welfare
217(1)
Civil Rights
218(1)
Land
219(1)
Business and Industry
219(1)
Black Politicians and Republican Factionalism
220(1)
Opposition
221(1)
The Ku Klux Klan
221(2)
The Fifteenth Amendment and the Enforcement Acts
223(1)
The North Loses Interest
224(1)
The End of Reconstruction
225(4)
Violent Redemption
227(2)
The Compromise of 1877
229(1)
Conclusion
229(2)
Review Questions
231(1)
Recommended Reading
231(2)
Part IV Searching for Safe Places
White Supremacy Triumphant: African Americans in the South in the Late Nineteenth Century
233(21)
Politics
234(3)
Democrats and Farmer Discontent
235(1)
The Colored Farmers' Alliance
236(1)
The Populist Party
237(1)
Disfranchisement
237(2)
Segregation
239(2)
Plessy v. Ferguson
240(1)
Segregation Proliferates
241(1)
Racial Etiquette
241(1)
Violence
242(3)
Lynching
243(2)
Rape
245(1)
Migration
245(2)
Black Farm Families
247(3)
Sharecroppers
247(2)
Black Landowners
249(1)
Segregated Justice
250(1)
Conclusion
251(2)
Review Questions
253(1)
Recommended Reading
253(1)
Black Southerners Challenge White Supremacy
254(27)
Social Darwinism
254(1)
Education and Schools
255(5)
Segregated Schools
255(2)
The Hampton Model
257(1)
Washington and the Tuskegee Model
257(2)
Critics of the Tuskegee Model
259(1)
Church and Religion
260(3)
The Holiness Movement and the Pentecostal Church
262(1)
Roman Catholics and Episcopalians
262(1)
African-Americans in the Army and Navy
263(2)
The Buffalo Soldiers
263(1)
Civilian Hostility to Black Soldiers
264(1)
The Navy
265(1)
Black Cowboys
265(1)
The Spanish-American War
265(3)
The Philippine Insurrection
268(1)
Black Businesspeople and Entrepreneurs
268(2)
African-Americans and Labor
270(2)
Unions
270(1)
Strikes
271(1)
Black Professionals
272(1)
Music
273(2)
Ragtime
274(1)
Jazz
274(1)
The Blues
275(1)
Sports
275(2)
Baseball, Basketball and Other Sports
276(1)
College Athletics
277(1)
Conclusion
277(2)
Review Questions
279(1)
Recommended Reading
280(1)
Conciliation, Agitation, and Migration: African Americans in the Early Twentieth Century
281(32)
Race and the Progressive Movement
281(1)
Booker T. Washington's Approach
282(2)
W.E.B. Du Bois
284(2)
The Niagara Movement
286(1)
The NAACP and the Urban League
287(2)
Black Women and the NACW
289(2)
Anna Julia Cooper and Black Feminism
290(1)
Women's Suffrage
291(1)
The Black Elite
291(2)
Presidential Politics
293(1)
Black Men and the Military in World War I
293(4)
The Punitive Expedition to Mexico
293(1)
World War I
294(1)
Black Troops and Officers
294(1)
Discrimination and Its Effects
295(1)
Du Bois's Disappointment
296(1)
Race Riots
297(6)
Atlanta 1906
297(2)
Springfield 1908
299(1)
East St. Louis 1917
299(2)
Elaine 1919
301(1)
Tulsa 1921
301(1)
Rosewood 1923
302(1)
The Great Migration
303(2)
Northern Communities
305(2)
Chicago
305(1)
Harlem
306(1)
Families
307(1)
Conclusion
308(1)
Review Questions
309(1)
Recommended Reading
309(4)
African Americans and the 1920s
313(23)
Strikes and the Red Scare
313(1)
Racism
313(2)
The Birth of a Nation
314(1)
The Ku Klux Klan
314(1)
Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism: Black Organizations in the Twenties
315(5)
The NAACP
315(1)
Marcus Garvey and the UNIA
316(3)
Pan-Africanism
319(1)
Labor
320(3)
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
321(1)
A. Philip Randolph
322(1)
The Harlem Renaissance
323(6)
Before Harlem
323(1)
Writers and Artists
324(4)
White People and the Harlem Renaissance
328(1)
Harlem and the Jazz Age
329(2)
Song, Dance, and Stage
330(1)
Sports
331(1)
Rube Foster
331(1)
College Sports
332(1)
Conclusion
332(2)
Review Questions
334(1)
Recommended Reading
334(2)
Part V The Great Depression and World War II
The Great Depression and the New Deal
336(23)
The Cataclysm, 1929--1933
336(5)
Harder Times for Black America
337(1)
Black Businesses in the Depression: Collapse and Survival
338(2)
The Failure of Relief
340(1)
African Americans and the New Deal
341(5)
Roosevelt and the First New Deal, 1933--1935
341(1)
Black Officials in the New Deal
342(1)
Black Social Scientists and the New Deal
343(1)
African Americans and the Second New Deal
344(2)
Black Protest during the Great Depression
346(5)
The NAACP and Civil Rights Struggles
347(1)
Du Bois Ignites a Controversy
347(1)
Challenging Racial Discrimination in the Courts
348(1)
Black Women and Community Organizing
349(2)
Organized Labor and Black America
351(1)
The Communist Party and African Americans
352(3)
The International Labor Defense and the ``Scottsboro Boys''
353(1)
Debating Communist Leadership
354(1)
The National Negro Congress
355(1)
The Tuskegee Study
355(1)
Conclusion
356(1)
Review Questions
356(2)
Recommended Reading
358(1)
Black Culture and Society in the 1930s and 1940s
359(24)
Black Culture in a Midwestern City
359(1)
The Black Culture Industry and American Racism
360(1)
The Music Culture from Swing to Bebop
360(2)
Popular Culture for the Masses: Comic Strips, Radio, and Movies
362(4)
The Comics
363(1)
Radio and Race
363(1)
Race, Representation, and the Movies
364(2)
The Black Chicago Renaissance
366(5)
Jazz in Chicago
368(1)
Gospel in Chicago: Thomas Dorsey
368(1)
Katherine Dunham and Billie Holiday
369(2)
Black Graphic Art
371(1)
Black Literature
372(3)
Richard Wright's Native Son
373(1)
James Baldwin Challenges Wright
374(1)
Ralph Ellison and Invisible Man
374(1)
African Americans in Sports
375(2)
Jesse Owens and Joe Louis
375(1)
Breaking the Color Barrier in Baseball
375(2)
Black Religious Culture
377(2)
The Nation of Islam
378(1)
Father Divine and the Peace Mission Movement
378(1)
Conclusion
379(3)
Review Questions
382(1)
Recommended Reading
382(1)
The World War II Era and the Seeds of a Revolution
383(25)
On the Eve of War, 1936--1941
383(3)
African Americans and the Emerging World Crisis
383(1)
A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington Movement
384(1)
Executive Order #8802
385(1)
Race and the U.S. Armed Forces
386(6)
The Costs of Military Discrimination
386(2)
Black Women in the Struggle to Desegregate the Military
388(1)
The Beginning of Military Desegregation
389(2)
The Tuskegee Airmen
391(1)
The Transformation of Black Soldiers
391(1)
Black People on the Home Front
392(3)
Black Workers: From Farm to Factory
392(1)
FEPC during the War
393(1)
Anatomy of a Race Riot: Detroit, 1943
393(1)
Old and New Protest Groups
394(1)
The Cold War
395(4)
African Americans in World Affairs: W.E.B. Du Bois and Ralph Bunche
396(1)
Anticommunism at Home
397(1)
Henry Wallace and the 1948 Presidential Election
398(1)
Desegregating the Armed Forces
399(1)
The Road to Brown
399(7)
Constance Baker Motley and Black Lawyers in the South
400(1)
Brown and the Coming Revolution
401(5)
Conclusion
406(1)
Review Questions
406(1)
Recommended Reading
407(1)
Part VI The Black Revolution
The Freedom Movement, 1954--1965
408(25)
The 1950s: Prosperity and Prejudice
408(1)
Brown II
408(2)
Massive White Resistance
409(1)
The Lynching of Emmett Till
409(1)
New Forms of Protest: The Montgomery Bus Boycott
410(4)
The Roots of Revolution
410(1)
Rosa Parks
411(1)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
412(1)
Walking for Freedom
413(1)
Friends in the North
413(1)
Victory
414(1)
No Easy Road to Freedom: 1957--1960
414(1)
The SCLC
414(1)
Civil Rights Act of 1957
415(1)
Little Rock, Arkansas
415(1)
Black Youth Stand Up by Sitting Down
415(4)
Sit-Ins: Greensboro, Nashville, Atlanta
416(1)
The SNCC
417(1)
Freedom Rides
418(1)
The Movement at High Tide
419(1)
The Kennedy Administration and the Civil Rights Movement
419(1)
Voter Registration Projects
420(1)
The Albany Movement
420(1)
The Birmingham Confrontation
421(2)
A Hard Victory
423(6)
The March on Washington
423(1)
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
424(1)
Mississippi Freedom Summer
425(2)
The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
427(1)
Selma and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
428(1)
Conclusion
429(3)
Review Questions
432(1)
Recommended Reading
432(1)
The Struggle Continues, 1965--1980
433(33)
The Fading Dream of Racial Integration: White Backlash and Black Nationalism
433(4)
Malcolm X
434(1)
Stokely Carmichael and Black Power
435(1)
The National Council of Churches
436(1)
The Black Panther Party
437(2)
Police Repression and the FBI's COINTELPRO
437(1)
Prisoners' Rights
438(1)
The Inner-City Rebellions
439(3)
Watts
439(1)
Newark, New Jersey
440(1)
Detroit
440(1)
The Kerner Commission
441(1)
The Great Society and Vietnam
442(3)
Johnson and Vietnam
443(1)
Black Americans and the Vietnam War
443(1)
Vietnam Destroys the Great Society
444(1)
King: Searching for a New Strategy
445(2)
King on the Vietnam War
446(1)
King's Murder
446(1)
The Black Arts Movement and Black Consciousness
447(4)
Poetry and Theater
448(1)
Music
449(2)
The Second Phase of the Black Student Movement
451(2)
The Orangeburg Massacre
451(1)
Black Studies
452(1)
The Election of 1968
453(1)
The Nixon Presidency
454(3)
The ``Moynihan Report'' and FAP
454(1)
Busing
455(1)
Nixon and the War
456(1)
Nixon's Downfall
456(1)
The Rise of Black Elected Officials
457(2)
The Gary Convention and the Black Political Agenda
457(1)
Black People Gain Local Offices
458(1)
Economic Downturn
459(1)
Black Americans and the Carter Presidency
460(1)
Black Appointees
460(1)
Carter's Domestic Policies
460(1)
Conclusion
461(3)
Review Questions
464(1)
Recommended Reading
464(2)
Modern Black America, 1980 to Present
466(29)
Progress and Poverty
466(1)
Ronald Reagan and the Conservative Reaction
467(5)
Dismantling the Great Society
468(1)
Black Conservatives
468(1)
The Thomas--Hill Controversy
469(1)
Affirmative Action
470(1)
The Backlash
470(2)
Black Political Activism in the Age of Conservative Reaction
472(2)
Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow Coalition
473(1)
Policing the Black Community
474(3)
The Clinton Presidency
477(2)
African-American Cultural and Intellectual Movements at the End of the Millennium
479(9)
Black Feminism
480(2)
Black Intellectuals
482(1)
Afrocentricity
482(1)
Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam
483(2)
The Million Man and Million Woman Marches
485(1)
Black Christianity on the Front Lines
486(1)
The Hip-Hop Nation
487(1)
2000 and Beyond
488(2)
The 2000 Census and Black America
489(1)
Reparations
489(1)
September 11, 2001
490(1)
Conclusion
490(1)
Review Questions
491(1)
Recommended Reading
491(4)
Epilogue: ``A Nation Within a Nation'' 495
Appendixes 1(1)
Additional Bibliography 1(1)
Index 1


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