9780415273404

Agricultural Pollution: Environmental Problems and Practical Solutions

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780415273404

  • ISBN10:

    0415273404

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-10-25
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

This comprehensive text provides a concise overview of environmental problems caused by agriculture (such as pesticide pollution and increased nitrate levels) and offers practical solutions to them. It is well illustrated and contains a fully-referenced introduction to the main contemporary agricultural pollution issues in the UK. It will help provide clear, scientific and technical understanding of the most important sources of agricultura pollution.

Author Biography

Graham Merrington is Lecturer in Soil Chemistry, Adelaide University, Australia.

Table of Contents

List of figures
xi
List of tables
xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Agriculture and pollution
1(10)
Setting the scene
1(4)
Defining agricultural pollution
3(2)
Solving the problem
5(6)
Monitoring impact
5(2)
Cost--the driver for pollution control
7(4)
Nitrates and nitrogen loss
11(32)
Introduction
11(2)
Nitrogen and agriculture
11(2)
The nitrogen cycle
13(3)
Atmospheric deposition
13(1)
Bilogical fixation
14(1)
Fertilisers
15(1)
Animal manures
16(1)
Nitrogen transformations
16(6)
Nitrogen mineralisation
17(1)
Nitrogen immobilisation
17(1)
Nitrification
18(1)
Adsorption and fixation
18(1)
Nitrogen uptake and losses
18(1)
Nitrate leaching
19(2)
Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from nitrification and denitrification
21(1)
Ammonia volatilisation
22(1)
Nitrogen fertiliser use in agriculture
22(2)
The causes of nitrate pollution
24(4)
Problems caused by nitrate pollution
28(2)
Nitrate and drinking water quality
28(1)
Eutrophication
29(1)
Nitrates in food
30(1)
Reducing nitrate losses from agriculture
30(13)
Source management -- optimisation of fertiliser N use
33(1)
Cultivation and crop management
34(9)
Phosphorus
43(30)
Introduction
43(1)
Phosphorus and agriculture
43(1)
The phosphorus cycle
44(10)
Phosphorus inputs and outputs
45(1)
Fertilisers
46(1)
Atmospheric inputs
47(1)
Animal manures
48(1)
P transformations in soil
49(1)
Distribution of P in soil
49(3)
P sorption
52(2)
Phosphorus losses
54(4)
Surface run-off
55(2)
Leaching and drain flow
57(1)
Environmental implications of P pollution
58(2)
N and P balance in natural waters
58(2)
Environmental problems caused by P pollution
60(3)
P in ground and surface waters
60(2)
Eutrophication
62(1)
Practical solutions
63(10)
Source management - optimisation of fertiliser P use
64(1)
Animal feeds
65(2)
P transfer management by soil conservation
67(6)
Soil erosion
73(20)
Introduction
73(1)
Vulnerability of soil to erosion and degradation
73(8)
Extent of erosion
73(1)
Processes and products of erosion
74(1)
Water erosion
75(3)
Wind erosion
78(1)
Agricultural land management practices and accelerated erosion
79(2)
Environmental impacts of soil erosion
81(3)
Impacts of sediment on aquatic environments
81(1)
Physical impacts
81(1)
Chemical impacts
82(2)
Impacts of sediments on land
84(1)
Practical solutions to soil erosion
84(9)
Assessment of erosion risk
85(1)
Field and crop based erosion control strategies
86(2)
Farm and catchment based erosion control strategies
88(5)
Organic wastes
93(42)
Introduction
93(2)
Organic wastes and agriculture
93(2)
Farm wastes
95(8)
Changes in farming systems
96(2)
Pollution risks from farm wastes
98(1)
Ammonia in watercourses
99(2)
Pathogens from farm wastes
101(1)
Veterinary products in farm wastes
101(1)
Water pollution incidents
102(1)
Non-agricultural organic soil amendments
103(11)
Sewage sludge or biosolids
103(2)
Pollution risks from applying sewage sludge to agricultural land
105(4)
N and P pollution from sewage sludge
109(1)
Odours
110(1)
Pathogens
110(1)
Other non-agricultural organic wastes
111(1)
Determental effects of applying non-agricultural wastes to land
112(2)
Practical solutions
114(11)
Farm waste handling, storage and disposal
114(1)
Solid manures
115(1)
Silage
116(1)
Slurry
117(1)
Dirty water
118(1)
Good agricultural practice
119(6)
Non-agricultural organic wastes
125(3)
Avoiding pollution problems by potentially toxic elements in sewage sludge
126(1)
Avoiding crop contamination by pathogens
127(1)
Alternative technologies for farm waste treatment
128(7)
Biogas production
128(1)
Reed bed treatment
129(6)
Gaseous emissions
135(23)
Introduction
135(1)
Agriculture and gaseous emissions
135(1)
Ammonia emissions
136(4)
Pollution problems
136(1)
Sources of ammonia pollution
137(1)
Practical solutions
138(1)
Minimising ammonia emissions by good practice
139(1)
Methane emissions
140(3)
Pollution problems
140(1)
Sources
140(1)
Practical solutions
140(3)
Nitrous oxide emissions
143(3)
Pollution problems
143(1)
Sources of pollution
143(2)
Practical solutions
145(1)
Carbon dioxide emissions
146(2)
Pollution problems
146(1)
Sources of pollution
147(1)
Practical solutions
147(1)
Farm odours
148(10)
Sources of pollution
148(2)
Practical solutions
150(1)
The Location and design of new livestock units
151(1)
Minimising odour nuisance by good management practice
152(1)
Technologies for reducting odour nuisance
153(5)
Pesticides
158(38)
Introduction
158(1)
Pesticide history
158(1)
Pesticide use
158(1)
Pesticides and their application
159(2)
Mode of action
161(1)
Insecticides
162(2)
Organophosphates
162(1)
Carbamates
163(1)
Pyrethroids
163(1)
Herbicides
164(1)
Triazines
164(1)
Phenoxyacetic acids
164(1)
Carbamates
165(1)
Fungicides
165(1)
Traditional inorganics
165(1)
Phenylamides
166(1)
Carboxamides or oxathins
166(1)
The causes of pesticide pollution
166(3)
Pesticides as pollutants
166(1)
Resistance and resuregence
167(2)
Behaviour and fate of pesticides in the environment
169(4)
Persistence
169(1)
The fate of pesticide in soil
170(1)
Loss of pesticides from soil
170(3)
Environmetal problems caused by pesticide residues
173(6)
Pesticides in surface and ground waters
173(2)
Effects on non-farmed organisms
175(4)
Practical solutions
179(4)
Good practice
179(1)
User training
180(1)
Planning and preparation
180(1)
Working with pesticides
181(1)
Disposal of waste
182(1)
Keeping recors
182(1)
Other considerations
182(1)
New technology
183(2)
Adjuvants
184(1)
New formulations
184(1)
Alternatives to synthetic pesticides
185(11)
Naturally derived pesticides
185(1)
Microbial pesticides
185(1)
Non-chemical weed control
186(1)
Non-chemical pest control
187(9)
Genetic modification
196(19)
Introduction
196(4)
Risks and benefits
200(9)
Herbicide-resistant corps
206(1)
Insect-resistant crops
206(3)
Assessing environmental risk
209(2)
The future for GMOs
211(4)
Policy strategies for reducing pollution
215(22)
Introduction
215(1)
The emergence of contemporary agri-environmental policy
215(3)
Agri-environment regulation 2078/92
216(2)
Rural development regulation 1297/1999
218(1)
Policy instruments, strategies and implementation
218(5)
Policy strategies
219(1)
Policy instruments
219(3)
Implementation and dissemination
222(1)
Learning from experience
223(8)
Policies for reducing niturate pollution
223(2)
Nitrate pollution control policies in the UK and Europe
225(2)
Policies for reducing pesticide pollution
227(1)
Pesticide reduction programmes in Europe
228(3)
Future directions
231(6)
Adoption of sustainable farming practices
231(2)
Legislative changes
233(4)
Author index 237(2)
Subject index 239

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