9780521560108

Agronomy of Grassland Systems

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521560108

  • ISBN10:

    0521560101

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1997-11-28
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Summary

The challenges facing grassland agronomists are becoming increasingly complex, with environmental and ethical issues assuming a greater significance alongside more conventional technical aspects. This new expanded edition, with an increased emphasis on systems thinking, has been revised to reflect current concerns, knowledge and practice. As such it addresses the need for a different approach to grassland agronomy, providing novel and provocative material to instruct, stimulate and enthuse the reader.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1. Overview: perspectives on grassland systems
1(17)
1.1. The social construction of grassland systems
2(2)
1.2. Grassland issues or problems
4(4)
1.3. Systems thinking
8(1)
1.4. Representing grassland systems
9(6)
1.4.1. Modelling
10(5)
1.5. Purposes of grassland systems
15(2)
1.6. Further reading
17(1)
2. The emergence of grassland systems
18(19)
2.1. Biological and ecological models that give rise to grassland systems
20(4)
2.1.1. Clementsian succession
20(1)
2.1.2. `New' thinking
21(2)
2.1.3. The origins of `range science'
23(1)
2.1.4. Traditional or `mainstream' approaches to grassland system development
23(1)
2.2. Technologies that reveal and conceal - a case study
24(4)
2.2.1. Increasing productivity
25(2)
2.2.2. Thirty to fifty years later
27(1)
2.2.3. Stepping outside our traditions
27(1)
2.2.4. Responsibility in technology design
28(1)
2.3. Present grassland systems
28(7)
2.3.1. Global distribution of grassland systems
28(2)
2.3.2. Animal industries
30(3)
2.3.3. Grassland plant domestication
33(2)
2.4. The agronomic manipulation of grassland systems
35(1)
2.5. Further reading
36(1)
3. Generation
37(23)
3.1. Sources of seed
37(5)
3.2. Sown seed
42(6)
3.2.1. Time, rate and depth of sowing
43(1)
3.2.2. Method of cultivation and sowing
44(1)
3.2.3. Nutrition and seed treatment
45(1)
3.2.4. Grazing
46(1)
3.2.5. Herbicides
47(1)
3.2.6. Burning
47(1)
3.3. Dynamics of the seed bank
48(5)
3.3.1. Seasonality of seed banks
48(1)
3.3.2. Dormant and active seed
49(4)
3.4. Germination
53(2)
3.5. Vegetative generation
55(1)
3.6. Systems modelling
56(3)
3.7. Further reading
59(1)
4. Vegetative growth
60(23)
4.1. Emergence
61(2)
4.1.1. Seedling type
62(1)
4.1.2. Seed size and genotype
62(1)
4.1.3. Seed bed
63(1)
4.2. Establishment
63(2)
4.3. Forms of development
65(4)
4.3.1. Apex position
65(1)
4.3.2. Leaves
65(2)
4.3.3. Branches or tillers
67(1)
4.3.4. Roots
68(1)
4.4. Growth
69(4)
4.4.1. Interception of Tradition
70(1)
4.4.2. Utilization of radiation
71(1)
4.4.3. Carbon balance
71(1)
4.4.4. Efficiency of net primary productivity
72(1)
4.5. Regrowth
73(1)
4.6. Environmental effects on growth
74(2)
4.6.1. Water availability
74(1)
4.6.2. Temperature
75(1)
4.6.3. Nutrition
75(1)
4.6.4. Fire
75(1)
4.7. Competition
76(2)
4.7.1. Thinning
76(1)
4.7.2. Competitiveness and growth rate
76(1)
4.7.3. Weeds
77(1)
4.7.4. Trees
77(1)
4.8. Grazing effects on growth and development
78(2)
4.9. Long-term changes in species composition
80(1)
4.10. Modelling plant growth
80(2)
4.11. Further reading
82(1)
5. Flowering and seed production
83(16)
5.1. Juvenility
83(1)
5.2. Morphological changes at flowering
84(1)
5.3. Flowering
85(4)
5.3.1. Environmental controls of flowering
85(3)
5.3.2. Autonomous flowering
88(1)
5.3.3. Development of the inflorescence
88(1)
5.4. Fertilization and seed formation
89(5)
5.4.1. Breeding systems
89(2)
5.4.2. Anthesis and fertilization
91(1)
5.4.3. Seed production
92(2)
5.5. Implications for grassland growth and management
94(3)
5.5.1. Flowering and growth rate
94(1)
5.5.2. Flowering and quality
95(1)
5.5.3. Selection of cultivars
95(1)
5.5.4. Sowing time
96(1)
5.5.5. Management by defoliation
96(1)
5.5.6. Fertilizer application
97(1)
5.5.7. Diseases and pests associated with flowering
97(1)
5.6. Systems modelling
97(1)
5.7. Further reading
98(1)
6. Mineral nutrition
99(20)
6.1. The nutrient network
99(3)
6.2. Soil fauna and flora
102(3)
6.2.1. Rhizosphere organisms
102(3)
6.3. Uptake by plants
105(2)
6.3.1. Uptake of inorganic nutrients
105(1)
6.3.2. Cation anion balance
105(1)
6.3.3. Soil acidification by legume pastures
106(1)
6.4. Distribution of nutrients within the plant
107(1)
6.5. Senescence and element release from dead material
107(3)
6.5.1. Herbage death
108(1)
6.5.2. Dung and urine
108(1)
6.5.3. Decomposition
108(2)
6.6. Animal intake
110(1)
6.7. Losses from the system
110(1)
6.8. Element deficiency and fertilizer needs
111(1)
6.9. Implications for grassland growth and management
112(5)
6.9.1. Pesticides and herbicides
112(1)
6.9.2. Types of N, P, K, S fertilizer
113(1)
6.9.3. Efficiency of utilization of fertilizer
114(1)
6.9.4. Amount of fertilizer required
114(2)
6.9.5. Timing of fertilizing
116(1)
6.9.6. Type and method of application of fertilizer
116(1)
6.9.7. Grassland maintenance and restoration
116(1)
6.10. Models for nutrient management
117(1)
6.11. Further reading
118(1)
7. Herbage quality and animal intake
119(21)
7.1. The basis of herbage quality
119(7)
7.1.1. Chemical composition
120(1)
7.1.2. Cell structure
121(1)
7.1.3. Variation among species
122(2)
7.1.4. Ageing
124(1)
7.1.5. Environment
125(1)
7.1.6. Palatibility and edibility
126(1)
7.2. Injurious substances
126(3)
7.3. Sward structure
129(1)
7.4. Herbage availability: grazing pressure
130(2)
7.5. Animal type and productivity
132(2)
7.5.1. Animal type
132(1)
7.5.2. Utilization of energy
133(1)
7.5.3. Intake and productivity
133(1)
7.6. Implications for management
134(5)
7.6.1. Production systems
134(4)
7.6.2. Research and development towards managing nutritive value
138(1)
7.7. Systems approaches
139(1)
7.8. Further reading
139(1)
8. Grassland - animal interactions and management
140(21)
8.1. Animal effects on grassland
140(3)
8.1.1. Selective grazing
140(1)
8.1.2. Pulling
141(1)
8.1.3. Treading and poaching
142(1)
8.1.4. Fouling
142(1)
8.2. Grazing management systems
143(6)
8.2.1. Production per animal and per area
143(2)
8.2.2. Herd experience, composition and timing of operations
145(1)
8.2.3. Grazing interval: set stocking and block grazing
146(2)
8.2.4. Regional grazing systems
148(1)
8.3. Conservation and supplementation
149(6)
8.3.1. Carryover feed
149(1)
8.3.2. Hay and silage
150(2)
8.3.3. Crop residues and by-products
152(1)
8.3.4. Fodder crops
153(1)
8.3.5. Supplements
154(1)
8.4. `Feed year' planning
155(2)
8.5. Efficiency of livestock production
157(2)
8.5.1. Energy budgeting
157(2)
8.5.2. Legume versus nitrogen-fertilized grass systems
159(1)
8.5.3. Efficiency of use of support energy
159(1)
8.6. Systems perspectives
159(1)
8.7. Further reading
160(1)
9. Grassland systems design
161(27)
9.1. Grasslands in farming systems
161(10)
9.1.1. Farming systems perspective
161(1)
9.1.2. Integration of grasslands and cropping
162(4)
9.1.3. Economic analysis
166(3)
9.1.4. Gender and culture
169(1)
9.1.5. Farm technology
170(1)
9.2. Grasslands and other forms of human activity
171(3)
9.2.1. Agro-industrial systems for using grassland plants
172(2)
9.2.2. Grasslands in aesthetics and conservation
174(1)
9.3. Design of future grassland systems
174(3)
9.3.1. Participation in designing
175(2)
9.3.2. Future scenarios
177(1)
9.4. Regional design
177(3)
9.5. National issues
180(3)
9.5.1. National purposes for grassland systems
180(2)
9.5.2. Grassland research
182(1)
9.6. Global design
183(3)
9.6.1. Human health and food supply
183(2)
9.6.2. Biodiversity
185(1)
9.6.3. Sustaining organic matter and nutrients
185(1)
9.6.4. Responding to climate change
186(1)
9.7. Conclusion
186(1)
9.8. Further reading
187(1)
References 188(30)
Index 218

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