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Air Pollution Control : A Design Approach,9781577662181
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Air Pollution Control : A Design Approach

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9781577662181

ISBN10:
1577662180
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Waveland Pr Inc
List Price: $94.95
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  • Air Pollution Control : A Design Approach
    Air Pollution Control : A Design Approach




Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition xvii
Preface to the Second Edition xix
An Overview
1(70)
Introduction
1(1)
Definitions and Types of Pollutants
2(4)
Pollutants of Global Concern
6(10)
Ozone Depletion
6(1)
Global Climate Change
7(3)
Sources of Global Climate Change
10(4)
What Can We Do?
14(2)
Legislative and Regulatory Trends in the United States
16(13)
Federal Legislation
16(5)
Federal Regulations and Standards
21(6)
The Permitting Process
27(2)
The Ideal Gas Law and Concentration Measurements in Gases
29(4)
Other Applications of the Ideal Gas Law
33(3)
Gas Flow Measurement
36(9)
Causes, Sources, and Effects
45(13)
Particulate Matter
46(4)
Sulfur Dioxide
50(1)
Nitrogen Oxides
51(2)
Photochemical Oxidaants and VOCs
53(1)
Carbon Monoxide
54(2)
An Air Pollution Index
56(2)
National Air Quality Trends
58(13)
Problems
63(4)
References
67(4)
What is Process Design?
71(28)
Introduction
71(2)
General Design Considerations
73(10)
Process Flow Sheets
73(2)
Material Balances and Energy Balances
75(5)
The Total Energy Equation for Steady-State Flow Systems
80(3)
Engineering Economics
83(6)
Optimizing Fixed Capital and Operating Costs
83(1)
Depreciation
84(3)
Incremental Rate of Return on Investments
87(1)
Comparison of Several Alternatives
88(1)
Payout Period
88(1)
Control Equipment Cost Estimation
89(3)
Equipment Costs
91(1)
Preliminary Fixed Capital Cost Estimates for Pollution Control Projects
92(2)
Annual Operating Cost Estimates
94(5)
Problems
95(3)
References
98(1)
Particulate Matter
99(24)
Introduction
99(1)
Characteristics of Particles
99(9)
Particulate Behavior in Fluids
108(9)
The Drag Force
108(4)
External Forces
112(1)
Gravitational Settling
112(3)
Collection of Particles by Impaction, Interception, and Diffusion
115(2)
Overview of Particulate Control Equipment
117(6)
Problems
120(2)
References
122(1)
Cyclones
123(24)
Introduction
123(3)
Standard Cyclone Dimensions
126(1)
Theory
126(3)
Collection Efficiency
126(3)
Design Considerations
129(11)
Collection Efficiency
129(5)
Pressure Drop
134(2)
Other Considerations
136(4)
Costs
140(7)
Problems
143(3)
References
146(1)
Electrostatic Precipitators
147(30)
Introduction
147(2)
Theory
149(5)
Design Considerations
154(15)
Plate Sizing
154(1)
Corona
155(1)
Particulate Resistivity
156(3)
Internal Configuration
159(5)
Plates and Wires
164(1)
Removal of Particle Dust
164(2)
Power Consumption
166(2)
Flue Gas Conditioning
168(1)
Costs
169(8)
Problems
171(3)
References
174(3)
Fabric Filters
177(32)
Introduction
177(1)
Theory
178(6)
Design Considerations
184(16)
Reverse-Air and Shaker Baghouses
184(10)
Pulse-Jet Baghouses
194(4)
Other Considerations
198(2)
Costs
200(9)
Problems
203(4)
References
207(2)
Particulate Scrubbers
209(30)
Introduction
209(8)
Spray-Chamber Scrubbers
209(2)
Cyclone Spray Chambers
211(1)
Orifice and Wet-Impingement Scrubbers
212(1)
Venturi and Venturi Jet Scrubbers
212(2)
Other Designs
214(1)
Typical Wet Scrubber Applications
215(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wet Scrubbers
215(2)
Theory and Design Considerations
217(11)
Spray Chambers
217(5)
Venturi Scrubbers
222(3)
Contacting Power Approach in Wet Scrubber Design
225(3)
Other Considerations
228(6)
Elimination of Liquid Entrainment
228(2)
Humidification of Scrubbed Gases
230(4)
Costs
234(5)
Problems
235(2)
References
237(2)
Auxiliary Equipment: Hoods, Ducts, Fans, and Coolers
239(52)
Introduction
239(1)
Hoods
239(4)
Ducts
243(11)
Fans
254(17)
Fan Curves
256(1)
Fan Laws
256(7)
Fan Rating Tables
263(1)
Fan Selection
263(8)
Cooling Hot Airstreams
271(6)
Air Dilution
271(1)
Water Injection
271(2)
Heat Exchange
273(4)
Costs
277(14)
Hoods
277(1)
Ducts
277(3)
Fans
280(6)
Coolers
286(2)
Problems
288(1)
References
289(2)
A Particulate Control Problem
291(16)
Introduction
291(1)
Problem Statement
292(1)
Options for Final Control
293(2)
Major Items of Equipment
295(8)
The Cooler
296(1)
The Cyclone
297(2)
Final Control Device---Alternative 1: Baghouse
299(1)
Final Control Device---Alternative 2: ESP
300(1)
Ductwork
301(1)
Induced Draft Fan
302(1)
Stack
303(1)
Summary
303(4)
References
305(2)
Properties of Gases and Vapors
307(14)
Introduction
307(1)
Vapor Pressure
308(3)
Diffusivities
311(1)
Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Equilibria
312(2)
Solubility
312(1)
Adsorption
313(1)
Chemical Reactions
314(7)
Kinetics
314(3)
Thermodynamics
317(2)
Problems
319(1)
References
320(1)
Voc Incinerators
321(40)
Introduction
321(2)
Theory
323(12)
Oxidation Chemistry
323(3)
The Three Ts
326(2)
Predicting VOC Kinetics
328(6)
Nonisothermal Nature of VOC Oxidation
334(1)
Catalytic Oxidation
334(1)
Design Considerations
335(17)
Thermal Oxidizers
335(7)
Catalytic Oxidizers
342(4)
Heat Recovery
346(4)
Flares
350(2)
Costs
352(9)
Purchased Equipment Costs
352(2)
Heat Exchangers
354(1)
Problems
355(3)
References
358(3)
Gas Adsorption
361(32)
Introduction
361(2)
Adsorption Theory
363(5)
Physical and Chemical Adsorption
363(1)
Adsorption Isotherms
363(3)
Adsorption Potential
366(1)
Experimental Determination of Isotherms
366(2)
Physical Properties of Adsorbents
368(2)
Activated Carbon
368(2)
Other Adsorbents
370(1)
Fixed-Bed Adsorption Systems
370(7)
Brakthrough Curves and Their Relationship to System Design
370(2)
Pressure Drop Across Fixed Beds
372(3)
Adsorbent Regeneration
375(1)
Safety Considerations
376(1)
Design of Fixed-Bed Carbon Adsorption Systems
377(6)
Economics of Fixed-Bed Adsorption Systems
383(4)
Capital Costs Estimates
383(1)
Adsorber Operating Costs
384(3)
Fluidzed-Bed Adsorbers
387(6)
Problems
389(2)
References
391(2)
Gas Absorption
393(36)
Introduction
393(1)
Gas Absorption Equipment
394(1)
Absorption Tower Design
394(25)
Mass Transfer Theory
394(5)
Mass Transfer in Packed Towers
399(8)
Absorption and Chemical Reaction
407(1)
Flooding, Pressure Drop, and Allowable Gas and Liquid Rates in Packed Towers
408(8)
Design Simplification for Lean Gas Applications
416(3)
Estimating the Cost of Absorption Towers
419(4)
Absorption Tower Operating Costs
421(2)
Sripping Operations
423(6)
Problems
424(3)
References
427(2)
Biological Control of VOCs and Odors
429(30)
Introduction
429(3)
Theory and Descriptive Information
432(10)
Key Considerations in the Design and Operation of Biofilters
442(17)
Design
442(4)
Operating Considerations
446(5)
Case Study
451(2)
Cost Estimation
453(2)
Problems
455(2)
References
457(2)
Control of Sulfur Oxides
459(34)
Introduction
459(1)
Overview of Control Strategies
460(13)
Fuel Desulfurization
461(2)
SO2 Removal Techniques
463(1)
Throwaway Processes
463(5)
Regenerative Processes
468(5)
Limestone Scrubbing
473(14)
Process Chemistry and Operational Factors
474(1)
SO2 Mass Transfer
475(2)
Physical Factors
477(1)
Material and Energy Balances
478(9)
Costs
487(6)
Problems
490(1)
References
491(2)
Control of Nitrogen Oxides
493(28)
Introduction
493(3)
Chemistry of NOx Formation
496(11)
Thermal NOx
496(7)
Fuel NOx
503(4)
NOx Control: Stationary Sources
507(9)
Combustion Modifications
507(4)
Flue Gas Treatment Techniques
511(5)
Costs
516(5)
Problems
517(1)
References
518(3)
A Vapor Control Problem
521(12)
Introduction
521(1)
Problem Statement
521(7)
Selecting a Design Flow Rate
528(2)
Carbon Adsorption System
530(1)
Thermal Incineration System
530(1)
Catalytic Incineration System
531(1)
Biofilter System
531(1)
Summary
532(1)
Mobile Sources: An Overview
533(36)
Introduction
533(2)
Magnitude of the Problem
535(5)
Characteristics of Engines in Mobile Sources
540(7)
Vehicle Emissions and Emission Controls
547(14)
Other Measures for Control of Air Pollution from Vehicles
561(8)
Problems
565(2)
References
567(2)
Air Pollution and Meteorlogy
569(38)
Introduction
569(1)
General Atmospheric Circulation Patterns
570(7)
Local Circulation Effects
577(1)
The Land-Sea Breeze
577(1)
Mountain-Valley Winds
578(1)
Wind Roses and Low-level Pollutant Dispersion Patterns
578(1)
Atmospheric Stability and Vertical Mixing
578(10)
The Hydrostatic Equation
580(1)
Adiabatic Heating and Cooling during Vertical Air Movement
581(2)
The Effect of Lapse Rate on Vertical Stability
583(1)
Temperature Inversions
584(4)
Photochemistry and Smog
588(13)
Causes of Photochemical Smog
589(4)
Anatomy of a Smog Episode
593(1)
The Chemistry of Photochemical Smog
594(1)
The Nitrogen Dioxide Photolytic Cycle
595(4)
The Effects of Smog
599(1)
The Control of Photochemical Smog
599(2)
Meteorology and Air Pollution
601(6)
Air Pollution Surveys
601(1)
Selection of Plant Sites
601(1)
Specification of Emission Rates
601(1)
Stack Design
602(1)
Problems
603(1)
References
604(3)
Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling
607(42)
Introduction
607(2)
A Physical Explanation of Dispersion
609(2)
The Gaussian Model
611(15)
Atmospheric Stability Classes
615(6)
The Dependence of Concentration on Averaging Time
621(1)
Estimating the Maximum Downwind Ground-Level Concentration
621(4)
Estimating the Downwind Concentration under an Elevated Inversion
625(1)
Tall Stacks and Plume Rise
626(11)
Design Procedures
627(1)
Plume Rise
628(4)
Critical Wind Speed
632(1)
Other Stack Design Considerations
633(3)
Stack Costs
636(1)
Computer Programs for Dispersion Modeling (Point Sources)
637(1)
Mobile Sources and Line Source Models
638(11)
Problems
643(3)
References
646(3)
Indoor Air Quality and Control
649(26)
Introduction
649(2)
Some Pollutants of Concern
651(6)
VOCs (including Formaldehyde)
652(2)
Inorganic Gases---Combustion Products
654(1)
Respirable Particles (including Tobacco Smoke)
655(1)
Randon
655(1)
Biological Contaminants (including Molds, Mildews, and Allergens)
656(1)
Source Control and Ventilation
657(3)
Source Control
657(1)
Ventilation
658(1)
Air Cleaning
659(1)
Material Balance Models for Indoor Air Quality
660(7)
Practical Solutions to IAQ Problems
667(3)
Case Studies
670(5)
Case 1: A Water Damaged Hotel
670(1)
Case 2: Another Case of Water Damage
671(1)
Problems
672(1)
References
673(2)
Appendixes 675(52)
Appendix A: Conversion Factors
676(3)
Appendix B: Properties of Air and Other Materials
679(17)
Appendix C: Some Properties of a Gaussian Distribution
696(4)
Appendix D: Computer Programs
700(6)
Appendix E: Practice Problems (with solutions) in Air Quality for the P.E. Examination in Environmental Engineering
706(16)
Appendix F: Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems
722(5)
Index 727


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