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Aircraft Systems Integration of Air-launched Weapons,9780470971185
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Aircraft Systems Integration of Air-launched Weapons

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780470971185

ISBN10:
0470971185
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/29/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $149.33

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Summary

From the earliest days of aviation where the pilot would drop simple bombs by hand, to the highly agile, stealthy aircraft of today that can deliver smart ordnance with extreme accuracy, engineers have striven to develop the capability to deliver weapons against targets reliably, safely and with precision. 

Aircraft Systems Integration of Air-Launched Weapons introduces the various aspects of weapons integration, primarily from the aircraft systems integration viewpoint, but also considers key parts of the weapon and the desired interactions with the aircraft required for successful target engagement. 

Key features:

  • Addresses the broad range of subjects that relate directly to the systems integration of air-launched weapons with aircraft, such as the integration process, system and subsystem architectures, the essential contribution that open, international standards have on improving interoperability and reducing integration costs and timescales
  • Describes the recent history of how industry and bodies such as NATO have driven the need for greater interoperability between weapons and aircraft and worked to reduce the cost and timescales associated with the systems integration of complex air-launched weapons with aircraft
  • Explores future initiatives and technologies relating to the reduction of systems integration costs and timescales

The systems integration of air-launched weapons with aircraft requires a multi-disciplinary set of engineering capabilities.  As a typical weapons integration life-cycle spans several years, new engineers have to learn the skills required by on-the-job training and working with experienced weapons integrators.  Aircraft Systems Integration of Air-Launched Weapons augments hands-on experience, thereby enabling the development of subject matter expertise more quickly and in a broader context than would be achieved by working through the life-cycle on one specific project.  This book also serves as a useful revision source for experienced engineers in the field.

Author Biography

Keith Rigby, Autonomous Systems, BAE Systems Military Air Solutions, UK
Keith Rigby is Chief Weapons Engineer – Autonomous Systems, BAE Systems Military Air Solutions. He has spent his entire career with BAE Systems, starting as a graduate in 1984 within Armament Control Systems & progressing to a senior management position on the Tornado GR4 engineering team. He then becoming Head of Weapons Control & Integration within the Air Systems business before assuming his current position in November 2008. During the last 25 years he has been involved in all aspects of the design, development and certification of armament systems and has been a key player in a number of weapon integration programmes including the weaponisation of unmanned systems. He is the author of the Weapons Integration chapter in the Encyclopaedia of Aerospace Engineering.

Table of Contents

Series Preface xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

List of Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction to Weapons Integration 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Chapter Summaries 2

1.2.1 The Systems Integration Process 2

1.2.2 Stores Management System Design 2

1.2.3 The Global Positioning System 3

1.2.4 Weapon Initialisation and Targeting 3

1.2.5 The Role of Standardisation in Weapons Integration 3

1.2.6 Interface Management 4

1.2.7 A Weapons Integration Scenario 4

1.2.8 ‘Plug and Play’ Weapons Integration 5

1.2.9 Weaponised Unmanned Air Systems 5

1.2.10 Reducing the Cost of Weapons Integration 6

1.3 Weapons 6

1.3.1 Types of Weapon 6

1.3.2 Targets 6

1.3.3 Weapon Requirements 7

1.3.4 Lethality 7

1.3.5 Precision 8

1.3.6 Stand-Off Range 10

1.3.7 Typical Weapon Configurations 11

1.3.8 Implications for the Launch Aircraft 11

1.4 Carriage Systems 14

1.4.1 Mechanical Attachments 14

1.4.2 Downward Ejection 14

1.4.3 Forward Firing 15

1.4.4 Multi-weapon Carriage Systems 15

Further Reading 16

2 An Introduction to the Integration Process 17

2.1 Chapter Summary 17

2.2 Introduction 17

2.3 The V-Diagram 18

2.4 Responsibilities 18

2.5 Safety 20

2.6 The Use of Requirements Management Tools in the Systems Engineering Process 24

2.7 Weapons Integration Requirements Capture 24

2.8 The Need for Unambiguous, Clear and Appropriate Requirements 26

2.9 Minimising Requirements 29

Further Reading 30

3 Requirements Analysis, Partitioning, Implementation in Aircraft Subsystems 31

3.1 Chapter Summary 31

3.2 Introduction 31

3.3 System Architecture 33

3.4 Requirements Decomposition 34

3.5 Requirements Partitioning 35

3.6 Subsystem Implementation 36

3.7 Maturity Reviews 37

3.8 Right-Hand Side of the V-Diagram 38

3.9 Proving Methods 38

3.10 Integration 41

3.11 Verification 42

3.12 Validation 42

3.13 The Safety Case and Certification 42

Further Reading 45

4 Armament Control System and Global Positioning System Design Issues 47

4.1 Chapter Summary 47

4.2 Stores Management System Design 48

4.2.1 SMS Design Requirements 48

4.2.2 Other System Components 50

4.2.3 Typical System Architectures 53

4.2.4 Training System 55

4.3 GPS: Aircraft System Design Issues 59

4.3.1 GPS Overview 59

4.3.2 Satellite Acquisition Concepts 64

4.3.3 Acquisition Strategies 65

4.3.4 GPS Signal Distribution 65

4.3.5 Aircraft Requirements 67

4.3.6 Aircraft Implementation Concepts 68

4.3.7 Cost of Complexity 70

Further Reading 70

5 Weapon Initialisation and Targeting 71

5.1 Chapter Summary 71

5.2 Targeting 71

5.3 Aiming of Ballistic Bombs 72

5.4 Aircraft/Weapon Alignment 73

5.5 Aiming of Smart Air-to-Ground Weapons 74

5.6 Air-to-Air Missiles 76

5.6.1 Sensors 76

5.6.2 Engagement Modes 77

5.6.3 Air-to-Air Weapons Training 78

Further Reading 79

6 Weapon Interface Standards 81

6.1 Chapter Summary 81

6.2 Benefits of Standardisation 81

6.3 MIL-STD-1760 AEIS 82

6.3.1 MIL-STD-1760 Interface Points 83

6.3.2 Connectors 83

6.3.3 Signal Sets 85

6.3.4 GPS RF Signal Distribution 85

6.3.5 Data Protocols 90

6.3.6 Data Entities 94

6.3.7 Time Tagging 94

6.3.8 Mass Data Transfer 95

6.3.9 High-Speed 1760 96

6.4 Standardisation Conclusions 96

Further Reading 97

7 Other Weapons Integration Standards 99

7.1 Chapter Summary 99

7.2 AS5725 Miniature Mission Store Interface 99

7.2.1 Interface Points 99

7.2.2 Connector 101

7.2.3 Signal Set 101

7.3 AS5726 Interface for Micro Munitions 103

7.3.1 Interface Points 103

7.3.2 Connectors 104

7.3.3 Signal Set 104

7.4 Other Weapons Integration Standards 106

7.4.1 Generic Aircraft–Store Interface Framework 106

7.4.2 Mission Data Exchange Format 108

7.4.3 Common Launch Acceptability Region Approach 109

Further Reading 110

8 Interface Management 111

8.1 Chapter Summary 111

8.2 Introduction 111

8.3 Management of the Aircraft/Store Interface 112

8.4 Approaches to Interface Documentation 114

8.5 Interfaces Documented in the ICD 115

8.6 Controlling the Interface of Store Variants 119

8.7 Information Exchange between Design Organisations 120

8.8 Process for Managing Integration Risk 120

Further Reading 124

9 A Weapons Integration Scenario 125

9.1 Chapter Summary 125

9.2 Introduction 125

9.3 The Weapons Integration Scenario 126

9.4 The V-Diagram Revisited 129

9.5 Systems Integration Activities 130

9.6 Safety 132

9.6.1 Aircraft/System Hazards 136

9.6.2 Weapon Hazards 139

9.7 Systems Requirements Decomposition, Design and Implementation 140

9.7.1 Weapon System Integration Requirement 140

9.7.2 Functional Definition and Development/Interface Definition 140

9.7.3 Weapon Interfacing 141

9.7.4 Data Flows between Aircraft Subsystems 143

9.8 Loading to Dispersion Sequence 143

9.8.1 Weapon Loading 145

9.8.2 System Power-Up/Store Discovery 145

9.8.3 Build Inventory 146

9.8.4 Weapon BIT/System Power-Down 147

9.8.5 Download Target Data/Power-Down Weapons 148

9.8.6 Taxi/Take-Off/On-Route Phase 149

9.8.7 Weapon Selection and Priming 149

9.8.8 Update Target Data 150

9.8.9 Steer to Target LAR/Confirm in LAR 151

9.8.10 Initiate Release Sequence 151

9.8.11 Weapon Release Phase 153

9.8.12 Selective/Emergency Jettison 154

9.8.13 Carriage Store Control 155

9.8.14 Training Capability 156

9.8.15 Implications of Aeromechanical Aspects – Weapon Physical Alignment 156

Further Reading 158

10 A Weapons Integration Scenario: System Proving and Certification 159

10.1 Chapter Summary 159

10.2 Introduction 159

10.3 Simulators and Emulators 160

10.4 Avionic Weapons 160

10.5 Interface Proving 160

10.6 Rig Trials 161

10.7 Avionic Trials 162

10.8 Electromagnetic Compatibility 162

10.9 Airworthiness and Certification 163

10.10 Declaration of Design and Performance/Statement of Design 164

10.11 Certificate of Design 164

10.12 Safety Case 165

10.13 Airworthiness Flight Limitations 165

10.14 Release to Service 165

10.15 User Documentation 165

10.16 Weapon System Evaluation 166

10.17 Conclusion 167

Further Reading 167

11 Introduction to ‘Plug and Play’ Weapons Integration 169

11.1 Chapter Summary 169

11.2 Systems Integration Considerations 169

11.3 The Journey to ‘Plug and Play’ Weapons Integration 171

11.4 ‘Plug and Play’ Technologies 172

11.5 Adoption of ‘Plug and Play’ Technology 172

11.6 Introduction to Aircraft, Launcher and Weapons Interoperability 173

11.7 ALWI Study 174

11.8 ALWI-2 Study 176

11.9 ALWI Common Interface Study 179

11.9.1 Technical Architecture 180

11.9.2 Greater Interoperability through a Common ICD Approach 181

11.9.3 Common Store Control Service 181

11.9.4 Model-Driven Architecture Approach 183

11.9.5 Implementation Considerations 185

11.10 ALWI Conclusions 186

Further Reading 187

12 Open Systems 189

12.1 Chapter Summary 189

12.2 Introduction 189

12.3 The Contracting and Industry Environment 190

12.4 Current Systems 191

12.5 A Typical Mission Systems Upgrade Programme 192

12.6 ASAAC Architecture 193

12.7 ASAAC and ‘Plug and Play’ 195

12.8 Certification Issues 198

12.9 Easing the Upgrade Programme 200

Further Reading 201

13 The Universal Armament Interface 203

13.1 Chapter Summary 203

13.2 Introduction 203

13.3 Objectives of UAI 204

13.4 Fundamental Principles of UAI 207

13.5 Platform/Store Interface 209

13.6 Mission Planning 210

13.7 Launch Acceptability Region 211

13.8 Integration Work Flow 211

13.9 UAI Interface Management 213

13.10 Certification Tools 214

13.11 Benefits 215

13.12 NATO UAI 216

13.13 ‘Plug and Play’ Conclusions 216

Further Reading 217

14 Weaponised Unmanned Air Systems 219

14.1 Chapter Summary 219

14.2 Introduction 219

14.3 Distributed Weapon System 220

14.4 System Architecture Partitioning 222

14.5 Conclusions 226

Further Reading 226

15 Reducing the Cost of Weapons Integration 227

15.1 Chapter Summary 227

15.2 Introduction 227

15.3 The Cost Landscape 229

15.4 Reducing the Cost of Weapons Integration – Other Initiatives 231

15.4.1 Streamlined Integration Processes 232

15.4.2 Common Goals for the ADO and WDO 232

15.4.3 Employment of New Technology Which Eases Integration 233

15.4.4 The Need for Exports 233

15.4.5 Spiral Introduction of Capability 234

15.4.6 Organisational Re-structuring 234

15.4.7 Adoption of International Standards 234

15.5 Conclusions 234

15.6 The Future 236

Further Reading 237

Index 239



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