9780716769019

For All Practical Purposes (Paper): Mathematical Literacy in Today's World

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780716769019

  • ISBN10:

    0716769018

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-11-05
  • Publisher: W. H. Freeman

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Summary

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART I MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
1(176)
Urban Services
3(33)
Euler Circuits
3(5)
Spotlight 1.1: Leonhard Euler
7(1)
Spotlight 1.2: The Human Aspect of Problem Solving
8(1)
Finding Euler Circuits
8(4)
Beyond Euler Circuits
12(7)
Urban Graph Traversal Problems
19(17)
Spotlight 1.3: Israel Electric Company Reduces Meter-Reading Task
20(2)
Review Vocabulary
22(1)
Skills Check
22(3)
Exercises
25(9)
Applet Exercises
34(1)
Writing Projects
34(1)
Suggested Readings
34(1)
Suggested Web Sites
35(1)
Business Efficiency
36(44)
Hamiltonian Circuits
37(6)
Traveling Salesman Problem
43(1)
Helping Traveling Salesmen
44(11)
Spotlight 2.1: NP-Complete Problems
48(5)
Spotlight 2.2: AT&T Manager Explains How Long-Distance Calls Run Smoothly
53(1)
Spotlight 2.3: Common Ancestors?
54(1)
Critical-Path Analysis
55(25)
Spotlight 2.4: Every Moment Counts in Rigorous Airline Scheduling
60(1)
Review Vocabulary
60(1)
Skills Check
61(3)
Exercises
64(13)
Applet Exercises
77(1)
Writing Projects
78(1)
Suggested Readings
78(1)
Suggested Web Sites
79(1)
Planning and Scheduling
80(44)
Scheduling Tasks
80(9)
Critical-Path Schedules
89(5)
Spotlight 3.1: Management Science and Disaster Recovery
91(3)
Independent Tasks
94(3)
Bin Packing
97(5)
Spotlight 3.2: Using Mathematical Tools
101(1)
Resolving Conflict via Coloring
102(22)
Spotlight 3.3: Scheduling Job Interviews
106(1)
Review Vocabulary
107(1)
Skills Check
108(2)
Exercises
110(12)
Applet Exercises
122(1)
Writing Projects
122(1)
Suggested Readings
123(1)
Suggested Web Sites
123(1)
Linear Programming
124(53)
Mixture Problems: Combining Resources to Maximize Profit
126(8)
Spotlight 4.1: Case Studies in Linear Programming
127(7)
Finding the Optimal Production Policy
134(8)
Why the Corner Point Principle Works
142(4)
Linear Programming: Life Is Complicated
146(4)
Spotlight 4.2: Father of Linear Programming Recalls Its Origins
147(3)
Spotlight 4.3: Finding Fast Algorithms Means Better Airline Service
150(1)
A Transportation Problem: Delivering Perishables
150(11)
Improving on the Current Solution
161(16)
Review Vocabulary
163(1)
Skills Check
164(3)
Exercises
167(8)
Writing Projects
175(1)
Suggested Readings
175(1)
Suggested Web Sites
175(2)
PART II STATISTICS: THE SCIENCE OF DATA
177(160)
Exploring Data: Distributions
179(43)
Displaying Distributions: Histograms
181(2)
Interpreting Histograms
183(3)
Displaying Distributions: Stemplots
186(2)
Describing Center: Mean and Median
188(4)
Spotlight 5.1: Think!
191(1)
Describing Spread: The Quartiles
192(1)
The Five-Number Summary and Boxplots
193(2)
Describing Spread: The Standard Deviation
195(3)
Normal Distributions
198(7)
Spotlight 5.2: Density Estimation
204(1)
The 68--95--99.7 Rule
205(17)
Review Vocabulary
207(1)
Skills Check
208(2)
Exercises
210(9)
Applet Exercises
219(1)
Writing Projects
220(1)
Suggested Readings
220(1)
Suggested Web Sites
221(1)
Exploring Data: Relationships
222(32)
Displaying Relationships: Scatterplots
223(3)
Regression Lines
226(2)
Correlation
228(4)
Spotlight 6.1: Scatterplot Smoothers
229(3)
Least-Squares Regression
232(3)
Spotlight 6.2: Regression in Action
232(3)
Interpreting Correlation and Regression
235(19)
Review Vocabulary
239(1)
Skills Check
240(2)
Exercises
242(9)
Applet Exercises
251(1)
Writing Projects
252(1)
Suggested Readings
252(1)
Suggested Web Sites
253(1)
Data for Decisions
254(42)
Sampling
255(1)
Bad Sampling Methods
256(1)
Simple Random Samples
257(6)
Spotlight 7.1: Is It Really Random?
259(4)
Cautions About Sample Surveys
263(1)
Experiments
264(4)
Thinking About Experiments
268(2)
Inference: From Sample to Population
270(6)
Confidence Intervals
276(20)
Spotlight 7.2: How Accurate Is Our Poll?
280(1)
Review Vocabulary
281(2)
Skills Check
283(2)
Exercises
285(8)
Applet Exercises
293(1)
Writing Projects
294(1)
Suggested Readings
295(1)
Suggested Web Sites
295(1)
Probability: The Mathematics of Chance
296(41)
Probability Models and Rules
297(7)
Spotlight 8.1: Probability and Risk
302(2)
Discrete Probability Models
304(1)
Equally Likely Outcomes
305(4)
Continuous Probability Models
309(3)
The Mean and Standard Deviation of a Probability Model
312(4)
The Central Limit Theorem
316(21)
Spotlight 8.2: Cancer Clusters
317(6)
Review Vocabulary
323(1)
Skills Check
324(2)
Exercises
326(8)
Applet Exercises
334(1)
Writing Projects
335(1)
Suggested Readings
335(1)
Suggested Web Sites
335(2)
PART III VOTING AND SOCIAL CHOICE
337(136)
Social Choice: The Impossible Dream
339(30)
Majority Rule and Condorcet's Method
341(4)
Spotlight 9.1: The Historical Record
344(1)
Other Voting Systems for Three or More Candidates
345(11)
Insurmountable Difficulties: Arrow's Impossibility Theorem
356(3)
Spotlight 9.2: Kenneth J. Arrow
357(2)
A Better Approach? Approval Voting
359(10)
Review Vocabulary
361(1)
Skills Check
362(2)
Exercises
364(4)
Writing Projects
368(1)
Suggested Readings
368(1)
The Manipulability of Voting Systems
369(21)
Majority Rule and Condorcet's Method
373(2)
Other Voting Systems for Three or More Candidates
375(5)
Impossibility
380(2)
The Chair's Paradox
382(8)
Review Vocabulary
384(1)
Skills Check
384(2)
Exercises
386(3)
Writing Projects
389(1)
Suggested Readings
389(1)
Weighted Voting Systems
390(41)
Spotlight 11.1: The Electoral College
392(2)
Spotlight 11.2: Power Indices
394(1)
The Shapley--Shubik Power Index
394(8)
The Banzhaf Power Index
402(14)
Spotlight 11.3: A Mathematical Quagmire
405(10)
Spotlight 11.4: The Electoral College: Presidential Elections of 2004 and 2008
415(1)
Comparing Voting Systems
416(15)
Review Vocabulary
421(2)
Skills Check
423(1)
Exercises
424(5)
Writing Projects
429(1)
Suggested Readings
430(1)
Electing the President
431(42)
Spatial Models for Two-Candidate Elections
433(9)
Spatial Models for Multicandidate Elections
442(5)
Winnowing the Field
447(1)
What Drives Candidates Out?
448(3)
Election Reform: Approval Voting
451(3)
The Electoral College
454(8)
Is There a Better Way to Elect a President?
462(11)
Review Vocabulary
463(2)
Skills Check
465(1)
Exercises
466(5)
Writing Projects
471(1)
Suggested Readings
472(1)
Suggested Web Sites
472(1)
PART IV FAIRNESS AND GAME THEORY
473(118)
Fair Division
475(29)
The Adjusted Winner Procedure
476(4)
The Knaster Inheritance Procedure
480(2)
Taking Turns
482(3)
Divide-and-Choose
485(1)
Cake-Division Procedures: Proportionality
486(4)
Spotlight 13.1: Sixty Years of Cake Cutting
488(2)
Cake-Division Procedures: The Problem of Envy
490(14)
Review Vocabulary
493(1)
Skills Check
494(3)
Exercises
497(5)
Writing Projects
502(1)
Suggested Readings
503(1)
Apportionment
504(38)
The Apportionment Problem
504(5)
The Hamilton Method
509(5)
Divisor Methods
514(11)
Which Divisor Method is Best?
525(17)
Spotlight 14.1: A Legal Challenge to Apportionment
526(4)
Spotlight 14.2: Mathematics and Politics: A Strange Mixture
530(1)
Review Vocabulary
531(2)
Skills Check
533(1)
Exercises
534(6)
Applet Exercises
540(1)
Writing Projects
540(1)
Suggested Readings
541(1)
Suggested Web Sites
541(1)
Game Theory: The Mathematics of Competition
542(49)
Spotlight 15.1: The Early History of Game Theory
543(1)
Two-Person Total-Conflict Games: Pure Strategies
544(6)
Two-Person Total-Conflict Games: Mixed Strategies
550(10)
Partial-Conflict Games
560(8)
Spotlight 15.2: The 1994 Nobel Prize in Economics
567(1)
Larger Games
568(7)
Using Game Theory
575(16)
Review Vocabulary
580(1)
Skills Check
581(3)
Exercises
584(4)
Applet Exercises
588(1)
Writing Projects
588(1)
Suggested Readings
589(1)
Suggested Web Sites
589(2)
PART V THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION
591(70)
Identification Numbers
593(26)
Check Digits
593(8)
Spotlight 16.1: Bank Checks
596(3)
Spotlight 16.2: German Banknotes
599(1)
Spotlight 16.3: The VIN System
600(1)
The ZIP Code
601(2)
Bar Codes
603(5)
Encoding Personal Data
608(11)
Spotlight 16.4: Social Security Numbers
609(2)
Review Vocabulary
611(1)
Skills Check
612(1)
Exercises
613(5)
Writing Projects
618(1)
Suggested Readings
618(1)
Suggested Web Sites
618(1)
Information Science
619(42)
Binary Codes
619(4)
Spotlight 17.1: The Ubiquitous Reed--Solomon Codes
621(1)
Spotlight 17.2: Vera Pless
622(1)
Encoding with Parity-Check Sums
623(11)
Spotlight 17.3: Neil Sloane
624(8)
Spotlight 17.4: David Huffman
632(2)
Cryptography
634(10)
Spotlight 17.5: Modeling the Genetic Code
636(3)
Spotlight 17.6: Adventure of the Dancing Men
639(5)
Web Searches and Mathematical Logic
644(17)
Spotlight 17.7: The Network Structure of the Internet
644(3)
Spotlight 17.8: Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon
647(5)
Review Vocabulary
652(1)
Skills Check
653(1)
Exercises
654(5)
Writing Projects
659(1)
Suggested Readings
659(1)
Suggested Web Sites
659(2)
PART VI ON SIZE AND GROWTH
661(132)
Growth and Form
663(46)
Geometric Similarity
664(5)
How Much Is That in...?
669(3)
Scaling a Mountain
672(6)
Spotlight 18.1: A Mile-High Building?
675(3)
Sorry, No King Kongs
678(2)
Spotlight 18.2: Galileo and the Problem of Scale
679(1)
Dimension Tension
680(8)
Spotlight 18.3: ``Take That, King Richard!''
684(4)
How to Grow
688(21)
Spotlight 18.4: Helping to Find Missing Children
690(4)
Review Vocabulary
694(1)
Skills Check
695(1)
Exercises
696(10)
Writing Projects
706(2)
Suggested Readings
708(1)
Suggested Web Sites
708(1)
Symmetry and Patterns
709(46)
Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Ratio
710(7)
Spotlight 19.1: Leonardo of Pisa (``Fibonacci'')
711(2)
Spotlight 19.2: How the Greeks Constructed a Golden Rectangle
713(2)
Spotlight 19.3: The Consumer Price Index: An Application of the Geometric Mean
715(2)
Symmetries Preserve the Pattern
717(3)
Rosette, Strip, and Wallpaper Patterns
720(5)
Spotlight 19.4: ``Strive Then to Be Perfect''
721(2)
Spotlight 19.5: Patterns Created by the Bakuba People
723(2)
Notation for Patterns
725(6)
Spotlight 19.6: The 17 Wallpaper Patterns
726(5)
Symmetry Groups
731(4)
Fractal Patterns and Chaos
735(20)
Spotlight 19.7: The Father of Fractals
739(1)
Review Vocabulary
740(1)
Skills Check
741(2)
Exercises
743(10)
Writing Projects
753(1)
Suggested Readings
753(1)
Suggested Web Sites
754(1)
Tilings
755(38)
Tilings with Regular Polygons
756(5)
Spotlight 20:1 Regular Polyhedra and Buckyballs
758(3)
Tilings with Irregular Polygons
761(5)
Spotlight 20.2: In Praise of Amateurs
765(1)
Using Translations
766(3)
Using Translations Plus Half-Turns
769(5)
Nonperiodic Tilings
774(19)
Spotlight 20.3: Sir Roger Penrose
776(6)
Spotlight 20.4: Quasicrystals
782(1)
Review Vocabulary
783(1)
Skills Check
784(1)
Exercises
785(6)
Writing Projects
791(1)
Suggested Readings
791(1)
Suggested Web Sites
791(2)
PART VII YOUR MONEY AND RESOURCES
793
Savings Models
795(39)
Arithmetic Growth and Simple Interest
795(2)
Geometric Growth and Compound Interest
797(8)
Spotlight 21.1: Thomas Robert Malthus
805(1)
A Limit to Compounding
805(4)
Spotlight 21.2: The Number e
807(2)
A Model for Investment
809(4)
Exponential Decay and the Consumer Price Index
813(4)
Real Growth and Valuing Investments
817(17)
Spotlight 21.3: Nobel Prize for a Model in Economics
821(1)
Review Vocabulary
822(1)
Skills Check
823(1)
Exercises
824(8)
Applet Exercises
832(1)
Writing Projects
832(1)
Suggested Readings
833(1)
Suggested Web Sites
833(1)
Borrowing Models
834(25)
Simple Interest
834(2)
Compound Interest
836(3)
Conventional Loans
839(8)
Spotlight 22.1: What's the Real Rate?
840(6)
Spotlight 22.2: What We Did with Our House, and What Else You Could Do
846(1)
Annuities
847(12)
Spotlight 22.3: What Actuaries Do
849(1)
Review Vocabulary
850(1)
Skills Check
850(2)
Exercises
852(5)
Applet Exercises
857(1)
Writing Projects
857(1)
Suggested Readings
858(1)
Suggested Web Sites
858(1)
The Economics of Resources
859
Growth Models for Biological Populations
860(5)
Spotlight 23.1: 12 Billion by 2050--or Only 9 Billion?
863(2)
How Long Can a Nonrenewable Resource Last?
865(5)
Sustaining Renewable Resources
870(6)
The Economics of Harvesting Resources
876(5)
Spotlight 23.2: The Tragedy of Easter Island
879(2)
Dynamical Systems and Chaos
881
Review Vocabulary
885(1)
Skills Check
886(1)
Exercises
887(6)
Writing Projects
893(1)
Suggested Readings
894(1)
Suggested Web Sites
894
Answers to Skills Check Exercises 1(1)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 1(1)
Index 1

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