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The Allyn & Bacon Guide To Writing

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Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780321291509

ISBN10:
0321291506
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Longman
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Summary

The most successful college rhetoric published in over a decade, The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing offers the most progressive and teachable introduction now available to academic and personal writing. The four-color guide offers engaging instruction in rhetoric and composition, a flexible sequence of comprehensive writing assignments, numerous examples of student and professional writing, and thorough guides to research and editing. Solidly grounded in current theory and research, yet eminently practical and teachable, The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing has set the new standard for first-year composition courses in writing, reading, critical thinking, and inquiry.

Table of Contents

Writing Projects xxv
Thematic Contents xxvii
Preface xxxv
PART ONE A Rhetoric for College Writers
2(92)
Posing Problems: The Demands of College Writing
5(22)
Why Take a Writing Course?
6(1)
Subject-Matter Problems: The Starting Point of Writing
7(8)
Shared Problems Unite Writers and Readers
7(1)
Posing a Problem: A Case Study of a Beginning College Writer
8(1)
Posing Your Own Subject-Matter Questions
9(2)
Characteristics of Good Subject-Matter Questions
11(4)
Rhetorical Problems: Reaching Readers Effectively
15(1)
An Example of a Rhetorical Problem: When to Choose Closed Versus Open Forms
16(6)
Readings
17(1)
David Rockwood, ``A Letter to the Editor''
17(1)
Thomas Merton, ``A Festival of Rain''
18(1)
Distinctions between Closed and Open Forms of Writing
19(1)
Where to Place Your Writing along the Continuum
20(2)
Chapter Summary
22(5)
Brief Writing Project
22(1)
Readings
23(1)
Noel Gaudette (student), ``Questions about Genetically Modified Foods''
23(1)
Brittany Tinker (student), ``Can the World Sustain an American Standard of Living?''
23(1)
Showing Why Your Question Is Problematic and Significant (Option 2)
24(2)
Planning Your Essay
26(1)
Exploring Problems, Making Claims
27(20)
What Does a Professor Want?
28(2)
Learning to Wallow in Complexity
28(2)
Seeing Each Academic Discipline as a Field of Inquiry and Argument
30(1)
Posing an Engaging Question
30(4)
How a Prototypical Introduction Poses a Question and Proposes an Answer
32(2)
Seeking a Surprising Thesis
34(4)
Try to Change Your Reader's View of Your Subject
35(1)
Give Your Thesis Tension
36(2)
Supporting Your Thesis with Points and Particulars
38(3)
How Points Convert Information to Meaning
39(1)
How Removing Particulars Creates a Summary
40(1)
How to Use Points and Particulars When You Revise
41(1)
Chapter Summary
41(6)
Brief Writing Project
41(1)
Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
42(1)
Reading
42(1)
Anonymous (student), ``Believing and Doubting Paul Theroux's Negative View of Sports''
43(1)
Option 1: Energy Issues
44(2)
Option 2: Other Issues
46(1)
Thinking Rhetorically about Purpose, Audience, and Genre
47(26)
How Writers Think about Purpose
48(4)
Purpose as Rhetorical Aim
48(1)
Purpose as a Response to a Motivating Occasion
48(3)
Purpose as a Desire to Change Your Reader's View
51(1)
How Writers Think about Audience
52(2)
Assessing Your Audience
53(1)
How Writers Think about Genre
54(2)
Rhetorical Context and Your Choices about Structure
56(1)
Rhetorical Context and Your Choices about Style
57(3)
Factors That Affect Style
57(1)
Recognizing Different Styles and Voices
57(3)
Rhetorical Context and Your Choices along the Scale of Abstraction
60(2)
Rhetorical Context and Your Choices about Document Design
62(7)
Key Components of Document Design
63(2)
Examples of Different Document Designs
65(4)
A Generic Rhetorical Context for College Writing
69(1)
What Do We Mean by a ``Default'' or ``Generic'' Rhetorical Context?
69(1)
Assignments That Specify Different Rhetorical Contexts
70(1)
Chapter Summary
70(3)
Brief Writing Project
70(3)
Thinking Rhetorically about How Messages Persuade
73(21)
A Brief Introduction to Rhetorical Theory
74(4)
Rhetoric and Symbolic Action
75(1)
Inducing Cooperation: Rhetoric as Inquiry and Persuasion
76(2)
Persuasion and Power
78(1)
The Appeals to Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
78(2)
Angle of Vision
80(5)
Recognizing the Angle of Vision in a Text
80(4)
Analyzing Angle of Vision
84(1)
Thinking Rhetorically about Any Cultural ``Text''
85(5)
Visual Rhetoric
85(3)
The Rhetoric of Clothing and Other Consumer Items
88(2)
Chapter Summary
90(4)
Brief Writing Project
91(1)
Background and Readings
91(3)
PART TWO Writing Projects
94(410)
WRITING TO LEARN
Seeing Rhetorically: The Writer as Observer
97(20)
About Seeing Rhetorically
97(1)
Exploring Rhetorical Observation
97(5)
Exhibit 1: Web Page of the Arctic Power Advocacy Group
98(1)
Exhibit 2: Photograph from a Pro-Environment Newspaper Op Ed Piece
99(1)
Exhibit 3: Photograph Juxtaposing Alaskan Wildlife and Industry
99(1)
Exhibit 4: Photograph and Description on the Arctic Power Web Site
100(1)
Exhibit 5: Excerpt from a Newspaper Feature Article
100(1)
Analyzing the Exhibits
101(1)
Writing Project
101(1)
Understanding Observational Writing
102(8)
Considering the Factors That Shape Perception
103(2)
Conducting a Simple Rhetorical Analysis
105(3)
Readings
108(1)
``Clash on the Congo: Two Eye Witness Accounts''
108(2)
Composing Your Essay
110(5)
Exploring Rationales and Details for Your Two Descriptions
110(1)
Generating Details
111(1)
Shaping and Drafting Your Two Descriptions
111(1)
Using Show Words Rather than Tell Words
112(1)
Revising Your Two Descriptions
113(1)
Generating and Exploring Ideas for Your Self-Reflection
114(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
115(2)
Reading Rhetorically: The Writer as Strong Reader
117(50)
About Reading Rhetorically
117(1)
Exploring Rhetorical Reading
117(5)
Reading
118(1)
Andres Martin, ``On Teenagers and Tattoos''
118(4)
Writing Project
122(1)
Understanding Rhetorical Reading
122(4)
What Makes College-Level Reading Difficult?
123(1)
Using the Reading Strategies of Experts
124(1)
Reading With the Grain and Against the Grain
125(1)
Understanding Summary Writing
126(5)
Reading for Structure and Content
126(5)
Understanding Strong Response Writing
131(31)
Kinds of Strong Responses
131(1)
Student Example of a Summary/Strong Response Essay: Sean Barry, ``Why Do Teenagers Get Tattoos? A Response to Andres Martin''
132(2)
Questions for Analyzing and Critiquing a Text
134(3)
Questions for Analyzing and Critiquing a Visual-Verbal Text
137(2)
Questions for Developing Your Own Views about the Text's Subject Matter
139(2)
Rereading Strategies to Stimulate Thinking for a Strong Response
141(3)
Readings
144(1)
Florence King, ``I'd Rather Smoke than Kiss''
144(6)
Lyndon Haviland, ``A Silence That Kills''
150(4)
Gasp Consultancy, Ltd., ``Steps to Stopping Smoking''
154(2)
Adbusters.org, ``Welcome to Malboro Country''
156(1)
Edward Abbey, ``The Damnation of a Canyon''
157(4)
Friends of Lake Powell, Home Page
161(1)
Composing Your Summary/Strong Response Essay
162(3)
Generating and Exploring Ideas for Your Summary
162(1)
Shaping, Drafting, and Revising Your Summary
162(1)
Generating and Exploring Ideas for Your Strong Response
163(1)
Writing a Thesis for a Strong Response Essay
164(1)
Revising Your Strong Response
164(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
165(2)
WRITING TO EXPRESS
Writing an Autobiographical Narrative
167(24)
About Autobiographical Narrative
167(1)
Exploring Autobiographical Narrative
168(2)
Writing Project
169(1)
Understanding Autobiographical Writing
170(16)
Autobiographical Tension: The Opposition of Contraries
170(1)
Using the Elements of Literary Narrative to Generate Ideas
170(6)
Readings
176(1)
Kris Saknussemm, ``Phantom Limb Pain''
176(2)
Patrick Jose (student), ``No Cats in America?''
178(3)
Anonymous (student), ``Masks''
181(3)
Sheila Madden, ``Letting Go of Bart''
184(2)
Composing Your Essay
186(3)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
187(1)
Shaping and Drafting
188(1)
Revising
188(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
189(2)
WRITING TO EXPLORE
Writing an Exploratory Essay
191(28)
About Exploratory Writing
191(1)
Exploring Exploratory Writing
192(2)
Writing Project
194(1)
Understanding Exploratory Writing
194(15)
The Essence of Exploratory Prose: Considering Multiple Solutions
195(2)
Readings
197(1)
Christopher Leigh (student), ``An Exploration of How to Prevent Violence in Schools''
197(5)
Dylan Fujitani (student), ``Hired Guns: Uncovering the Nature of Private Militaries in the Iraq War''
202(7)
Composing Your Exploratory Essay
209(7)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
209(3)
Continuing with Research and Dialectic Thinking
212(1)
Shaping and Drafting
213(2)
Revising
215(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
216(3)
WRITING TO INFORM
Writing an Informative (and Surprising) Essay
219(28)
About Informative (and Surprising) Writing
219(2)
Informative Writing and the Audience's Reasons for Reading
219(1)
The Rhetorical Power of ``Surprising Reversal''
220(1)
Exploring Informative (and Surprising) Writing
221(4)
Readings
221(1)
EnchantedLearning.com, ``Tarantulas''
221(1)
Rod Crawford, ``Myths about `Dangerous' Spiders''
222(2)
Writing Project
224(1)
Understanding Informative (and Surprising) Writing
225(14)
Informative Reports
225(1)
Informative Writing Using Surprising Reversal
226(2)
Readings
228(1)
New York Times, ``Growing More Oil Dependent, One Vehicle at a Time''
228(2)
Kerri Ann Matsumoto (student), ``How Much Does It Cost to Go Organic?''
230(1)
Cheryl Carp (student), ``Behind Stone Walls''
231(2)
Shannon King (student), ``How Clean and Green Are Fuel-Cell Cars?''
233(3)
Jonathan Rauch, ``Coming to America''
236(3)
Composing Your Essay---Option A, Informative Report
239(1)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
239(1)
Shaping and Drafting
239(1)
Revising
240(1)
Composing Your Essay---Option B, Informative Writing Using Surprising Reversal
240(4)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
241(1)
Shaping and Drafting
242(2)
Revising
244(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
244(3)
WRITING TO ANALYZE AND SYNTHESIZE
Analyzing Field Research Data from Observation, Interviews, or Questionnaires
247(46)
About Analyzing Field Research Data
247(1)
Exploring the Analysis of Field Research Data
247(2)
Writing Project
248(1)
Understanding the Analysis of Field Research Data
249(41)
The Structure of an Empirical Research Report
249(2)
How Readers Typically Read a Research Report
251(1)
Posing Your Research Question
252(3)
Collecting Data Through Observation, Interviews, or Questionnaires
255(6)
Reporting Your Results in Words and Graphics
261(4)
Analyzing Your Results
265(4)
Following Ethical Standards
269(1)
Readings
270(1)
Gina Escamilla, Angie L. Cradock, and Ichiro Kawachi, ``Women and Smoking in Hollywood Movies: A Content Analysis''
271(6)
Brittany Tinker, Trevor Tsuchikawa, and Tatiana Whizar (students), ``Energy Literacy: A Comparative Study of Seattle University Students Against a National Sample'' (APA-Style Research Paper)
277(13)
Composing Your Research Report
290(1)
Writing in Teams
290(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
290(3)
Analyzing Images
293(34)
About Analyzing Images
293(2)
Exploring Image Analysis
295(2)
Writing Project
296(1)
Understanding Image Analysis
297(27)
How Images Create a Rhetorical Effect
297(6)
How to Analyze an Advertisement
303(1)
How Advertisers Target Specific Audiences
304(2)
Sample Analysis of an Advertisement
306(3)
Cultural Perspectives on Advertisements
309(6)
Readings
315(1)
Paul Messaris, from Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising
315(5)
Stephen Bean (student), ``How Cigarette Advertisers Address the Stigma Against Smoking: A Tale of Two Ads''
320(4)
Composing Your Essay
324(1)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
324(1)
Shaping and Drafting
324(1)
Revising
325(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
325(2)
Analyzing a Short Story
327(30)
About Literary Analysis
327(1)
Exploring Literary Analysis
328(3)
Reading
328(1)
Evelyn Dahl Reed, ``The Medicine Man''
328(1)
Writing Project
329(1)
Essay Assignment
330(1)
Reading Log Assignment
330(1)
Understanding Literary Analysis
331(21)
The Truth of Literary Events
331(1)
Reading the Story
332(1)
Writing (about) Literature
333(5)
Readings
338(1)
Alice Walker, ``Everyday Use (For Your Grandmama)''
338(7)
David Updike, ``Summer''
345(4)
Betsy Weiler (student), ``Who Do You Want to Be? Finding Heritage in Walker's `Everyday Use'''
349(3)
Composing Your Essay
352(3)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
352(2)
Shaping and Drafting
354(1)
Revising
354(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
355(2)
Analyzing and Synthesizing Ideas
357(34)
About the Analysis and Synthesis of Ideas
357(2)
Exploring the Analysis and Synthesis of Ideas
359(7)
Readings
359(1)
John Gallagher, ``Young Entrepreneurs' Disdain for Time Off''
359(2)
Keith Goetzman, ``The Late, Great Outdoors''
361(2)
Writing Project
363(1)
Suggested Ideas for Synthesis Questions and Readings
364(2)
An Explanation of the Student Examples in This Chapter
366(1)
Understanding Analysis and Synthesis
366(20)
The Challenge of Synthesizing Ideas
366(1)
Understanding Your Texts Through Summary Writing
366(2)
Examining the Rhetorical Strategies Used in Your Texts
368(1)
Identifying Main Themes and Examining Similarities and Differences in the Ideas in Your Texts
369(2)
Moving Toward Your Own Views
371(1)
Taking Your Position in the Conversation: Your Synthesis
372(2)
Student Example of a Synthesis Essay: Kate MacAulay, ``Technology's Peril and Potential''
374(2)
Readings
376(1)
Ellen Goodman, ``The Big Fat Case Against Big Macs''
377(1)
Dale Buss, ``Is the Food Industry the Problem or the Solution?''
378(3)
Marilynn Larkin, ``Can Cities Be Designed to Fight Obesity?''
381(5)
Composing Your Synthesis Essay
386(2)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
386(1)
Shaping and Drafting
386(1)
Writing a Thesis for a Synthesis Essay
387(1)
Possible Organizations for Synthesis Essays
387(1)
Revising
388(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
388(3)
WRITING TO PERSUADE
Writing a Classical Argument
391(56)
About Classical Argument
391(1)
Exploring Classical Argument
392(2)
Writing Project
393(1)
Understanding Classical Argument
394(46)
Stages of Development: Your Growth as an Arguer
394(1)
Creating an Argument Frame: A Claim with Reasons
395(2)
Articulating Reasons
397(1)
Articulating Unstated Assumptions
398(2)
Using Evidence Effectively
400(3)
Addressing Objections and Counterarguments
403(3)
Responding to Objections, Counterarguments, and Alternative Views Through Refutation or Concession
406(2)
Appealing to Ethos and Pathos
408(2)
Some Advanced Considerations
410(4)
Readings
414(1)
Ross Taylor (student), ``Paintball: Promoter of Violence or Healthy Fun?''
414(4)
Clay Bennett, ``Patriots''
418(1)
John Ashcroft, ``Prepared Remarks of Attorney General Ashcroft at the Federalist Society National Convention''
419(7)
James Bovard, ``Surveillance State''
426(7)
Leonard Pitts, Jr., ``Spare the Rod, Spoil the Parenting''
433(2)
A. J. Chavez (student), ``The Case for (Gay) Marriage''
435(5)
Composing Your Essay
440(4)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
440(2)
Shaping and Drafting
442(2)
Revising
444(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
444(3)
Making an Evaluation
447(28)
About Evaluative Writing
447(1)
Exploring Evaluative Writing
448(2)
Writing Project
449(1)
Understanding Evaluation Arguments
450(20)
The Criteria-Match Process of Evaluation Arguments
450(2)
The Role of Purpose and Context in Determining Criteria
452(1)
Other Considerations in Establishing Criteria
453(2)
Using Toulmin's System to Develop Evaluation Arguments
455(1)
Conducting an Evaluation Argument: An Extended Example of Evaluating a Museum
456(4)
Readings
460(1)
Jackie Wyngaard (student), ``EMP: Music History or Music Trivia?''
460(3)
Diane Helman and Phyllis Bookspan, ``Sesame Street: Brought to You by the Letters M-A-L-E''
463(2)
Cecily Ballou (student), ``Shanghai Noon Is Not the Same Old West''
465(5)
Composing Your Essay
470(2)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
470(2)
Shaping and Drafting
472(1)
Revising
472(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
472(3)
Proposing a Solution
475(29)
About Proposal Writing
475(1)
Exploring Proposal Writing
476(2)
Writing Project
477(1)
Understanding Proposal Writing
478(4)
Special Demands of Proposal Arguments
478(2)
Developing an Effective Justification Section
480(2)
Proposal Arguments as Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
482(18)
Understanding the Power of Condensed Advocacy Arguments
482(2)
Document Design Features of Advocacy Advertisements
484(1)
Creating an Advocacy Poster, Flyer, Brochure, One-Page Advertisement, or Web Page
485(1)
Readings
486(1)
Rebekah Taylor (student), ``A Proposal to Provide Cruelty-Free Products on Campus''
487(5)
Jennifer Allen, ``The Athlete on the Sidelines''
492(2)
Dylan Fujitani (student), ``'The Hardest of the Hardcore': Let's Outlaw Hired Guns in Contemporary American Warfare''
494(6)
Composing Your Essay
500(2)
Generating and Exploring Ideas
500(1)
Shaping and Drafting
501(1)
Revising
502(1)
Guidelines for Peer Reviews
502(2)
PART THREE A Guide to Composing and Revising
504(94)
Writing as a Problem-Solving Process
507(20)
Understanding How Experts Compose and Revise
508(2)
A Working Description of the Writing Process
510(2)
Improving Your Own Writing Processes
512(7)
Practice the Composing Strategies of Experienced Writers
512(2)
Explore Ideas through Freewriting, Idea Mapping, and Good Talking
514(2)
Draft Purposefully
516(1)
After Drafting, Revise Globally
517(1)
Recognize Kinds of Changes Typically Made in Drafts
518(1)
Using Peer Reviews to Stimulate Revision
519(7)
Becoming a Helpful Reader of Classmates' Drafts
519(9)
Conducting a Peer Review Workshop
528
Responding to Peer Reviews
525(1)
Chapter Summary
526(1)
Composing and Revising Closed-Form Prose
527(46)
Lesson 1: Understanding Reader Expectations
528(3)
Unity and Coherence
528(1)
Old before New
529(1)
Forecasting and Fulfillment
530(1)
Lesson 2: Converting Loose Structures into Thesis/Support Structures
531(4)
And Then Writing, or Chronological Structure
532(1)
All About Writing, or Encyclopedic Structure
533(1)
Engfish Writing, or Structure without Surprise
534(1)
Lesson 3: Planning and Visualizing Your Structure
535(7)
Use Scratch Outlines Early in the Writing Process
535(1)
Before Making a Detailed Outline, ``Nutshell'' Your Argument
536(1)
Articulate a Working Thesis and Main Points
537(1)
Sketch Your Structure Using an Outline, Tree Diagram, or Flowchart
537(3)
Let the Structure Evolve
540(2)
Lesson 4: Writing Effective Titles and Introductions
542(6)
What Not to Do: The ``Funnel Introduction''
542(1)
From Old to New: The General Principle of Closed-Form Introductions
542(2)
Typical Elements of a Closed-Form Introduction
544(1)
Forecasting the Whole with a Thesis Statement, Purpose Statement, or Blueprint Statement
545(1)
Writing Effective Titles
546(2)
Lesson 5: Placing Points before Particulars
548(4)
Place Topic Sentences at the Beginning of Paragraphs
549(1)
Revise Paragraphs for Unity
550(1)
Add Particulars to Support Points
551(1)
Lesson 6: Signaling Relationships with Transitions
552(4)
Use Common Transition Words to Signal Relationships
553(2)
Write Major Transitions between Parts
555(1)
Signal Transitions with Headings and Subheadings
556(1)
Lesson 7: Binding Sentences Together by Following the Old/New Contract
556(6)
An Explanation of the Old/New Contract
556(2)
How to Make Links to the ``Old''
558(2)
Avoid Ambiguous Use of ``This'' to Fulfill the Old/New Contract
560(1)
How the Old/New Contract Modifies the Rule ``Avoid Weak Repetition''
561(1)
How the Old/New Contract Modifies the Rule ``Prefer Active over Passive Voice''
561(1)
Lesson 8: Learning Four Expert Moves for Organizing and Developing Ideas
562(5)
The For Example Move
562(1)
The Summary/However Move
563(1)
The Division-into-Parallel-Parts Move
564(2)
The Comparison/Contrast Move
566(1)
Lesson 9: Writing Effective Conclusions
567(3)
The Simple Summary Conclusion
568(1)
The Larger Significance Conclusion
568(1)
The Proposal Conclusion
568(1)
The Scenic or Anecdotal Conclusion
569(1)
The Hook and Return Conclusion
569(1)
The Delayed-Thesis Conclusion
569(1)
Lesson 10: Using Document Design Effectively
570(3)
Match Your Document Design to the Genre Expectations of Your Audience
570(1)
Consider Document Design an Important Part of Your Ethos
571(1)
Use Document Design Components for Clarity and Emphasis
571(1)
Use Design Components to Highlight and Reinforce---but Not Replace---Transitions, Points, and Key Explanations in the Text Itself
572(1)
Composing and Revising Open-Form Prose
573(25)
Lesson 1: Make Your Narrative a Story, Not an And Then Chronology
574(8)
Readings
574(1)
Patrick Klein (student), ``Berkeley Blues''
574(4)
Depiction of Events Through Time
578(2)
Connectedness
580(1)
Tension or Conflict
580(1)
Resolution, Recognition, or Retrospective Interpretation
581(1)
Lesson 2: Write Low on the Ladder of Abstraction
582(3)
Concrete Words Evoke Images and Sensations
582(2)
Using Revelatory Words and Memory-Soaked Words
584(1)
Lesson 3: Disrupt Your Reader's Desire for Direction and Clarity
585(2)
Disrupting Predictions and Making Odd Juxtapositions
586(1)
Leaving Gaps
586(1)
Lesson 4: Tap the Power of Figurative Language
587(1)
Lesson 5: Expand Your Repertoire of Styles
588(2)
Lesson 6: Use Open-Form Elements to Create ``Voice'' in Closed-Form Prose
590(8)
Introducing Some Humor
591(1)
Using Techniques from Popular Magazines
592(2)
Reading
594(1)
Annie Dillard, ``Living Like Weasels''
594(4)
PART FOUR A Rhetorical Guide to Research
598(96)
An Introduction to Research
601(6)
An Overview of Part Four, ``A Rhetorical Guide to Research''
601(1)
Introduction to Research Writing
601(2)
Why Research Writing Poses Difficulties for Novice Writers
603(2)
Learning How to Ask Research Questions
603(1)
Learning How to Find Sources
603(1)
Learning Why to Find Sources
603(1)
Learning How to Read Sources Rhetorically
604(1)
Learning How to Work Sources into Your Own Writing
604(1)
Learning How to Cite and Document Sources
605(1)
Seven Essential Skills for Novice Researchers
605(2)
Finding and Evaluating Sources
607(36)
Skill 1: Compose and Argue Your Own Thesis
607(4)
Formulating a Research Question
607(1)
Establishing Your Role as a Researcher
608(2)
A Case Study: Christopher Leigh's Research on School Violence
610(1)
Skill 2: Understand the Different Kinds of Sources
611(4)
Looking at Sources Rhetorically
611(4)
Skill 3: Use Purposeful Strategies for Searching Libraries, Databases, and Web Sites
615(9)
Perusing Your Library's Home Page
616(1)
Finding Books: Searching Your Library's Online Catalog
616(1)
Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database
617(3)
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
620(4)
Skill 4: Use Rhetorical Knowledge to Read and Evaluate Sources
624(7)
Reading Your Sources Rhetorically
624(2)
Taking Effective Notes
626(2)
Evaluating Sources
628(3)
Skill 5: Understand the Rhetoric of Web Sites
631(12)
The Web as a Unique Rhetorical Environment
631(1)
Analyzing the Purpose of a Site
632(1)
Reading Web Sites Rhetorically: An Illustration
632(7)
Evaluating a Web Source
639(1)
An Example: Applying Evaluation Criteria
639(4)
Using, Citing, and Documenting Sources
643(51)
Skill 6: Use Sources Purposefully Through Clearly Attributed Summary, Paraphrase, or Quotation
643(15)
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
643(1)
Reading
644(1)
Roger D. McGrath, ``The Myth of Violence in the Old West''
644(2)
Writer 1: Summary for an Analytical Paper on Causes of Violence
646(1)
Writer 2: Partial Summary for a Persuasive Paper in Support of Gun Control
647(1)
Writer 3: Partial Summary for an Analytical Paper on Shifting Definitions of Crime
647(1)
Working Sources into Your Own Prose
648(4)
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
652(4)
Avoiding Plagiarism
656(2)
Skill 7: Cite and Document Sources Effectively According to Appropriate Conventions
658(36)
Understanding the Logic of Parenthetical Citation Systems
658(3)
Understanding the MLA Method of In-Text Citation
661(1)
Documenting Sources in a ``Works Cited'' List (MLA)
662(1)
MLA Citation Models
663(10)
Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style
673(1)
Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper
674(1)
Christopher Leigh (student), ``The Case Against Metal Detectors in Public Schools'' (MLA-Style Research Paper)
675(12)
Understanding APA Style and Formatting
687(1)
APA Formatting for In-Text Citations
687(1)
Documenting Sources in a ``References'' List (APA)
688(1)
APA Citation Models
688(5)
Student Example of an APA-style Paper
693(1)
PART FIVE A Guide to Special Writing and Speaking Occasions
694(50)
Oral Communication: Working in Groups and Giving Speeches
697(16)
About Working in Groups
697(1)
Basic Principles of Successful Group Interaction
698(5)
Avoid Clone-Think and Ego-Think
698(1)
Listen Empathically
699(1)
Play Assigned Roles
700(1)
Be Sensitive to Body Language
700(1)
Invest Time in Group Maintenance
700(1)
Recognize How Personality and Culture Affect Group Participation
701(1)
Manage Conflict by Dealing with an ``Impossible Group Member''
702(1)
Thinking in Groups
703(2)
Seeking Consensus
703(1)
Brainstorming
704(1)
Oral Rehearsal of Drafts
704(1)
About Oral Presentations
705(1)
Preparing Formal Speeches
705(5)
Speech Outlines as Multipurpose Tools
706(1)
Contents and Arrangement
707(1)
Using Visual Aids to Support Your Presentation
708(1)
Delivering a Formal Speech
709(1)
Preparing and Delivering Impromptu Speeches
710(1)
Handling Speech Anxiety
710(1)
Chapter Summary
711(2)
Essay Examinations: Writing Well Under Pressure
713(14)
How Exams Written Under Pressure Differ from Other Essays
714(1)
Preparing for an Exam: Learning and Remembering Subject Matter
715(2)
Identifying and Learning Main Ideas
715(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
716(1)
Making a Study Plan
716(1)
Analyzing Exam Questions
717(5)
Dealing with Constraints: Taking an Essay Exam
722(4)
Guidelines for Producing Successful Responses
724(2)
Chapter Summary
726(1)
Assembling a Portfolio and Writing a Reflective Self-Evaluation
727(17)
Understanding Reflective Writing
728(3)
What Is Reflective Writing?
728(2)
Reflective Writing in the Writing Classroom
730(1)
Why Is Reflective Writing Important?
731(1)
Reflective Writing Assignments
731(6)
Single Reflection Assignments
731(1)
Guidelines for Single Reflection Assignments
732(2)
Reading
734(1)
Jaime Finger (student), ``A Single Reflection on an Exploratory Essay''
734(1)
Comprehensive Reflection Assignments
735(1)
Guidelines for Comprehensive Reflection Assignments
735(2)
The Writing Portfolio as an Opportunity for Reflective Self-Evaluation
737(4)
Keeping Track of Your Work
738(1)
Selecting Work for Your Portfolio
738(1)
Writing a Comprehensive Reflective Letter
739(1)
Reading
739(1)
Bruce Urbanik (student), ``A Comprehensive Reflective Letter''
740(1)
Chapter Summary
741(3)
PART SIX A Guide to Editing
744(3)
HANDBOOK 1 Improving Your Editing Skills
747(6)
Why Editing Is Important
747(1)
Overview of This Guide to Editing
748(1)
Improving Your Editing and Proofreading Processes
749(2)
Keep a List of Your Own Characteristic Errors
749(1)
Do a Self-Assessment of Your Editing Knowledge
749(1)
Read Your Draft Aloud
749(1)
Read Your Draft Backward
750(1)
Use a Spell-Checker and (Perhaps) Other Editing Programs
750(1)
Summary
750(1)
Microtheme Projects on Editing
751(2)
Microtheme 1: Apostrophe Madness
751(1)
Microtheme 2: Stumped by However
751(1)
Microtheme 3: The Comic Dangler
752(1)
Microtheme 4: How's That Again?
752(1)
Microtheme 5: The Intentional Fragment
752(1)
Microtheme 6: Create Your Own
752(1)
HANDBOOK 2 Understanding Sentence Structure
753(16)
What You Already Know about Grammar
753(1)
The Concept of the Sentence
754(1)
Basic Sentence Patterns
755(1)
Pattern One: Subject + Verb (+ Optional Adverb Modifiers)
755(1)
Pattern Two: Subject + Verb + Direct Object (DO)
755(1)
Pattern Three: Subject + Verb + Subject Complement (SC)
755(1)
Pattern Four: Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Object Complement (OC)
756(1)
Pattern Five: Subject + Verb + Indirect Object (IDO) + Direct Object
756(1)
Parts of Speech
756(7)
Nouns
757(1)
Pronouns
757(1)
Verbs
757(4)
Adjectives and Adverbs
761(1)
Conjunctions
762(1)
Prepositions
763(1)
Interjections
763(1)
Types of Phrases
763(2)
Prepositional Phrases
763(1)
Appositive Phrases
764(1)
Verbal Phrases
764(1)
Absolute Phrases
765(1)
Types of Clauses
765(1)
Noun Clauses
766(1)
Adjective Clauses
766(1)
Adverb Clauses
766(1)
Types of Sentences
766(3)
Simple Sentences
766(1)
Compound Sentences
767(1)
Complex Sentences
767(1)
Compound-Complex Sentences
767(2)
HANDBOOK 3 Punctuating Boundaries of Sentences, Clauses, and Phrases
769(10)
Why Readers Need Punctuation
770(1)
Rules for Punctuating Clauses and Phrases within a Sentence
770(2)
Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments
772(2)
Types of Fragments
773(1)
Methods for Correcting Sentence Fragments
773(1)
Identifying and Correcting Run-Ons and Comma Splices
774(3)
Methods for Correcting Run-Ons and Comma Splices
775(2)
Overview of Methods for Joining Clauses
777(2)
HANDBOOK 4 Editing for Standard English Usage
779(16)
Fixing Grammatical Tangles
779(1)
Mixed Constructions
779(1)
Faulty Predication
780(1)
Maintaining Consistency
780(1)
Shifts in Tense
780(1)
Shifts in the Person and Number of Pronouns
780(1)
Maintaining Agreement
781(4)
Subject-Verb Agreement
781(3)
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
784(1)
Maintaining Parallel Structure
785(2)
Placement of Correlative Conjunctions
786(1)
Use of and which/that or and who/whom
786(1)
Avoiding Dangling or Misplaced Modifiers
787(2)
Dangling Modifiers
787(1)
Misplaced Modifiers
788(1)
Choosing Correct Pronoun Cases
789(3)
Cases of Relative Pronouns
790(1)
Intervening Parenthetical Clauses
790(1)
Pronouns as Parts of Compound Constructions
790(1)
Pronouns in Appositive Constructions
791(1)
Pronouns as Parts of Implied Clauses
791(1)
Pronouns Preceding Gerunds or Participles
791(1)
Choosing Correct Verb Forms
792(1)
Choosing Correct Adjective and Adverb Forms
792(3)
Confusion of Adjective and Adverb Forms
793(1)
Problems with Comparative and Superlative Forms
793(1)
Ambiguous Adverbs
794(1)
HANDBOOK 5 Editing for Style
795(10)
Pruning Your Prose
795(2)
Cutting Out Deadwood
795(1)
Combining Sentences
796(1)
Enlivening Your Prose
797(2)
Avoiding Nominalizations
797(1)
Avoiding Noun Pileups
798(1)
Avoiding Pretentious Language
798(1)
Avoiding Cliches, Jargon, and Slang
798(1)
Creating Sentence Variety
799(1)
Using Specific Details
799(1)
Avoiding Broad or Unclear Pronoun Reference
799(1)
Avoiding Broad Reference
800(1)
Avoiding Unclear Antecedents
800(1)
Putting Old Information before New Information
800(1)
Deciding between Active and Passive Voice
801(1)
Strength of the Active Voice
801(1)
When to Use the Passive Voice
801(1)
Using Inclusive Language
802(3)
Avoiding Sexist Labels and Stereotypes
802(1)
Avoiding Use of Masculine Pronouns to Refer to Both Sexes
803(1)
Avoiding Inappropriate Use of the Suffix-man
803(1)
Avoiding Language Biased Against Ethnic or Other Minorities
804(1)
HANDBOOK 6 Editing for Punctuation and Mechanics
805(26)
Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points
805(1)
Courtesy Questions
805(1)
Indirect Questions
806(1)
Placement of Question Marks with Quotations
806(1)
Exclamation Points
806(1)
Commas
806(7)
Using Commas
807(4)
Omitting Commas
811(2)
Semicolons
813(2)
Semicolon to Join Main Clauses
813(1)
Semicolon in a Series Containing Commas
814(1)
Colons, Dashes, and Parentheses
815(2)
Colons
815(1)
Dashes
816(1)
Parentheses
816(1)
Apostrophes
817(2)
Apostrophe to Show Possession
817(1)
Forming the Possessive
818(1)
Apostrophes with Contractions
818(1)
Apostrophes to Form Plurals
818(1)
Quotation Marks
819(3)
Punctuating the Start of a Quotation
819(1)
Placement of Attributive Tags
819(1)
Punctuating the End of a Quotation
819(1)
Indirect Quotations
820(1)
Indented Block Method for Long Quotations
820(1)
Single Quotation Marks
820(1)
Quotation Marks for Titles of Short Works
821(1)
Quotation Marks for Words Used in a Special Sense
821(1)
Underlining (Italics)
822(1)
Underlining or Italics for Titles of Long Complete Works
822(1)
Underlining or Italics for Foreign Words and Phrases
822(1)
Underlining or Italics for Letters, Numbers, and Words Used as Words
822(1)
Brackets, Ellipses, and Slashes
822(2)
Brackets
822(1)
Ellipses
822(1)
Slashes
822(2)
Capital Letters
824(2)
Capitals for First Letters of Sentences and Intentional Fragments
824(1)
Capitals for Proper Nouns
825(1)
Capitals for Important Words in Titles
826(1)
Capitals in Quotations and Spoken Dialogue
826(1)
Consistency in Use of Capitals
826(1)
Numbers
826(2)
Numbers in Scientific and Technical Writing
826(1)
Numbers in Formal Writing for Nontechnical Fields
826(1)
Numbers at the Beginning of a Sentence
827(1)
Plurals of Numbers
827(1)
Numbers in a Series for Comparison
827(1)
Abbreviations
828(1)
Abbreviations for Academic Degrees and Titles
828(1)
Abbreviations for Agencies, Institutions, and Other Entities
828(1)
Abbreviations for Terms Used with Numbers
828(1)
Abbreviations for Common Latin Terms
829(1)
Plurals of Abbreviations
829(1)
Manuscript Form
829(2)
Acknowledgments 831(4)
Index 835


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