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American Constitutional Law : Introductory Essays and Selected Cases

by ;
Edition:
14th
ISBN13:

9780131174375

ISBN10:
0131174371
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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  • American Constitutional Law : Introductory Essays and Selected Cases
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    American Constitutional Law : Introductory Essays and Selected Cases




Summary

This classic collection of carefully selected and edited Supreme Court case excerpts and comprehensive background essays explores constitutional law and the role of the Supreme Court in its development and interpretation. Well-grounded in both theory and politics, it displays the role of the U.S. Supreme Court as a legaland political institution and asa major player in American government. The volume examines and presents supporting cases regarding jurisdiction and organization of the federal courts, the constitution, the supreme court, and judicial review, congress and the president, federalism, the electoral process, the commerce clause, national taxing and spending power, property rights and the development of due process, nationalization of the bill of rights, criminal justice, freedom of expression, protest and symbolic speech, freedom of association, freedom of press, religious liberty, privacy, equal protection of the laws, and security and freedom in wartime. For those interested in American constitutional law.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xii
INTRODUCTION A POLITICAL SUPREME COURT 1(23)
A Changing Judiciary
3(3)
Appointment Politics, 1968-1984
6(4)
Appointment Politics, 1984-1992
10(6)
The Clinton Years
16(3)
The Bush Presidency
19(1)
Key Terms
20(1)
Queries
20(1)
Selected Readings on Federal Judicial Appointments
21(1)
Selected Readings on the Supreme Court
21(1)
Selected Biographies
22(2)
CHAPTER ONE JURISDICTION AND ORGANIZATION OF THE FEDERAL COURTS 24(17)
The Judicial Power
24(6)
Supreme Court Decision Making
30(4)
Source Materials
34(4)
Reading a Supreme Court Decision
38(1)
Key Terms
39(1)
Queries
39(1)
Selected Readings
39(2)
CHAPTER TWO THE CONSTITUTION, THE SUPREME COURT, AND JUDICIAL REVIEW 41(39)
Granting and Limiting Power
41(2)
The Doctrine of Judicial Review
43(4)
Checks on Judicial Power
47(2)
Finality of Supreme Court Decisions
49(2)
Approaches to Constitutional Interpretation
51(2)
Judicial Review-A Distinctively American Contribution
53(1)
Key Terms
54(1)
Queries
54(1)
Selected Readings
55(25)
I. Establishing and Testing Judicial Review
56(14)
Unstaged Debate of 1788: Robert Yates v. Alexander Hamilton
56(4)
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
60(4)
Eakin v. Raub (1825)
64(2)
Scott v. Sandford (1857)
66(4)
II. External and Internal Checks on Judicial Power
70(1)
Ex parte McCardle (1869)
70(1)
Baker v. Carr (1962)
71(1)
III. Finality of Supreme Court Decisions
71(23)
City of Boerne v. Flores (1997)
71(4)
Unstaged Debate: Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, and Arkansas v. The Supreme Court
75(2)
IV. Approaches to Constitutional Interpretation
77(1)
Unstaged Debate of 1986: Judge Bork v. Professor Tribe
77(3)
CHAPTER THREE CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT 80(52)
Separation of Powers
80(2)
Congress and Lawmaking
82(3)
The President and Executive Power
85(3)
Foreign Policy and National Security
88(4)
Key Terms
92(1)
Queries
92(1)
Selected Readings
93(39)
I. Delegation and Lawmaking
94(10)
Mistretta v. United States (1989)
94(3)
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha (1983)
97(3)
Clinton v. City of New York (1998)
100(4)
II. Congressional Investigations
104(5)
Watkins v. United States (1957)
104(3)
Barenblatt v. United States (1959)
107(2)
III. Presidential Privilege and Immunity
109(9)
United States v. Nixon (1974)
109(3)
Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982)
112(3)
Clinton v. Jones (1997)
115(3)
IV. Appointment and Removal
118(4)
Morrison v. Olson (1988)
118(4)
V. Foreign Policy and National Security
122(26)
Ex parte Milligan (1866)
122(1)
Missouri v. Holland (1920)
122(1)
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. (1936)
123(2)
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
125(1)
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952)
125(5)
United States v. United States District Court (1972)
130(1)
War Powers Resolution (1973)
130(2)
CHAPTER FOUR FEDERALISM 132(49)
Sources of Contention
133(1)
Nature of National Authority
134(3)
Concepts of Federalism
137(4)
The Return of Dual Federalism
141(5)
Key Terms
146(1)
Queries
146(1)
Selected Readings
146(35)
I. Defining the Nature of the Union
148(15)
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
148(2)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
150(6)
Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
156(4)
Texas v. White (1869)
160(3)
II. National Supremacy v. Dual Federalism in the Modern Era
163(31)
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority (1985)
163(3)
U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton (1995)
166(4)
United States v. Morrison (2000)
170(5)
Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents (2000)
175(6)
CHAPTER FIVE THE ELECTORAL PROCESS 181(58)
Voting
182(3)
Representation
185(4)
Party Politics and Campaigns
189(2)
Key Terms
191(1)
Queries
192(1)
Selected Readings
192(47)
I. Voting
194(4)
Bush v. Gore (2000)
194(4)
II. Representation
198(19)
Baker v. Carr (1962)
198(4)
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
202(4)
Davis v. Bandemer (1986)
206(4)
Miller v. Johnson (1995)
210(4)
Hunt [Easley/v. Cromartie (2001)
214(3)
III. Party Politics and Campaigns
217(42)
California Democratic Primary v. Jones (2000)
217(4)
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White (2002)
221(6)
Federal Election Commission v. Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee (2001)
227(5)
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission (2003)
232(7)
CHAPTER SIX THE COMMERCE CLAUSE 239(59)
Views of the Framers
240(1)
The Marshall Doctrine
241(2)
The Doctrine of the Taney Court
243(1)
States and the Commerce Clause Today
244(3)
The National Commerce Power: Competing Visions
247(2)
Constitutional Crisis
249(6)
The Commerce Power Reborn
255(1)
A Return to Limitations
256(1)
Key Terms
257(1)
Queries
257(1)
Selected Readings
258(40)
I. Defining the Commerce Power
259(7)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
259(5)
Cooley v. Board of Wardens (1851)
264(2)
II. States and the Commerce Power
266(9)
Southern Pacific Co. v. Arizona (1945)
266(3)
Philadelphia v. New Jersey (1978)
269(3)
Reeves, Inc. v. Slake (1980)
272(3)
III. Competing Visions of Congress's Commerce Power
275(8)
United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895)
275(2)
Champion v. Ames (1903)
277(3)
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)
280(2)
Stafford v. Wallace (1922)
282(1)
IV. The New Deal in Court
283(7)
Carter v. Carter Coal Co. (1936)
283(4)
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937)
287(3)
V. Contemporary Views of the Commerce Power
290(15)
Wickard v. Filburn (1942)
290(1)
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United Slates; Katzenbach v. McClung (1964)
291(2)
United States v. Lopez (1995)
293
United States v. Morrison (2000) 297,
170(128)
CHAPTER SEVEN NATIONAL TAXING AND SPENDING POWER 298(24)
Direct and Indirect Taxes
299(1)
Regulation Through Taxation
300(3)
Regulation Through Spending
303(1)
Key Terms
304(1)
Queries
304(1)
Selected Readings
304(18)
I. Direct and Indirect Taxes
305(4)
Hylton v. United States (1796)
305(1)
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company (1895)
306(3)
II. Regulation Through Taxation
309(2)
McCray v. United Slates (1904)
309(2)
III. Regulation Through Spending
311(30)
United States v. Butler (1936)
311(3)
South Dakota v. Dole (1987)
314(2)
National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley (1998)
316(6)
CHAPTER EIGHT PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUE PROCESS 322(57)
The Doctrine of Vested Rights
323(1)
Expansion of the Contract Clause
324(2)
Twilight of the Contract Clause
326(1)
Origins of Due Process
327(1)
Judicial Restraint and the Fourteenth Amendment
328(2)
Judicial Activism and the Fourteenth Amendment
330(3)
Search for a Role: Footnote Four
333(2)
Takings, Land Use, and the Fifth Amendment
335(1)
"New Property" and Due Process of Law
336(3)
Key Terms
339(1)
Queries
339(1)
Selected Readings
339(40)
I. Vested Rights and the Ex Post Facto Clause
341(2)
Calder v. Bull (1798)
341(2)
II. The Contract Clause
343(9)
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
343(3)
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)
346(3)
Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell (1934)
349(3)
III. Property Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
352(19)
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
352(5)
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
357(3)
Unstaged Debate of 1893: Justice Brewer v. Professor Thayer
360(3)
Lochner v. New York (1905)
363(3)
Nebbia v. New York (1934)
366(2)
West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937)
368(2)
Ferguson v. Skrupa (1963)
370(1)
IV. Fifth Amendment Takings and Land Use
371(4)
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission (1987)
371(4)
V. "New Property"
375(14)
Saenz v. Roe (1999)
375(4)
CHAPTER NINE NATIONALIZATION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS 379(20)
Paths of Due Process of Law
380(1)
The Bill of Rights
381(1)
Incorporation: Applying the Bill of Rights to the States
382(4)
The New Judicial Federalism: A New Double Standard
386(1)
Key Terms
387(1)
Queries
387(1)
Selected Readings
387(12)
I. Drive for a Bill of Rights
389(3)
Jefferson-Madison Correspondence, 1787-1789
389(3)
II. The Bill of Rights and the States
392(25)
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
392(1)
Adamson v. California (1947)
393(3)
Duncan v. Louisiana (1968)
396(3)
CHAPTER TEN CRIMINAL JUSTICE 399(73)
Searches and Seizures
400(8)
Right to Counsel
408(1)
Self-Incrimination
409(3)
Punishment
412(3)
Key Terms
415(1)
Queries
415(1)
Selected Readings
416(56)
I. Searches and Seizures
417(34)
A. Whose Rights?
417(1)
Minnesota v. Carter (1998)
417(2)
B. The Exclusionary Rule 419
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
419(1)
United States v. Leon (1984)
421(3)
C. Search Incident to Arrest
424(1)
Chimel v. California (1969)
424(2)
D. Automobile Searches
426(1)
California v. Acevedo (1991)
426(4)
E. Electronic Surveillance
430(1)
Olmstead v. United States (1928)
430(1)
Katz v. United States (1967)
432(1)
United States v. United States District Court (1972)
435(1)
Kyllo v. United States (2001)
436(4)
F. Arrests, Detentions, and Frisks
440(1)
Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001)
440(1)
Terry v. Ohio (1968)
444(2)
G. Administrative Searches
446(1)
Board of Education of Pottawatomie County v. Earls (2002)
446(5)
II. Right to Counsel
451(4)
Powell v. Alabama (1932)
451(2)
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
453(2)
III. Self-Incrimination
455(8)
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
455(3)
Dickerson v. United States (2000)
458(5)
IV. Capital Punishment
463(25)
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
463(4)
Atkins v. Virginia (2002)
467(5)
CHAPTER ELEVEN FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 472(62)
Tests of Freedom
473(1)
Internal Security
474(3)
Public Forum
477(1)
Protest and Symbolic Speech
478(3)
Freedom of Association
481(1)
Freedom of the Press
482(3)
Radio, Television, and the Internet
485(1)
Postscript
486(1)
Key Terms
487(1)
Queries
487(1)
Selected Readings
488(46)
I. Internal Security
488(11)
Schenck v. United States (1919)
488(1)
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
489(2)
Whitney v. California (1927)
491(3)
Dennis v. United States (1951)
494(3)
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)
497(2)
II. Public Forum
499(6)
Clark v. Community for Creative Non-Violence (1984)
499(3)
Good News Club v. Milford Central School (2001)
502(3)
III. Protest and Symbolic Speech
505(10)
United States v. O'Brien (1968)
505(2)
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
507(3)
Virginia v. Black (2003)
510(5)
IV. Freedom of Association
515(4)
Boy Scouts of America and Monmouth Council v. Dale (2000)
515(4)
V. Freedom of the Press
519(11)
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964)
519(3)
New York Times Co. v. United States (1971)
522(4)
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition (2002)
526(4)
VI. The Internet
530(16)
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997)
530(4)
CHAPTER TWELVE RELIGIOUS LIBERTY 534(45)
Competing Visions
534(2)
The Establishment Clause
536(5)
The Free Exercise Clause
541(3)
Values in Tension
544(1)
Key Terms
545(1)
Queries
545(1)
Selected Readings
546(33)
I. Religion in Public Schools
546(5)
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000)
546(5)
II. State Aid to Religious Schools
551(14)
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
551(4)
Agostini v. Felton (1997)
555(5)
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)
560(5)
III. Free Exercise of Religion
565(26)
The Flag-Salute Cases
565(1)
Minersville School District v. Gobitis (1940)
565(4)
Justice Frankfurter to Justice Stone, may 27, 1940: A Quaked Plea for Judicia Self-Restraint
569(2)
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)
571(2)
Sherbert v. Verner (1963)
573(2)
Employment Division v. Smith (1990)
575(3)
City of Boerne v. Flores (1997)
578(1)
CHAPTER THIRTEEN PRIVACY 579(39)
Dimensions of Privacy
579(1)
Private Law and Public Law Beginnings
580(2)
Invigorating a Right of Privacy
582(1)
Abortion
583(4)
A Developing Concept
587(3)
Key Terms
590(1)
Queries
590(1)
Selected Readings
590(28)
I. Invigorating a Right of Privacy
591(3)
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
591(3)
II. Abortion
594(14)
Roe v. Wade (1973)
594(4)
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)
598(5)
Stenberg v. Carhart (2000)
603(5)
III. The Right to Die
608(4)
Washington v. Glucksberg (1997)
608(4)
IV. Sexual Orientation
612(23)
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
612(6)
CHAPTER FOURTEEN EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS 618(61)
Identifying Forbidden Discrimination 619
Racial Discrimination
620(5)
State Action
625(1)
Gender Discrimination
626(2)
Fundamental Rights Analysis
628(1)
Congressional Protection of Civil Rights
629(1)
Affirmative Action
630(4)
Key Terms
634(1)
Queries
634(1)
Selected Readings
635(44)
I. Identifying Forbidden Discrimination
635(7)
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
635(1)
Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1985)
635(4)
Romer v. Evans (1996)
639(3)
II. Racial Discrimination
642(8)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
642(3)
Brown v. Board of Education (First Case) (1954)
645(2)
Bolling v. Sharpe (1954)
647(1)
Brown v. Board of Education (Second Case) (1955)
647(1)
Milliken v. Bradley (1974)
648(2)
III. State Action
650(6)
Civil Rights Cases (United States v. Stanley, 1883)
650(3)
Moose Lodge v. Irvis (1972)
653(3)
IV. Gender Discrimination
656(7)
Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)
656(2)
Craig v. Boren (1976)
658(2)
Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan (1982)
660(3)
V. Fundamental Rights Analysis
663(5)
Shapiro v. Thompson (1969)
663(2)
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (1973)
665(3)
VI. Affirmative Action
668(18)
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
668(6)
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
674(5)
CHAPTER FIFTEEN EPILOGUE: SECURITY AND FREEDOM IN WARTIME 679(22)
The Fragility of Civil Liberties
679(1)
The USA Patriot Act
680(2)
Other Anti-Terrorist Actions and Policies
682(2)
"Inter Arma Silent Leges"
684(1)
Key Terms
685(1)
Queries
685(1)
Selected Readings
686(15)
Ex parte Milligan (1866)
686(3)
Ex parte Quirin (1942)
689(2)
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
691(3)
New York Times Company v. United States (1971)
694(1)
United States v. United States District Court (1972)
694(4)
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2003)
698(3)
APPENDIX 701(17)
The Constitution of the United States of America
701(11)
Table 1: Justices of the Supreme Court
712(3)
Table 2: Presidents and Justices
715(3)
INDEX OF CASES 718(8)
INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND NAMES 726

Excerpts

The devastating terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the U.S. government's responses to them and to terrorism generally, have brought to the forefront the recurring tension in American constitutional law between security and freedom. Understandably, Americans demand security. Yet the nation that is defended is defined by its devotion to individual liberty and constitutional limitations. This tension is reflected throughout this book in many ways and is expressly addressed in a new concluding Chapter Fifteen, Epilogue: Security and Freedom in Wartime. This is a subject that most Americans have thought little about in decades. The tension rekindled by the terrorist attacks came only nine months after the extended and chaotic finish to the presidential election of 2000, that, inBush v. Gore,was itself a reminder of the Supreme Court's central place in American government. That development in turn must be considered alongside two other facts: First, on a substantial number of major constitutional issues in recent terms, the Court has split 5 to 4, or 6 to 3. Second, as of early 2004, the bench remains among the most stable in history. At no time since 1869, when Congress last set the Court's roster at nine, have so many years passed without a vacancy. Moreover, excepting only the period 1812-1823, the years since justice Harry Blackmun's retirement and Justice Stephen Breyer's arrival in 1994 mark the longest stretch of stability in membership in Court history. Given that, on average, a vacancy has usually occurred about once every two years since 1790, the person elected president in 2004 may have an inordinate influence on the make-up of the Court and therefore on American constitutional law. With that prospect in mind, the Introduction retains its distinctive focus on institutional development and the politics of judicial selection. The Court marked the end of calendar 2003 with yet another reminder of the impact that it can have on American politics. Just in time for the presidential campaign season of 2004,McConnell v. Federal Election Commissionnarrowly resolved most constitutional doubts in favor of the comprehensive and far-reaching provisions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, Congress's most significant overhaul of campaign finance legislation since 1974. This edition, following the pattern set in earlier ones, is rooted in the conviction that constitutional law is an intricate blend of politics, history, and competing values. Even though judicial decisions are couched in the language and method used by lawyers, constitutional cases are therefore proper turf for students of politics and government. This is because the judiciary is the place where law and politics meet. Accordingly, the book emphasizes the ongoing importance of constitutional interpretation. Interpretation represents choices made about the meaning of the Constitution. These choices in turn affect the operation of the political system, they help to define individual rights and freedoms, and they influence the quality of life that Americans enjoy. Constitutional interpretation has thus made the justices participants in the governing process. Their decisions embody selections among hard (and consequential) alternatives, rather than the easy dictates of a cold mechanical process. The book invites students to become party to the dialogue that the Court has maintained with the American people for over two centuries, a dialogue that reflects a historic attraction to, and suspicion of, majority rule--on the part of both the people and the Court. Aside from the new Chapter Fifteen, noted above, readers familiar with the previous edition will notice one additional change in the organization of the fourteenth edition. Presentation of the Bill of Rights and criminal justice issues, previously combined in a single chapter, are now developed in two: Chapter Nine (Nationalization of the Bill of R


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