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In American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership: Power, Principle, and the Constitution, preeminent scholar and renowned advisor on national security Loch K. Johnson offers students an insider's portrait of U.S. foreign policy that explores its underlying and driving constitutional principles. Featuring an engaging and accessible writing style, this unique book focuses on the fundamentals of foreign policy--its theory, historical evolution, institutions, and instruments--and offers an in-depth look at the tools that the U.S. uses to defend and advance its interests abroad, including diplomacy, trade, aid, war-making, moral suasion, spying, and covert action. It also shows how the personalities of people who hold high offices and other little-known, behind-the-scenes factors can influence foreign policy. Contemporary issues, including global terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, global environmental degradation, world population pressures, and migration issues, are addressed throughout.
Uses a levels-of-analysis approach, highlighting the significance of three levels where foreign policy is shaped: in the international setting, in domestic politics, and at the individual level
Chapter outlines, lists of learning objectives, and lists of key constitutional questions for each chapter help direct students' reading
Brief chapter-opening vignettes highlight historical events of significance to the study of U.S. foreign policy
"Perspectives on American Foreign Policy" text boxes present excerpts from key documents or insights from top experts
Loch K. Johnson is Regents Professor of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia. He is the author of more than 200 articles and the author or editor of twenty-eight books, including National Security Intelligence (2012) and The Threat on the Horizon: An Inside Account ofAmerica's Search for Security after the Cold War (OUP, 2011.)
Table of Contents
About the Author Preface Acknowledgments PART ONE. UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Chapter 1. The Objectives And Instruments Of American Foreign Policy AMERICA UNDER ATTACK THE IMPORTANCE OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY THE OBJECTIVES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Maintaining Peace and Security Securing Economic Prosperity Promoting Quality of Life Upholding Human Rights Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.1 THE INSTRUMENTS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY National Security Intelligence Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.2 Diplomacy Military Force Covert Action Economic Statecraft Moral and Cultural Suasion PHILOSOPHIES OF FOREIGN POLICY Chapter 2. An Analytic Construct for the Study of American Foreign Policy HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI THREE PERSPECTIVES ON FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONS THE INTERNATIONAL SETTING Balance of Power Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.1 Geopolitics Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.2 Complex Interdependence THE DOMESTIC SETTING The Mirror of the Past Exceptionalism The Constitution Institutional Fragmentation Pluralist Politics THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION-MAKER Role-Playing Past Experience Distorted Perceptions Chapter 3. A Constitutional Framework for American Foreign Policy CONFLICT OVER PRESIDENTIAL WAR POWERS SHARED POWERS THE WAR POWER Defensive and Offensive Warfare Inherent Presidential Authority War by Blank Check Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.1 THE TREATY POWER The Destroyers Deal Creeping Commitments Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.2 THE SEEDS OF ACQUIESCENCE MONEY AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL DISPUTES The Purse Strings Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.3 Diplomatic Recognition, Confirmation, Accountability CONFLICT AND COMITY PART TWO. THE INFLUENCES OF HISTORY Chapter 4. The Formative Years of American Foreign Policy THE SINKING OF THE MAINE NATION BUILDING, 1776-1898 Apart from the World Ambivalence toward Europe Expansionist Stirrings Monroe Delivers a Lecture Westward Ho! Civil War A Nation Grown Bolder EMERGENCE AS A GREAT POWER, 1898-1920 The Spanish-American War Spreading Democracy and Opening Markets Wilsonian Idealism Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 4.1 AMERICA AS A RELUCTANT LEADER, 1920-1945 The Fascist Threat Embracing Internationalism--Gingerly Chapter 5. The Cold War and the Doctrine Of Containment HIGH NOON IN CUBA, 1962 THE NUCLEAR ERA Containment and the Cold War A New Militancy Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.1 PERIL POINTS Korean War Crises in Cuba Vietnam Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.2 DÉTENTE A Thawing in the Cold War Fresh Conflicts The Cold War Revived Chapter 6. American Foreign Policy in a Fractured World DEATH IN SOMALIA A FRACTURED WORLD NEW WORLD DISORDER Disintegration of the Soviet Union Bloodbath in the Balkans Fusion in Western Europe Desert Storm Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 6.1 Chaos in Somalia WOLVES IN THE WOODS Weapons Proliferation Counternarcotics Immigration The Micro-States Other Transnational Challenges THE RISE OF GLOBAL TERRORISM The 9/11 Attacks "Preemptive" War in Iraq Drone Warfare PART THREE. INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS Chapter 7. Institutional Conflict And Cooperation THE PRESIDENT, THE CONGRESS, AND DIEN BIEN PHU FRAGMENTS OF POWER Efficiency versus Freedom Presidents versus Lawmakers A Foreign Policy Compact THE PRESIDENCY AND LIMITS TO EXECUTIVE POWER Information and Time Permissibility Resources Previous Commitments Formal Powers THE FOREIGN POLICY BUREAUCRACY National Security Council The Departments of State and Defense Turf Battles Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.1 THE CONGRESS Minnows and Whales Legislative Watchdogs Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.2 THE COURTS Tilt Toward the President Curbing Presidential Excess FOREIGN POLICY POWER: A STUDY IN CUBISM Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.3 Chapter 8. Foreign Policy and the American People A VICTORY FOR CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY PUBLIC OPINION AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Democracy versus Demoscopy The President and Public Opinion Opinion Leadership Congress and Public Opinion Vox Populi INTEREST GROUPS AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Foreign Lobbies A Kaleidoscope of Domestic Pressures A Diversity of International Pressures THE INDIVIDUAL AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY The Lasswellian Hypothesis Psychological Pressures on Foreign Policy Leaders Operational Codes The Worth of the Individual PART FOUR. THE INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY Chapter 9. Intelligence Collection and Analysis INTELLIGENCE TO THE RESCUE INTELLIGENCE AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF FOREIGN POLICY THE ORIGINS OF AMERICA'S MODERN SPY AGENCIES The Coordination of Intelligence The Structure of Intelligence The Intelligence Community Inside the CIA The Intelligence Missions COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Planning and Direction Collection Targeting Types of Intelligence Gathering Intelligence Processing Analysis Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.1 Dissemination SECRECY AND FOREIGN POLICY Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.2 Secrets Good and Bad Executive Privilege The Cloak of Executive Secrecy Delay and Deceit Prior Restraint Chapter 10. Diplomacy THE ATTACK OF THE BRICKERITES TALKING INSTEAD OF FIGHTING THE WIKILEAKS PAPERS: THE PRIVATE FACE OF DIPLOMACY THE BREADTH OF DIPLOMACY Counterterrorism and the Islamic World Russia and China Europe Global Hot Spots THE MAKING OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS The Hidden Side of Diplomacy Military Agreements THE DANGERS OF DIPLOMACY BY EXECUTIVE FIAT Constitutional Diplomacy Stirrings on the Fulbright Committee The Case-Zablocki Act The Treaty Powers Resolution Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 10.1 Two Houses Do Not Make a Home DIPLOMACY'S FAR REACH Chapter 11. Military Force THE CAMBODIAN "INCURSION" THE LAST FULL MEASURE USES OF THE WAR POWER WEAPONS OF WAR IN THE NUCLEAR AGE Backpacks and City Busters The Effects of Nuclear Weapons Blast and Heat Radioactivity Atmospheric Alterations Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 11.1 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Weapons Star Wars Deterrence and the Triad Ground-Launched Missiles Bombers Submarines Command and Control The Arsenals Strategic Nuclear Weapons Tactical Nuclear Weapons Conventional Weapons How Much Is Enough? Arms Control DECIDING TO USE THE WAR POWER The War Powers Resolution Wrestling Over the Resolution The Mayaguez Rescue Multinational Peacekeeping Force in Lebanon US Air and Intelligence Support to NATO in Libya A House of Cards The Use of Nuclear Weapons Chapter 12. COVERT ACTION THE SPY AND THE SLEEPY WATCHDOG COVERT ACTION: AMERICA'S SECRET FOREIGN POLICY Legal Underpinnings Policy Rationale THE METHODS OF COVERT ACTION Propaganda Political Manipulation Economic Disruption Paramilitary Operations Paramilitary Authority Secret Wars Assassination Plots Large-Scale Paramilitary Operations LIMITS FOR COVERT ACTION A LADDER OF ESCALATION FOR COVERT ACTION Threshold One: Routine Options Threshold Two: Modest Intrusions Threshold Three: High-Risk Options Threshold Four: Extreme Options AN EVALUATION OF COVERT ACTION COVERT ACTION DECISION MAKING Executive Branch Decision Procedures Reporting to Congress Legislative Prerogatives Accountability versus Micromanagement Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.1 INTELLIGENCE AND PROPRIETY Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.2 Chapter 13. Economic Statecraft A KING BUYS A SPECIAL AIRPLANE TRADE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY A Portrait of US Trading Partners North and South of the Border Mosel Wine and BMWs China Rising PROTECTIONISM VERSUS FREE TRADE GATT NAFTA The United States: No Longer the Solitary Economic Behemoth Trade Barriers ECONOMIC FRAGMENTATION AT HOME AND ABROAD The Multinationals Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.1 Fragmentation of Economic Power at Home Divisions with the Executive Branch Fission on Capitol Hill THE USE OF TRADE SANCTIONS Economic Carrots and Sticks The Limits of Economic Sanctions and Inducements Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.2 FOREIGN AID A Portrait of Foreign Aid A Pound of Containment and a Dash of Altruism Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.3 Souring on Aid Foreign Aid Successes Chapter 14. Cultural And Moral Suasion AMERICA VEERS OFF COURSE CULTURAL VALUES AND ETHICS IN FOREIGN POLICY Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.1 ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF THE 20TH CENTURY The Munich Pact Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuclear Deterrence Kant and the Consequentialists Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.2 The Pastoral Letter ESPIONAGE Domestic Intelligence Restraints Intelligence Restraints Abroad Deutch Rules Covert Action Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.3 Counterintelligence HUMAN RIGHTS Freedom and Human Dignity Quality of Life CHARTING A MORAL COURSE Three-Dimensional Ethics Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.4 Muscle and Morality PART FIVE. FOREIGN POLICY CHALLENGES Chapter 15. New Directions For American Foreign Policy CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND TRUTH-TELLING A FRESH AGENDA FOR THE UNITED STATES ABROAD Improved Citizen Awareness of Global Affairs Overcoming Institutional Fragmentation Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.1 Toward Greater International Empathy Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.2 An End to Compulsive Interventionism EMBRACING A MORE DISCRIMINATING FOREIGN POLICY Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.3 Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.4 Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.5 MAXIMS FOR AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Appendix: Key Foreign Policy Passages from the Constitution of the United States Foreign Policy Abbreviations Glossary Notes Credits Index