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American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership Power, Principle, and the Constitution,9780199733613
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American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership Power, Principle, and the Constitution

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ISBN13:

9780199733613

ISBN10:
0199733619
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/16/2013
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
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Summary

In American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership: Power, Principle, and the Constitution, preeminent scholar and renowned advisor on national security Loch K. Johnson offers students an insider's portrait of U.S. foreign policy that explores its underlying and driving constitutional principles. Featuring an engaging and accessible writing style, this unique book focuses on the fundamentals of foreign policy--its theory, historical evolution, institutions, and instruments--and offers an in-depth look at the tools that the U.S. uses to defend and advance its interests abroad, including diplomacy, trade, aid, war-making, moral suasion, spying, and covert action. It also shows how the personalities of people who hold high offices and other little-known, behind-the-scenes factors can influence foreign policy. Contemporary issues, including global terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, global environmental degradation, world population pressures, and migration issues, are addressed throughout.

FEATURES

Uses a levels-of-analysis approach, highlighting the significance of three levels where foreign policy is shaped: in the international setting, in domestic politics, and at the individual level

Chapter outlines, lists of learning objectives, and lists of key constitutional questions for each chapter help direct students' reading

Brief chapter-opening vignettes highlight historical events of significance to the study of U.S. foreign policy

"Perspectives on American Foreign Policy" text boxes present excerpts from key documents or insights from top experts

Author Biography


Loch K. Johnson is Regents Professor of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia. He is the author of more than 200 articles and the author or editor of twenty-eight books, including National Security Intelligence (2012) and The Threat on the Horizon: An Inside Account of America's Search for Security after the Cold War (OUP, 2011.)

Table of Contents


About the Author
Preface
Acknowledgments
PART ONE. UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Chapter 1. The Objectives And Instruments Of American Foreign Policy
AMERICA UNDER ATTACK
THE IMPORTANCE OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
THE OBJECTIVES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Maintaining Peace and Security
Securing Economic Prosperity
Promoting Quality of Life
Upholding Human Rights
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.1
THE INSTRUMENTS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
National Security Intelligence
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.2
Diplomacy
Military Force
Covert Action
Economic Statecraft
Moral and Cultural Suasion
PHILOSOPHIES OF FOREIGN POLICY
Chapter 2. An Analytic Construct for the Study of American Foreign Policy
HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI
THREE PERSPECTIVES ON FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONS
THE INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Balance of Power
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.1
Geopolitics
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.2
Complex Interdependence
THE DOMESTIC SETTING
The Mirror of the Past
Exceptionalism
The Constitution
Institutional Fragmentation
Pluralist Politics
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION-MAKER
Role-Playing
Past Experience
Distorted Perceptions
Chapter 3. A Constitutional Framework for American Foreign Policy
CONFLICT OVER PRESIDENTIAL WAR POWERS
SHARED POWERS
THE WAR POWER
Defensive and Offensive Warfare
Inherent Presidential Authority
War by Blank Check
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.1
THE TREATY POWER
The Destroyers Deal
Creeping Commitments
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.2
THE SEEDS OF ACQUIESCENCE
MONEY AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL DISPUTES
The Purse Strings
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.3
Diplomatic Recognition, Confirmation, Accountability
CONFLICT AND COMITY
PART TWO. THE INFLUENCES OF HISTORY
Chapter 4. The Formative Years of American Foreign Policy
THE SINKING OF THE MAINE
NATION BUILDING, 1776-1898
Apart from the World
Ambivalence toward Europe
Expansionist Stirrings
Monroe Delivers a Lecture
Westward Ho!
Civil War
A Nation Grown Bolder
EMERGENCE AS A GREAT POWER, 1898-1920
The Spanish-American War
Spreading Democracy and Opening Markets
Wilsonian Idealism
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 4.1
AMERICA AS A RELUCTANT LEADER, 1920-1945
The Fascist Threat
Embracing Internationalism--Gingerly
Chapter 5. The Cold War and the Doctrine Of Containment
HIGH NOON IN CUBA, 1962
THE NUCLEAR ERA
Containment and the Cold War
A New Militancy
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.1
PERIL POINTS
Korean War
Crises in Cuba
Vietnam
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.2
DÉTENTE
A Thawing in the Cold War
Fresh Conflicts
The Cold War Revived
Chapter 6. American Foreign Policy in a Fractured World
DEATH IN SOMALIA
A FRACTURED WORLD
NEW WORLD DISORDER
Disintegration of the Soviet Union
Bloodbath in the Balkans
Fusion in Western Europe
Desert Storm
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 6.1
Chaos in Somalia
WOLVES IN THE WOODS
Weapons Proliferation
Counternarcotics
Immigration
The Micro-States
Other Transnational Challenges
THE RISE OF GLOBAL TERRORISM
The 9/11 Attacks
"Preemptive" War in Iraq
Drone Warfare
PART THREE. INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS
Chapter 7. Institutional Conflict And Cooperation
THE PRESIDENT, THE CONGRESS, AND DIEN BIEN PHU
FRAGMENTS OF POWER
Efficiency versus Freedom
Presidents versus Lawmakers
A Foreign Policy Compact
THE PRESIDENCY AND LIMITS TO EXECUTIVE POWER
Information and Time
Permissibility
Resources
Previous Commitments
Formal Powers
THE FOREIGN POLICY BUREAUCRACY
National Security Council
The Departments of State and Defense
Turf Battles
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.1
THE CONGRESS
Minnows and Whales
Legislative Watchdogs
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.2
THE COURTS
Tilt Toward the President
Curbing Presidential Excess
FOREIGN POLICY POWER: A STUDY IN CUBISM
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.3
Chapter 8. Foreign Policy and the American People
A VICTORY FOR CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY
PUBLIC OPINION AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Democracy versus Demoscopy
The President and Public Opinion
Opinion Leadership
Congress and Public Opinion
Vox Populi
INTEREST GROUPS AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Foreign Lobbies
A Kaleidoscope of Domestic Pressures
A Diversity of International Pressures
THE INDIVIDUAL AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
The Lasswellian Hypothesis
Psychological Pressures on Foreign Policy Leaders
Operational Codes
The Worth of the Individual
PART FOUR. THE INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY
Chapter 9. Intelligence Collection and Analysis
INTELLIGENCE TO THE RESCUE
INTELLIGENCE AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF FOREIGN POLICY
THE ORIGINS OF AMERICA'S MODERN SPY AGENCIES
The Coordination of Intelligence
The Structure of Intelligence
The Intelligence Community
Inside the CIA
The Intelligence Missions
COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Planning and Direction
Collection
Targeting
Types of Intelligence
Gathering Intelligence
Processing
Analysis
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.1
Dissemination
SECRECY AND FOREIGN POLICY
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.2
Secrets Good and Bad
Executive Privilege
The Cloak of Executive Secrecy
Delay and Deceit
Prior Restraint
Chapter 10. Diplomacy
THE ATTACK OF THE BRICKERITES
TALKING INSTEAD OF FIGHTING
THE WIKILEAKS PAPERS: THE PRIVATE FACE OF DIPLOMACY
THE BREADTH OF DIPLOMACY
Counterterrorism and the Islamic World
Russia and China
Europe
Global Hot Spots
THE MAKING OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
The Hidden Side of Diplomacy
Military Agreements
THE DANGERS OF DIPLOMACY BY EXECUTIVE FIAT
Constitutional Diplomacy
Stirrings on the Fulbright Committee
The Case-Zablocki Act
The Treaty Powers Resolution
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 10.1
Two Houses Do Not Make a Home
DIPLOMACY'S FAR REACH
Chapter 11. Military Force
THE CAMBODIAN "INCURSION"
THE LAST FULL MEASURE
USES OF THE WAR POWER
WEAPONS OF WAR IN THE NUCLEAR AGE
Backpacks and City Busters
The Effects of Nuclear Weapons
Blast and Heat
Radioactivity
Atmospheric Alterations
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 11.1
Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Weapons
Star Wars
Deterrence and the Triad
Ground-Launched Missiles
Bombers
Submarines
Command and Control
The Arsenals
Strategic Nuclear Weapons
Tactical Nuclear Weapons
Conventional Weapons
How Much Is Enough?
Arms Control
DECIDING TO USE THE WAR POWER
The War Powers Resolution
Wrestling Over the Resolution
The Mayaguez Rescue
Multinational Peacekeeping Force in Lebanon
US Air and Intelligence Support to NATO in Libya
A House of Cards
The Use of Nuclear Weapons
Chapter 12. COVERT ACTION
THE SPY AND THE SLEEPY WATCHDOG
COVERT ACTION: AMERICA'S SECRET FOREIGN POLICY
Legal Underpinnings
Policy Rationale
THE METHODS OF COVERT ACTION
Propaganda
Political Manipulation
Economic Disruption
Paramilitary Operations
Paramilitary Authority
Secret Wars
Assassination Plots
Large-Scale Paramilitary Operations
LIMITS FOR COVERT ACTION
A LADDER OF ESCALATION FOR COVERT ACTION
Threshold One: Routine Options
Threshold Two: Modest Intrusions
Threshold Three: High-Risk Options
Threshold Four: Extreme Options
AN EVALUATION OF COVERT ACTION
COVERT ACTION DECISION MAKING
Executive Branch Decision Procedures
Reporting to Congress
Legislative Prerogatives
Accountability versus Micromanagement
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.1
INTELLIGENCE AND PROPRIETY
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.2
Chapter 13. Economic Statecraft
A KING BUYS A SPECIAL AIRPLANE
TRADE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
A Portrait of US Trading Partners
North and South of the Border
Mosel Wine and BMWs
China Rising
PROTECTIONISM VERSUS FREE TRADE
GATT
NAFTA
The United States: No Longer the Solitary Economic Behemoth
Trade Barriers
ECONOMIC FRAGMENTATION AT HOME AND ABROAD
The Multinationals
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.1
Fragmentation of Economic Power at Home
Divisions with the Executive Branch
Fission on Capitol Hill
THE USE OF TRADE SANCTIONS
Economic Carrots and Sticks
The Limits of Economic Sanctions and Inducements
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.2
FOREIGN AID
A Portrait of Foreign Aid
A Pound of Containment and a Dash of Altruism
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.3
Souring on Aid
Foreign Aid Successes
Chapter 14. Cultural And Moral Suasion
AMERICA VEERS OFF COURSE
CULTURAL VALUES AND ETHICS IN FOREIGN POLICY
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.1
ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF THE 20TH CENTURY
The Munich Pact
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Nuclear Deterrence
Kant and the Consequentialists
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.2
The Pastoral Letter
ESPIONAGE
Domestic Intelligence Restraints
Intelligence Restraints Abroad
Deutch Rules
Covert Action
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.3
Counterintelligence
HUMAN RIGHTS
Freedom and Human Dignity
Quality of Life
CHARTING A MORAL COURSE
Three-Dimensional Ethics
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.4
Muscle and Morality
PART FIVE. FOREIGN POLICY CHALLENGES
Chapter 15. New Directions For American Foreign Policy
CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND TRUTH-TELLING
A FRESH AGENDA FOR THE UNITED STATES ABROAD
Improved Citizen Awareness of Global Affairs
Overcoming Institutional Fragmentation
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.1
Toward Greater International Empathy
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.2
An End to Compulsive Interventionism
EMBRACING A MORE DISCRIMINATING FOREIGN POLICY
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.3
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.4
Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.5
MAXIMS FOR AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Appendix: Key Foreign Policy Passages from the Constitution of the United States
Foreign Policy Abbreviations
Glossary
Notes
Credits
Index


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