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The American System of Criminal Justice

by ;
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780495006015

ISBN10:
0495006017
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/3/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $282.66

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Summary

This classic best-seller, commonly referred to as "The Eagle", encourages students to become better citizens and to determine what justice means in our society as well as what role individuals play in the criminal justice system. This text examines criminal justice as an interdisciplinary endeavor, sharing elements from criminology, sociology, law, history, psychology, and political science. It challenges students to balance the mechanics and system of criminal justice with the human side of the story. Cole

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART ONE Crime and the Criminal Justice System
1(140)
Crime and Justice in America
2(34)
The Main Themes of This Book
5(1)
Crime and Justice as Public Policy Issues
6(2)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Questioning the Benefits of Imprisonment
8(5)
The Role of Public Opinion
8(1)
Contemporary Policies
9(1)
Crime and Justice in a Democracy
9(1)
Crime Control versus Due Process
10(2)
The Politics of Crime and Justice
12(1)
Defining Crime
13(2)
Types of Crime
15(6)
Visible Crime
15(1)
Occupational Crime
16(1)
Organized Crime
17(2)
Crimes without Victims
19(1)
Political Crime
19(1)
Cybercrime
20(1)
The Crime Problem Today
21(1)
Close Up: Hate Crimes: A Threatening Version of Visible Crime
22(4)
The Worst of Times?
22(2)
The Most Crime-Ridden Nation?
24(1)
Keeping Track of Crime
25(1)
Comparative Perspective Iceland: A Country with Little Crime
26(7)
Trends in Crime
30(3)
A Question of Ethics
33(1)
Summary
33(3)
Victimization and Criminal Behavior
36(32)
Crime Victimization
39(5)
Who Is Victimized?
40(2)
Acquaintances and Strangers
42(2)
Close Up: Victimization in the Family?
44(6)
The Impact of Crime
45(3)
The Experience of Victims within the Criminal Justice System
48(2)
Close Up: Victims' Rights
50(1)
The Role of Victims in Crime
51(1)
Doing Your Part: Crime Victims Assistance Volunteer
51(1)
Causes of Crime
51(6)
Classical and Positivist Theories
52(1)
Biological Explanations
53(3)
Psychological Explanations
56(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Dealing with Sex Offenders
57(8)
Sociological Explanations
57(3)
Life Course Explanations
60(2)
Women and Crime
62(2)
Assessing Theories of Criminality
64(1)
A Question of Ethics
65(1)
Summary
65(3)
The Criminal Justice System
68(34)
The Goals of Criminal Justice
72(1)
Doing Justice
72(1)
Controlling Crime
72(1)
Preventing Crime
73(1)
Criminal Justice in a Federal System
73(4)
Two Justice Systems
74(1)
Expansion of Federal Involvement
74(3)
Criminal Justice as a System
77(3)
The System Perspective
77(1)
Characteristics of the Criminal Justice System
78(2)
Operations of Criminal Justice Agencies
80(3)
Police
81(1)
Courts
81(1)
Corrections
82(1)
The Flow of Decision Making in the Criminal Justice System
83(6)
Steps in the Decision-Making Process
84(3)
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
87(2)
The Criminal Justice Process: The State of Michigan Versus Christopher Jones
89(4)
Crime and Justice in a Multicultural Society
93(5)
Disparity and Discrimination
93(1)
Explanations for Disparities
94(4)
Close Up: Racial Profiling
98(2)
A Question of Ethics
100(1)
Summary
100(2)
Criminal Justice and the Rule of Law
102(39)
Foundations of Criminal Law
105(6)
Substantive Law and Procedural Law
105(1)
Sources of Criminal Law
106(2)
Felony and Misdemeanor
108(1)
Criminal versus Civil Law
109(2)
Substantive Criminal Law
111(5)
Seven Principles of Criminal Law
111(3)
Elements of a Crime
114(1)
Statutory Definitions of Crimes
114(2)
Comparative Perspective: Islamic Criminal Law
116(10)
Responsibility for Criminal Acts
119(7)
Close Up: The Insanity Defense and Its Aftermath
126(2)
Procedural Criminal Law
128(8)
The Bill of Rights
129(1)
The Fourteenth Amendment and Due Process
130(1)
The Due Process Revolution
130(1)
The Fourth Amendment: Protection against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
131(1)
The Fifth Amendment: Protection against Self-Incrimination and Double Jeopardy
132(1)
The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel and a Fair Trial
133(2)
The Eighth Amendment: Protection against Excessive Bail, Excessive Fines, and Cruel and Unusual Punishments
135(1)
The Supreme Court Today
136(2)
A Question of Ethics
138(1)
Summary
138(3)
PART TWO Police
141(146)
Police
142(38)
The Development of Police in the United States
145(8)
The English Roots of the American Police
145(1)
Policing in the United States
146(7)
Law Enforcement Agencies
153(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Federal Law Enforcement and the War on Terrorism
154(5)
Federal Agencies
154(3)
State Agencies
157(1)
County Agencies
158(1)
Native American Tribal Police
158(1)
Municipal Agencies
158(1)
Comparative Perspective: Organization of the Police in France
159(1)
Police Functions
160(3)
Order Maintenance
161(1)
Law Enforcement
162(1)
Service
162(1)
Implementing the Mandate
163(1)
Organization of the Police
163(3)
Bureaucratic Elements
164(1)
Operational Units
164(2)
The Police Bureaucracy and the Criminal Justice System
166(1)
Police Policy
166(2)
Police Actions
168(4)
Encounters between Police and Citizens
168(1)
Police Discretion
169(1)
Domestic Violence
170(2)
Close Up: Battered Women, Reluctant Police
172(1)
Police and the Community
172(3)
Special Populations
173(1)
Policing in a Multicultural Society
173(2)
Close Up: Living under Suspicion
175(2)
Community Crime Prevention
176(1)
Doing Your Part: Community Policing Volunteer
177(1)
A Question of Ethics
177(1)
Summary
178(2)
Police Officers and Law Enforcement Operations
180(38)
Who Are the Police?
182(5)
Recruitment
182(1)
The Changing Profile of the Police
183(3)
Training
186(1)
The Police Subculture
187(4)
The Working Personality
188(1)
Police Morality
189(1)
Police Isolation
189(1)
Job Stress
190(1)
Police Response and Action
191(3)
Organizational Response
192(2)
Close Up: Holding the 911 Line
194(2)
Productivity
194(2)
Delivery of Police Services
196(9)
Patrol Functions
196(3)
Investigation
199(4)
Special Operations
203(2)
Issues in Patrolling
205(6)
Assignment of Patrol Personnel
205(5)
Community Policing
210(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Aggressive Patrol and Effective Policing
211(3)
The Future of Patrol
213(1)
Comparative Perspective: Patrol in Japan
214(1)
A Question of Ethics
215(1)
Summary
215(3)
Policing: Contemporary Issues and Challenges
218(38)
Police Abuse of Power
221(6)
Use of Force
221(3)
Corruption
224(3)
Close Up: Police and Outside Compensation
227(1)
Civic Accountability
228(4)
Internal Affairs Units
228(2)
Civilian Review Boards
230(1)
Standards and Accreditation
230(1)
Civil Liability Suits
231(1)
Policing and New Technology
232(8)
Investigative Tools
233(5)
Weapons Technology
238(2)
Homeland Security
240(1)
Doing Your Part: Homeland Security
241(5)
Preparing for Threats
241(3)
New Laws and Controversies
244(2)
Close Up: Swift Action Based on Limited Evidence
246(1)
Security Management and Private Policing
247(7)
Functions of Security Management and Private Policing
248(2)
Private Employment of Public Police
250(2)
The Public--Private Interface
252(1)
Recruitment and Training
252(2)
A Question of Ethics
254(1)
Summary
254(2)
Police and Constitutional Law
256(31)
Legal Limitations on Police Investigations
259(3)
Search and Seizure
259(1)
Arrest
260(1)
Warrants and Probable Cause
261(1)
Plain View Doctrine
262(2)
Open Fields Doctrine
263(1)
Plain Feel and Other Senses
263(1)
Warrantless Searches
264(4)
Special Needs beyond the Normal Purposes of Law Enforcement
264(2)
Stop and Frisk on the Streets
266(2)
Close Up: Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968)
268(5)
Search Incident to a Lawful Arrest
268(1)
Exigent Circumstances
269(1)
Consent
270(1)
Automobile Searches
270(3)
Questioning Suspects
273(2)
Miranda Rules
274(1)
Close Up: Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)
275(3)
The Consequences of Miranda
276(2)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Reduction of Rights in a Time of Terrorism
278(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
278(5)
Application of the Exclusionary Rule to the States
279(1)
Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule
280(3)
A Question of Ethics
283(1)
Summary
284(3)
PART THREE Courts
287(130)
Courts and Pretrial Processes
288(28)
The Structure of American Courts
291(2)
Effective Management of the State Courts
293(1)
Doing Your Part: Court-Appointed Special Advocates
294(1)
To Be a Judge
294(4)
Who Becomes a Judge?
294(2)
Functions of the Judge
296(1)
How to Become a Judge
297(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Problem-Solving Courts
298(1)
Close Up: The Image of Justice
299(2)
From Arrest to Trial or Plea
301(3)
Bail: Pretrial Release
304(7)
The Reality of the Bail System
305(1)
Bail Bondsmen
306(1)
Setting Bail
307(1)
Reforming the Bail System
308(3)
Close Up: Preventive Detention: Two Sides of an Issue
311(1)
Pretrial Detention
311(1)
Comparative Perspective: Pretrial Detention in Russia
312(1)
A Question of Ethics
313(1)
Summary
313(3)
Prosecution and Defense
316(34)
The Prosecutorial System
319(5)
Politics and Prosecution
319(1)
The Prosecutor's Influence
320(1)
The Prosecutor's Roles
321(2)
Discretion of the Prosecutor
323(1)
Comparative Perspective: Prosecution in Germany
324(6)
Key Relationships of the Prosecutor
326(4)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Community Prosecution
330(5)
Decision-Making Policies
330(5)
The Defense Attorney: Image and Reality
335(5)
The Role of the Defense Attorney
335(1)
Realities of the Defense Attorney's Job
336(1)
The Environment of Criminal Practice
337(2)
Counsel for Indigents
339(1)
Close Up: The Public Defender: Lawyer, Social Worker, Parent
340(5)
Private versus Public Defense
344(1)
Close Up: Counsel for the Indigent in Four Locales
345(2)
Attorney Competence
345(2)
A Question of Ethics
347(1)
Summary
348(2)
Determination of Guilt: Plea Bargaining and Trials
350(32)
The Courtroom: How It Functions
353(4)
The Courtroom Workgroup
354(2)
The Impact of Courtroom Workgroups
356(1)
Plea Bargaining
357(3)
Close Up: Banning Plea Bargaining in Tennessee
360(4)
Exchange Relationships in Plea Bargaining
361(1)
Tactics of Prosecutor and Defense
361(1)
Pleas without Bargaining
362(1)
Legal Issues in Plea Bargaining
362(1)
Criticisms of Plea Bargaining
363(1)
Trial: The Exceptional Case
364(2)
Comparative Perspective: Comparing Trial Processes: France and the United States
366(6)
Going to Trial
366(3)
The Trial Process
369(3)
Close Up The Peremptory Challenge Controversy
372(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Computer Simulations in the Courtroom
373(3)
Evaluating the Jury System
375(1)
Appeals
376(3)
Habeas Corpus
377(1)
Evaluating the Appellate Process
378(1)
A Question of Ethics
379(1)
Summary
379(3)
Punishment and Sentencing
382(35)
The Goals of Punishment
384(5)
Retribution---Deserved Punishment
385(1)
Deterrence
385(1)
Incapacitation
386(1)
Rehabilitation
387(1)
New Approaches to Punishment
388(1)
Close Up Restorative Justice in Vermont
389(1)
Forms of the Criminal Sanction
389(2)
Incarceration
390(1)
Comparative Perspective: Corporal Punishment in Singapore
391(14)
Intermediate Sanctions
396(1)
Probation
396(1)
Death
396(9)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished?
405(1)
The Sentencing Process
405(4)
The Administrative Context of the Courts
406(2)
Attitudes and Values of Judges
408(1)
Presentence Report
408(1)
Close Up Sample Presentence Report
409(3)
Sentencing Guidelines
409(2)
Who Gets the Harshest Punishment?
411(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Wrongful Convictions
412(1)
A Question of Ethics
413(1)
Summary
414(3)
PART FOUR Corrections
417(124)
Corrections
418(38)
Development of Corrections
420(10)
Invention of the Penitentiary
420(2)
Reform in the United States
422(4)
Reformatory Movement
426(1)
Improving Prison Conditions for Women
427(1)
Rehabilitation Model
428(1)
Community Model
428(1)
Crime Control Model
429(1)
Organization of Corrections in the United States
430(5)
Federal Correctional System
430(1)
State Correctional Systems
431(2)
Private Prisons
433(2)
Jails: Detention and Short-Term Incarceration
435(3)
Origins and Evolution
435(1)
The Contemporary Jail
436(1)
Who Is in Jail?
437(1)
Managing Jails
437(1)
The Law of Corrections
438(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Direct Supervision Jails
439(6)
Constitutional Rights of Prisoners
439(4)
Law and Community Corrections
443(1)
Law and Correctional Personnel
444(1)
Correctional Policy Trends
445(3)
Community Corrections
446(1)
Incarceration
447(1)
Comparative Perspective: Behind Bars in North America and Europe
448(3)
Close Up Prison Crowding Defies Easy Fixes
451(2)
A Question of Ethics
453(1)
Summary
453(3)
Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediate Sanctions
456(22)
Community Corrections: Assumptions
458(1)
Probation: Correction Without Incarceration
458(6)
Origins and Evolution of Probation
459(1)
Organization of Probation
460(1)
Probation Services
461(1)
Revocation and Termination of Probation
462(1)
Assessing Probation
463(1)
Intermediate Sanctions in the Community
464(3)
Intermediate Sanctions Administered Primarily by the Judiciary
465(2)
Comparative Perspective: Day Fines in Germany: Could the Concept Work in the United States?
467(2)
Intermediate Sanctions Administered in the Community
467(2)
Close Up Long Arm of the Law Has Man by the Ankle
469(4)
Intermediate Sanctions Administered in Institutions and the Community
471(2)
Close Up After Boot Camp, a Harder Discipline
473(1)
Implementing Intermediate Sanctions
473(1)
The Future of Community Corrections
474(1)
A Question of Ethics
475(1)
Summary
475(3)
Incarceration and Prison Society
478(40)
Close Up One Man's Walk through Atlanta's Jungle
480(1)
The Modern Prison: Legacy of the Past
481(1)
Goals of Incarceration
482(1)
Prison Organization
483(1)
Governing a Society of Captives
484(3)
The Defects of Total Power
485(1)
Rewards and Punishments
486(1)
Gaining Cooperation: Exchange Relationships
486(1)
Inmate Leadership
486(1)
The Challenge of Governing Prisons
487(1)
Correctional Officers: The Linchpin of Management
487(1)
The Officer's Role
487(1)
Close Up A Model Prison
488(3)
Recruitment of Officers
489(1)
Use of Force
490(1)
Who is in Prison?
491(2)
Elderly Prisoners
492(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Release of the Elderly
493(2)
Prisoners with HIV/AIDS
493(1)
Mentally Ill Prisoners
494(1)
Long-Term Prisoners
494(1)
The Convict World
495(2)
Adaptive Roles
496(1)
Close Up Survival Tips for Beginners
497(2)
The Prison Economy
498(1)
Women in Prison
499(6)
The Subculture of Women's Prisons
500(2)
Male versus Female Subcultures
502(1)
Issues in the Incarceration of Women
502(3)
Prison Programs
505(2)
Classification of Prisoners
505(1)
Educational Programs
506(1)
Vocational Education
506(1)
Prison Industries
507(1)
Doing Your Part: Mentor to Prisoners
507(2)
Rehabilitative Programs
508(1)
Medical Services
508(1)
Violence in Prison
509(1)
Assaultive Behavior and Inmate Characteristics
509(1)
Close Up On Prison Rape
510(4)
Prisoner--Prisoner Violence
511(1)
Prisoner-Officer Violence
512(1)
Officer-Prisoner Violence
512(1)
Decreasing Prison Violence
513(1)
A Question of Ethics
514(1)
Summary
514(4)
Reentry into the Community
518(23)
Prisoner Reentry
520(1)
Release and Supervision
521(1)
The Origins of Parole
521(1)
The Development of Parole in the United States
522(1)
Release Mechanisms
522(1)
Comparative Perspective; Parole Release in Japan
523(1)
Discretionary Release
523(1)
Close Up A Roomful of Strangers
524(3)
Mandatory Release
524(1)
Other Conditional Release
525(1)
Expiration Release
525(1)
Impact of Release Mechanisms
525(2)
Parole Supervision in the Community
527(2)
Community Programs following Release
528(1)
Close Up Returning to America
529(5)
Parole Officer: Cop or Social Worker?
530(1)
The Parole Bureaucracy
531(1)
Adjustments to Life outside Prison
532(1)
Revocation of Parole
533(1)
The Reentry Problem
533(1)
The Future of Prisoner Reentry
534(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Reentry Courts
535(1)
Civil Disabilities of Ex-Felons
535(1)
Pardon
536(1)
A Question of Ethics
537(1)
Summary
537(4)
PART FIVE The Juvenile Justice System
541(30)
Juvenile Justice
542(29)
Youth Crime in the United States
544(2)
The Development of Juvenile Justice
546(1)
New Directions in Criminal Justice Policy: Operation Ceasefire
547(5)
The Puritan Period (1646--1824)
548(1)
The Refuge Period (1824--1899)
548(1)
The Juvenile Court Period (1899--1960)
549(1)
The Juvenile Rights Period (1960--1980)
550(1)
The Crime Control Period (1980--Present)
551(1)
Comparative Perspective: The Hidden Juvenile Justice System in Norway
552(1)
The Juvenile Justice System
553(2)
Age of Clients
553(1)
Categories of Cases under Juvenile Court Jurisdiction
553(2)
The Juvenile Justice Process
555(7)
Police Interface
556(2)
Intake Screening at the Court
558(1)
Pretrial Procedures
558(1)
Transfer to Adult Court
558(1)
Adjudication
559(1)
Disposition
560(1)
Corrections
561(1)
Doing Your Part: Teen Court
562(3)
Problems and Perspectives
565(1)
Close Up Fernando, 16, Finds a Sanctuary in Crime
566(1)
A Question of Ethics
567(1)
Summary
568(3)
Appendix A Constitution of the United States: Criminal Justice Amendments 571(1)
Appendix B Understanding and Using Criminal Justice Data 572(7)
Glossary 579(8)
References 587(18)
Name Index 605(10)
Subject Index 615(12)
Photo Credits 627


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