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America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System (6th w/ CD-ROM)

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534547028

ISBN10:
0534547028
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/26/1998
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
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Summary

Open this book and step into America's court system! What's it like to be a judge? A prosecutor? A defense attorney? With Neubauer's best-selling book, you'll find out! This fascinating and well-researched text gives you the sense of being in the courthouse-of what it is like to work in and be a part of the system. This concept of the courthouse "players" illustrates each person's important role in bringing a case through the court process. Throughout the text, Neubauer highlights not only the pivotal role of the criminal courts within the criminal justice system but also the court's importance and impact on society as a whole.

Author Biography

David William Neubauer is now a professor at the University of New Orleans, where he chaired the political science department from 1982 to 1986.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
To the Student xvii
About the Author xix
Courts, Crime, and Controversy
1(24)
The Courts and the Criminal Justice System
2(3)
An Interdependent Criminal Justice System
3(1)
A Fragmented Criminal Justice Nonsystem
4(1)
Tensions and Conflicts
4(1)
Courts, Crime, and the Public
5(2)
Finding the Courthouse
7(1)
Identifying the Actors in the Courthouse
8(3)
Prosecutors
9(1)
Defense Attorneys
9(1)
Judges
9(2)
Defendants and Their Victims
11(1)
Following the Steps of the Process
11(4)
Crime
12(1)
Arrest
12(1)
Initial Appearance
12(1)
Bail
12(1)
Preliminary Hearing
12(1)
Charging Decision
12(1)
Grand Jury
13(1)
Arraignment
14(1)
Evidence
14(1)
Plea Negotiations
14(1)
Trial
14(1)
Sentencing
14(1)
Appeal
15(1)
Law on the Books
15(1)
Law in Action
15(1)
Case Focus: Overview
16(2)
Assembly-line Justice
17(1)
Discretion
17(1)
The Courtroom Work Group
17(1)
Close-Up: Overview
18(1)
Courts and Controversy
18(1)
Controversy: Overview
19(2)
Crime Control Model
20(1)
Due Process Model
20(1)
Conclusion
21(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
22(1)
Browsing the Web
22(1)
References
23(1)
For Further Reading
23(2)
PART I The Legal System 25(80)
Law and Crime
26(30)
The Basis of Law
27(1)
The Common Law Heritage
28(4)
Judge-Made Law
28(1)
Precedent
29(1)
Multiple Sources of Law
29(3)
The Adversary System
32(1)
Safeguards
32(1)
Presumption of Innocence
32(1)
The Rights of the Accused
33(2)
Due Process
34(1)
Bill of Rights
35(1)
Civil Law
35(5)
Basis for Filing a Civil Suit
37(1)
Remedies
38(1)
Using Civil Remedies to Fight Crime
39(1)
Controversy: Should Asset Forfeiture Be Limited?
40(2)
Civil Liability of Criminal Justice Officials
41(1)
Criminal Law
42(2)
Case Focus: Louisiana v. Peairs and the Difference between Criminal and Civil Law
44(1)
Elements of a Crime
44(3)
Guilty Act
45(1)
Guilty Intent
45(1)
Fusion of Guilty Act and Guilty Intent
46(1)
Attendant Circumstances
46(1)
Results
46(1)
Legal Defenses
47(1)
Criminal Law: Constant and Changing
48(2)
Close-Up: Rape Becomes Sexual Assault
50(1)
Pressures for Changing the Criminal Law
51(1)
Piecemeal Change
51(1)
Effects of the Criminal Law on the Courts
51(2)
Criminal Law and Inconsistencies
52(1)
Criminal Law and Plea Bargaining
52(1)
Criminal Law and Sentencing
52(1)
Conclusion
53(3)
Critical Thinking Questions
53(1)
Browsing the Web
54(1)
References
54(1)
For Further Reading
55(1)
Federal Courts
56(30)
Basic Principles of Court Organization
57(3)
Jurisdiction
58(1)
Trial and Appellate Courts
59(1)
Dual Court System
59(1)
History of the Federal Courts
60(1)
The Constitutional Convention
60(1)
Controversy: Should the Double Jeopardy Clause Prohibit Parallel State and Federal Prosecutions?
61(2)
The Judiciary Act of 1789
62(1)
1789-1891
62(1)
Court of Appeals Act of 1891
63(1)
Federal Courts Today
63(1)
U.S. Magistrate Judges
63(2)
Caseload of U.S. Magistrate Judges
64(1)
U.S. District Courts
65(3)
Caseload of U.S. District Courts
66(2)
Close-Up: The Effects of Federal Law on State and Local Criminal Justice
68(1)
U.S. Courts of Appeals
69(1)
Caseload of U.S. Courts of Appeals
69(1)
U.S. Supreme Court
70(1)
Caseload of U.S. Supreme Court
70(1)
Specialized Courts
71(2)
Military Justice
72(1)
Tribal Courts
72(1)
Federal Judicial Administration
73(2)
Chief Justice
73(1)
Judicial Conference of the United States
74(1)
Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
74(1)
Federal Judicial Center
74(1)
Judicial Councils
75(1)
U.S. Sentencing Commission
75(1)
Rising Caseloads in the Federal Courts
75(3)
Dramatic Increase in Workload
75(2)
How Many Federal Judges Are Too Many?
77(1)
Reduce Federal Jurisdiction?
77(1)
Controversy: Should State Crimes Also Become Federal Violations?
78(1)
Consequences of Federal Involvement in the Criminal Justice System
78(2)
Limited Scope
79(1)
Case Focus: U.S. v. Miller and the Right to Bear Arms
80(2)
Forum for Symbolic Politics
81(1)
Federal Dollars
81(1)
Conclusion
82(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
82(1)
Browsing the Web
83(1)
References
83(1)
For Further Reading
84(2)
State Courts
86(19)
History of State Courts
87(2)
Colonial Courts
87(1)
Early American Courts
88(1)
Courts in a Modernizing Society
88(1)
Trial Courts of Limited Jurisdiction: Lower Courts
89(1)
Trial Courts of General Jurisdiction: Major Trial Courts
89(2)
Criminal Cases
90(1)
Civil Cases
91(1)
Intermediate Courts of Appeals
91(1)
Courts of Last Resort: State Supreme Courts
92(1)
Court Unification
93(1)
Case Focus: Wachtler v. Cuomo and Court Financing
94(2)
Simplified Court Structure
94(2)
Centralized Administration
96(1)
Centralized Rule Making
96(1)
Centralized Judicial Budgeting
96(1)
Statewide Financing
96(1)
Court Reform: The Emerging Agenda
96(2)
Controversy: The Politics of Court Reorganization
98(1)
Consequences of Court Organization
99(1)
Decentralization and Choice of Courts
99(1)
Close-Up: Drug Courts
100(1)
Local Control and Local Corruption
100(1)
Conclusion
101(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
102(1)
Browsing the Web
102(1)
References
102(1)
For Further Reading
103(2)
PART II Legal Actors 105(126)
The Dynamics of Courthouse Justice
106(23)
The Courthouse and the People Who Work There
107(4)
The Courthouse
108(1)
The Courtroom
108(3)
Close-Up: ``Those People Behind the Scenes''
111(2)
Behind the Scenes
111(2)
Dynamics of Courthouse Justice
113(1)
Assembly-line Justice
113(2)
Strengths of the Explanation
114(1)
Weaknesses of the Explanation
114(1)
Assembly-line Justice Reconsidered
115(1)
Discretion
115(1)
Controversy: ``23 1/2 Hours in Court: 1,636 Cases Later''
116(1)
Legal Judgments
117(1)
Policy Priorities
117(1)
Personal Philosophies
117(1)
The Courtroom Work Group
117(3)
Mutual Interdependence
118(1)
Socialization
118(1)
Shared Decision Making
119(1)
Variability in Courtroom Work Groups
120(1)
The Problem of Delay
120(2)
Consequences of Delay
120(1)
Assessing the Costs of Delay
121(1)
Law-on-the-Books Approach to Court Delay
122(1)
Speedy-Trial Laws
123(1)
Case Focus: Barker v. Wingo and the Right to a Speedy Trial
123(1)
Limits of Speedy-Trial Laws
123(1)
Law-in-Action Approach to Court Delay
124(1)
Case Scheduling
123(2)
Efforts at Coordination
125(1)
Conclusion
125(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
126(1)
Browsing the Web
126(1)
References
126(2)
For Further Reading
128(1)
Prosecutors
129(27)
Role of the Prosecutor
130(1)
Broad Discretion
130(1)
Decentralization
131(1)
Prosecution in Federal Courts
131(3)
Case Focus: Burns v. Reed and Prosecutorial Immunity
134(2)
Solicitor General
134(1)
Criminal Division of the Justice Department
135(1)
Controversy: Does the Federal Government Need an Independent Counsel?
136(2)
U.S. Attorneys
138(1)
Prosecution in State Courts
138(3)
State Attorney General
139(1)
Chief Prosecutor
139(1)
Local Prosecutor
140(1)
The Prosecutor at Work
141(2)
Fighting
141(1)
Negotiating
142(1)
Drafting
142(1)
Counseling
142(1)
Administering
142(1)
The Prosecutor's Office at Work
143(1)
Assistant District Attorneys
143(1)
Learning the Job
143(1)
Close-Up: ``The Prosecutor: A Maze of Paperwork without End''
144(4)
Promotions and Office Structure
145(2)
Supervision
147(1)
Attempts at Greater Supervision
148(1)
Prosecutors and Courtroom Work Groups
148(3)
Conflicting Goals and Contrasting Work Groups
149(1)
Political Styles and Contrasting Work Groups
150(1)
The Expanding Domain of the Prosecutor
151(2)
Improving Police-Prosecutor Relationships
151(1)
Community Prosecution
152(1)
Conclusion
153(3)
Critical Thinking Questions
153(1)
Browsing the Web
153(1)
References
154(1)
For Further Reading
155(1)
Defense Attorneys
156(25)
The Right to Counsel
157(3)
Nonfelony Criminal Prosecutions
158(1)
Stages of the Criminal Process
158(2)
Case Focus: Gideon v. Wainwright and the Right to Counsel
160(2)
Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
160(1)
Self-Representation
161(1)
Defense Attorneys at Work
162(2)
Fighting
162(1)
Negotiating
162(1)
Drafting
162(1)
Counseling
163(1)
Administering
163(1)
Defense Attorneys and Courtroom Work Groups
164(1)
Rewards and Sanctions
164(1)
Close-Up: ``Legal Workload Frustrating to Both Sides''
165(2)
Variations in Cooperation
166(1)
An Assessment
166(1)
The Criminal Bar
167(2)
Diversity and Stratification of the Legal Profession
167(1)
Environment of Practice
168(1)
Providing Indigents with Attorneys
169(5)
Assigned Counsel
170(2)
Contract Systems
172(1)
Public Defender
172(1)
Assessing the Merits of Public Defenders
173(1)
Controversy: Are We Spending Too Little or Too Much on Indigent Defense?
174(1)
Lawyers and Clients
174(3)
Lawyers View Their Clients
176(1)
Defendants View Their Lawyers
176(1)
Conclusion
177(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
177(1)
Browsing the Web
178(1)
References
178(1)
For Further Reading
179(2)
Judges
181(27)
The Position of Judge
182(1)
Benefits of the Job
182(1)
Frustrations of the Job
183(1)
Judges at Work
183(3)
Fighting
185(1)
Negotiating
185(1)
Drafting
185(1)
Counseling
185(1)
Administering
186(1)
Judges within the Courtroom Work Group
186(1)
Differences among Judges
186(1)
Close-Up: ```Frustrated' Judge Gets the Gridlocked System Moving''
187(1)
Quality and Qualification of Judges
188(1)
Varying Roads to a Judgeship
188(4)
Executive Appointments
188(2)
Election of Judges
190(1)
Merit Selection
191(1)
Consequences of Judicial Selection
192(2)
Which System Is Best?
192(1)
Similarities in Judges' Backgrounds
193(1)
Diversity and the Judiciary
193(1)
Controversy: Is Gender Bias a Significant Problem in the Courts?
194(2)
Case Focus: Chisom v. Roemer and Diversity and the Bench
196(1)
Learning to Be a Judge
196(2)
Judicial Education
198(1)
Judging the Judges
198(2)
Judicial Independence
198(1)
Judicial Misconduct
199(1)
Controversy: Is Judicial Independence Being Undermined?
200(4)
State Judicial Conduct Commissions
200(2)
Federal Conduct and Disability Act
202(2)
Conclusion
204(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
204(1)
Browsing the Web
204(1)
References
205(2)
For Further Reading
207(1)
Defendants and Victims
208(23)
Defendants
209(1)
Characteristics of Defendants
209(1)
Close-Up: The Typical Defendant?
210(2)
Defendants in Court
211(1)
Courts Through the Eyes of Victims and Witnesses
212(1)
Frustrations in Coping with the Process
212(1)
Travails of Testifying
212(1)
Close-Up: Trial by Ordeal for Waiting Witnesses
213(1)
Surprising Support for the System
214(1)
Victims and Witnesses Through the Eyes of the Court
214(3)
Lack of Cooperation
215(1)
Characteristics of Victims
216(1)
Prior Relationships between Defendants and Victims
216(1)
Domestic Violence
216(1)
Aiding Victims and Witnesses
217(3)
Victim/Witness Assistance Programs
218(1)
Victim Compensation Programs
219(1)
Victim's Bill of Rights
220(1)
Aiding or Manipulating Victims?
220(2)
The Victims' Rights Movement
220(2)
Controversy: Should the Victims' Rights Amendment Be Adopted?
222(2)
Differing Goals
222(1)
Do Victims Benefit?
223(1)
Case Focus: Payne v. Tennessee and Victim Impact Statements
224(2)
Conclusion
226(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
226(1)
Browsing the Web
227(1)
References
227(2)
For Further Reading
229(2)
PART III Processing the Accused 231(138)
Arrest to Arraignment
232(30)
Crime
233(1)
Arrest
234(4)
Quality of Arrests
236(2)
Swelling Criminal Dockets
238(1)
Initial Appearance
238(1)
Close-Up: Bunton's Rocket Docket
239(1)
Charging
239(2)
Law on the Books: Prosecutorial Control
240(1)
Law in Action: Police Influence
240(1)
Law in Controversy: Should Prosecutors Set High Standards for Charging?
240(1)
Preliminary Hearing
241(1)
Law on the Books: Weighing Probable Cause
241(1)
Controversy: Is It Time to Rethink the War on Drugs?
242(2)
Case Focus: Country of Riverside v. McLaughlin and a Prompt Hearing before a Magistrate
244(2)
Law in Action: Variations in Using the Preliminary Hearing
244(2)
Law in Controversy: Political Realities
246(1)
Grand Jury
246(4)
Law on the Books: Shield and Sword
247(2)
Law in Action: Prosecutorial Domination
249(1)
Law in Controversy: Abolish or Reform the Grand Jury?
249(1)
Arraignment
250(1)
Law in Action Perspective: Funneling Effect
251(1)
Why Attrition Occurs
252(3)
Legal Judgments
253(1)
Policy Priorities
254(1)
Personal Standards of Justice
255(1)
Law on the Books: Written Guidelines
255(1)
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
255(3)
Celebrated Cases
256(1)
Serious Felonies
257(1)
Lesser Felonies
257(1)
The Lower Depths
257(1)
Conclusion
258(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
258(1)
Browsing the Web
259(1)
References
259(2)
For Further Reading
261(1)
Bail
262(23)
The Monetary Bail System
263(2)
Bail Procedures
264(1)
Forms of Bail
264(1)
Conflicting Theories of Bail
264(1)
The Context of Bail Setting
265(2)
Uncertainty
265(1)
Risk
266(1)
Jail Overcrowding
267(1)
The Process of Bail Setting
267(2)
Seriousness of the Crime
267(1)
Prior Criminal Record
267(1)
Situational Justice
268(1)
Bail Setting and the Courtroom Work Group
269(2)
Influence of the Prosecutor
269(1)
Geographic Differences
270(1)
Bail Bondsmen
271(2)
The Business Setting
271(1)
Bail Bondsmen and the Courtroom Work Group
272(1)
Effects of the Bail System
273(1)
Jail Conditions
273(1)
Close-Up: ``Caught in the Nightmare of New York City's Holding Pens''
274(2)
Case Disposition
275(1)
Failure to Appear
275(1)
Bail Reform Based on the Due Process Model
276(1)
Ten Percent Bail Deposit
276(1)
Pretrial Service Programs
276(1)
Bail Reform Based on the Crime Control Model
277(2)
Pretrial Crimes
278(1)
Preventive Detention
278(1)
Controversy: Should Defendants Be Forced to Take a Drug Test?
279(1)
Case Focus: U.S. v. Salerno and Preventive Detention
280(1)
Conclusion
281(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
282(1)
Browsing the Web
282(1)
References
282(2)
For Further Reading
284(1)
Disclosing and Suppressing Evidence
285(23)
Discovery
286(3)
Law on the Books: Rules Requiring Disclosure
286(2)
Law in Action: Informal Prosecutorial Disclosure
288(1)
The Exclusionary Rule and the Supreme Court
289(1)
Close-Up: ``Lawyers Claim DAs Exclude Evidence''
290(1)
Confessions
291(2)
The Warren Court Changes the Rules
291(1)
The Burger and Rehnquist Courts Limit Miranda
291(2)
Case Focus: Miranda v. Arizona and Limiting Police Interrogations
293(1)
Search and Seizure
294(2)
Search Warrants
296(1)
Controversy: Should the Exclusionary Rule Be Abolished?
296(2)
Warrantless Searches
298(1)
The Exclusionary Rule and the Courtroom Work Group
298(6)
Pretrial Motions
298(1)
Defense Attorney as Prime Mover
299(2)
The Defensive Posture of the Prosecutor
301(1)
Trial Judges as Decision Makers
301(2)
Police Testimony
303(1)
Law in Controversy: Costs of the Exclusionary Rule
304(1)
Conclusion
304(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
305(1)
Browsing the Web
305(1)
References
306(1)
For Further Reading
307(1)
Negotiated Justice and the Plea of Guilty
308(26)
The Many Faces of Plea Bargaining
309(1)
Law on the Books: Types of Plea Agreements
310(3)
Charge Bargaining
311(1)
Count Bargaining
311(1)
Sentence Bargaining
312(1)
Law in Action: Bargaining and Caseloads
313(1)
Law in Action: Bargaining and Discretion
313(1)
Presumption of Factual Guilt
313(1)
Close-Up: ``Where `Swift' Justice Means Just That''
314(1)
Costs and Risks of Trial
315(1)
What to Do with the Guilty
315(1)
Bargaining and the Courtroom Work Group
315(3)
Prosecutors
316(1)
Defendants
316(1)
Defense Attorneys
317(1)
Close-Up: ``The Name of the Game Is Plea Bargaining''
318(1)
Judges
318(1)
Dynamics of Bargaining
319(3)
Interaction Norms
319(1)
Decision-Making Norms
320(1)
Why Cases Go to Trial
320(1)
Jury Trial Penalty
321(1)
Copping a Plea
322(2)
Questioning the Defendant
323(1)
Case Focus: Santobello v. New York and Honoring a Plea Agreement
324(2)
Accepting a Plea
326(1)
Placing the Plea Agreement on the Record
326(1)
Law in Controversy: Abolishing Plea Bargaining
326(2)
Are the Changes Implemented?
327(1)
Is Discretion Eliminated or Just Moved Elsewhere?
327(1)
Controversy: Who Benefits from Plea Bargaining?
328(2)
Do Offsetting Changes Occur?
329(1)
Conclusion
330(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
330(1)
Browsing the Web
331(1)
References
331(2)
For Further Reading
333(1)
Trials and Juries
334(35)
History of Trial by Jury
335(1)
English Roots
336(1)
Colonial Developments
336(1)
Law on the Books: The Constitution and Trial by Jury
336(3)
Scope of the Right to a Trial by Jury
337(1)
Jury Size
338(1)
Unanimity
339(1)
Law on the Books: Selecting a Fair and Unbiased Jury
339(3)
Master Jury List
339(1)
Venire
340(1)
Voir Dire
341(1)
Jury Duty
341(1)
Close-Up: ``The Verdict: Juries Work''
342(1)
Law in Action: Selecting a Jury Biased in Your Favor
343(1)
Educating Jurors
343(1)
Jury Consultants
343(1)
Opening Statements
343(3)
The Prosecution Presents Its Case
346(2)
Burden of Proof
346(1)
Types of Evidence
347(1)
Rules of Evidence: Trustworthiness
347(1)
Close-Up: ``Genetics Meets Forensics''
348(2)
Rules of Evidence: Relevance
349(1)
Objections to the Admission of Evidence
350(1)
The Defense Presents Its Case
350(2)
Reasonable Doubt
350(1)
Challenging Scientific Evidence
351(1)
The Defendant as Witness
351(1)
Close-Up: ``Defense Attorneys Assail Star Witnesses''
352(1)
Alibi Defense
352(1)
Affirmative Defenses
353(1)
Rebuttal
353(1)
Closing Arguments
353(1)
Controversy: Should the Insanity Defense Be Abolished?
354(2)
Jury Instructions
356(1)
Jury Deliberations
357(1)
What Motivates a Jury?
357(1)
Are Juries Biased?
357(1)
The Verdict
357(1)
Post-Verdict Motions
358(1)
Law in Action: Trials as Balancing Wheels
358(2)
Popular Standards of Justice
359(1)
Uncertainty
359(1)
Prejudicial Pretrial Publicity
360(1)
Limited Gag Order
360(1)
Change of Venue
361(1)
Sequestering the Jury
361(1)
Conclusion
361(1)
Controversy: Should Cameras Be Allowed in the Courtroom?
362(2)
Critical Thinking Questions
362(1)
Browsing the Web
363(1)
Case Focus: Sheppard v. Maxwell and Prejudicial Pretrial Publicity
364(5)
References
364(3)
For Further Reading
367(2)
PART IV Sentencing the Guilty 369(64)
Sentencing Options
370(29)
Why Do We Sentence?
371(5)
Retribution
371(2)
Incapacitation
373(1)
Deterrence
373(1)
Rehabilitation
374(1)
Competing Sentencing Philosophies
375(1)
Controversy: Should Restorative Justice Replace Revenge-based Sentencing?
376(1)
Who Should Decide the Sentence?
376(4)
Legislative Sentencing Responsibility
377(2)
Judicial Sentencing Responsibility
379(1)
Executive Sentencing Responsibility
379(1)
What Sentence Should Be Imposed?
380(2)
Imprisonment
382(2)
Prison Overcrowding
382(1)
Conditions of Confinement Lawsuits
382(1)
High Costs
383(1)
Probation
384(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
385(1)
Fines
386(1)
Restitution
387(1)
The Death Penalty
388(2)
Eighth Amendment Standards
388(1)
Contemporary Death Penalty Laws
389(1)
Case Focus: Furman v. Georgia and Cruel and Unusual Punishment
390(2)
Close-Up: Public Opinion and the Death Penalty
392(2)
Appeals and Evolving Standards
392(2)
Death Row Inmates
394(1)
Conclusion
394(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
395(1)
Browsing the Web
395(1)
References
395(2)
For Further Reading
397(2)
Sentencing Decisions
399(34)
Courtroom Work Groups and Sentencing Decisions
401(3)
Probation Officers
401(2)
Prosecutors
403(1)
Defense Attorneys
403(1)
Judges
403(1)
Close-Up: Probation Officers Classify Defendants
404(1)
Normal Penalties and Sentencing Decisions
405(2)
Seriousness of the Offense
405(1)
Prior Record
406(1)
Aggravating or Mitigating Circumstances
407(1)
Law in Controversy: Uncertainty and Public Opinion
407(1)
Discrimination and Sentencing
407(1)
Imbalance versus Discrimination
407(1)
Conflicting Findings
408(1)
Discrimination and Economic Status
408(1)
Discrimination and Gender
409(1)
Why Are Women Increasingly Being Sentenced to Prison?
409(1)
Are Women Sentenced More Leniently than Men?
409(1)
Discrimination and Race
410(1)
Controversy: Should Federal Penalties for Crack Be Lowered to Remove Racial Disparities?
411(1)
Discrimination and Capital Punishment
412(1)
Offender-Victim Dyad
412(1)
Evidence of Discrimination since Gregg
412(1)
Evidence of No Discrimination since Gregg
413(1)
McCleskey v. Kemp Bars Social Science Evidence
413(1)
Disparities and Sentencing
413(3)
The Geography of Justice
414(1)
Judges' Backgrounds and Attitudes
414(2)
Increasing the Predictability of Sentencing
416(2)
Law in Controversy: Reducing Judicial Discretion
416(1)
Law on the Books: Determinate Sentencing Returns
416(1)
Law in Action: Diverse Impacts
417(1)
Case Focus: Mistretta v. U.S. and Sentencing Guidelines
418(1)
Sentencing Guidelines
418(3)
Law on the Books: Voluntary versus Presumptive Guidelines
419(1)
Law in Action: Varied Impacts
419(2)
Law in Controversy: Has Too Much Discretion Been Removed?
421(1)
Close-Up: ``Drug Sentence Draws Wrath of Judges''
422(1)
Increasing the Severity of the Penalty
422(2)
Law on the Books: Mandatory Minimum Sentences
422(1)
Law in Action: Nullification by Discretion
423(1)
Controversy: Should ``Three Strikes and You're Out'' Laws Be Adopted?
424(2)
Law in Controversy: Negative Side Effects
424(2)
Conclusion
426(7)
Critical Thinking Questions
426(1)
Browsing the Web
427(1)
References
427(4)
For Further Reading
431(2)
PART V Specialized Courts 433(79)
Appellate Courts
434(27)
Nature of the Appellate Process
435(2)
The Purposes of Appeal
436(1)
Scope of Appellate Review
436(1)
Appellate Court Procedures
437(3)
Notice of Appeal
439(1)
Appellate Court Record
439(1)
Briefing the Case
439(1)
Oral Argument
439(1)
Written Opinion
439(1)
Disposition
440(1)
Criminal Appeals
440(2)
Law on the Books: Expanded Opportunity to Appeal Criminal Convictions
440(1)
Law in Action: Defendants Rarely Win on Appeal
441(1)
Post-Conviction Review
442(2)
How Post-Conviction Remedies Differ from Appeals
442(1)
Expansion under the Warren Court
443(1)
Contraction under the Burger and Rehnquist Courts
443(1)
Congress Greatly Restricts Federal Habeas
443(1)
Case Focus: Coleman v. Thompson and Federal Court Scrutiny of State Court Convictions
444(1)
Controversy: Should Federal Courthouse Doors Be Closed to State Prisoners?
445(1)
Caseloads and Expedited Processing Techniques
446(3)
Law on the Books Responses: Increasing Reources
446(2)
Law in Action Responses: Expedited Processing Techniques
448(1)
Assessment of Responses
449(1)
State Supreme Courts
449(2)
Law on the Books: State Supreme Courts and Discretionary Dockets
449(1)
Law in Action: State Supreme Courts as Policy Makers
450(1)
Law in Controversy: State Supreme Courts and Death Penalty Cases
451(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court and Criminal Justice Policy
451(1)
Warren Court (1953-1969)
451(1)
Close-Up: ``A Shortage of Lawyers to Help the Condemned''
452(4)
Burger Court (1969-1986)
454(1)
Rehnquist Court (1986-)
455(1)
The Supreme Court in Broad Perspective
456(1)
Conclusion
456(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
457(1)
Browsing the Web
457(1)
References
458(2)
For Further Reading
460(1)
The Lower Courts
461(24)
Scope of the Lower Courts
462(3)
Felony Criminal Cases
463(1)
Nonfelony Criminal Cases
463(2)
Civil Cases
465(1)
Problems of the Lower Courts
465(2)
Inadequate Financing
466(1)
Inadequate Facilities
466(1)
Lax Court Procedures
466(1)
Unbalanced Caseloads
466(1)
Justice of the Peace Courts
467(1)
Abolition of the JP System
467(1)
Close-Up: Rural Justice
468(2)
Elimination of the Fee System
468(2)
Upgrading the Quality of the Personnel
470(1)
Municipal Courts
470(1)
The Assembly Line
470(1)
Case Focus: North v. Russell and Nonlawyer Judges
471(5)
The Courtroom Work Group in Municipal Court
472(1)
Sentencing
473(2)
Is the Process the Punishment?
475(1)
Controversy: Drunk Driving Prosecutions
476(2)
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
478(2)
Private Disputes
479(1)
Community-Oriented Mediation
479(1)
Criminal Justice-based Mediation
480(1)
Evaluation of ADR
480(1)
Conclusion
480(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
481(1)
Browsing the Web
482(1)
References
482(2)
For Further Reading
484(1)
Juvenile Courts
485(27)
Juvenile Courts 100 Years Ago
486(2)
Industrialization, Cities, and Crime
486(1)
The Child Savers and the Progressive Movement
487(1)
Parens Patriae
487(1)
How Juvenile Courts Differ from Adult Courts
488(1)
Emphasis on Helping the Child
488(1)
Informal Proceedings
488(1)
Proceedings Based on Civil Law
488(1)
Secret Proceedings
488(1)
Absence of Jury Trials
489(1)
Law on the Books: The Organization of Juvenile Courts
489(2)
Juvenile Court as a Separate Court
489(1)
Juvenile Court as Part of Family Court
489(1)
Juvenile Court as a Unit of Trial Court
489(1)
Law in Action: The Impact of Structure
490(1)
Juvenile Court Jurisdiction: Age
491(1)
No Consensus on Age of Juveniles
491(1)
Transfer to Adult Court
491(1)
Juvenile Court Jurisdiction: Subject Matter
492(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
492(1)
Controversy: Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults?
493(1)
Status Offenses
494(1)
Child-Victim
494(1)
Law in Action: One-Pot Jurisdiction
494(1)
Due Process in Juvenile Courts
494(2)
Key Court Decisions
495(1)
Important Congressional Acts
495(1)
Case Focus: In re Gault and Due Process Constraints on Juvenile Courts
496(1)
Courtroom Work Group
496(3)
Judges
498(1)
Hearing Officers
498(1)
Prosecutors
498(1)
Defense Attorneys
498(1)
Close-Up: The World of the Juvenile Court Judge
499(1)
Probation Officers
499(1)
Steps of the Juvenile Court Process
499(7)
Delinquency (Crime)
500(2)
Summons (Arrest)
502(1)
Intake (Initial Hearing)
502(1)
Detention Hearing
502(1)
Petition
502(1)
Conference
503(1)
Evidence: Gathering and Suppressing
503(1)
Plea Bargaining
503(2)
Adjudicatory Hearing
505(1)
Disposition
505(1)
Appeal
506(1)
Juvenile Courts: The Next 100 Years
506(1)
Crime Control Model: More Adult Penalties
506(1)
Due Process Model: More Youth Crime Prevention
507(1)
Conclusion
507(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
507(1)
Close-Up: Teen Court
508(4)
Browsing the Web
508(1)
References
509(2)
For Further Reading
511(1)
Epilogue 512(3)
Glossary 515(8)
Table of Cases 523(3)
Index 526


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