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America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System With Infotrac

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780534563400

ISBN10:
0534563406
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/30/2001
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $92.00
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Summary

Open this book and step into America's court system! What's it like to be a judge? A prosecutor? A defense attorney? With Neubauer's best-selling book, you'll find out! This fascinating and well-researched text gives you the sense of being in the courthouse-of what it is like to work in and be a part of the system. This concept of the courthouse "players" illustrates each person's important role in bringing a case through the court process. Throughout the text, Neubauer highlights not only the pivotal role of the criminal courts within the criminal justice system but also the court's importance and impact on society as a whole.

Author Biography

David William Neubauer is now a professor at the University of New Orleans, where he chaired the political science department from 1982 to 1986.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
To the Student xix
About the Author xxii
Courts, Crime, and Controversy
1(24)
The Courts and the Criminal Justice System
2(3)
An Interdependent Criminal Justice System
3(1)
A Fragmented Criminal Justice Nonsystem
3(1)
Tensions and Conflicts
4(1)
The Blame Game
5(1)
Courts, Crime, and the Public
5(1)
Finding the Courthouse
6(2)
Identifying the Actors in the Courthouse
8(2)
Prosecutors
8(1)
Defense Attorneys
9(1)
Judges
9(1)
Defendants and Their Victims
9(1)
Following the Steps of the Process
10(3)
Crime
10(1)
Arrest
10(1)
Initial Appearance
10(1)
Bail
10(1)
Preliminary Hearing
11(1)
Charging Decision
12(1)
Grand Jury
12(1)
Arraignment
12(1)
Evidence
12(1)
Plea Negotiations
12(1)
Trial
12(1)
Sentencing
13(1)
Appeal
13(1)
Law on the Books
13(1)
Law in Action
13(1)
Case Close-Up: Overview
14(1)
A Day in Court: Overview
15(2)
Assembly-line Justice
15(1)
Discretion
16(1)
The Courtroom Work Group
16(1)
Controversy: Overview
17(1)
Courts and Controversy
17(2)
Crime Control Model
18(1)
Due Process Model
18(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Overview
19(1)
Conclusion
20(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
21(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
21(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
22(1)
References
22(1)
For Further Reading
23(2)
PART I THE LEGAL SYSTEM 25(86)
Law and Crime
26(32)
The Basis of Law
27(1)
The Common Law Heritage
28(4)
Judge-Made Law
28(1)
Precedent
29(1)
Multiple Sources of Law
29(3)
The Adversary System
32(1)
Safeguards
32(1)
Presumption of Innocence
32(1)
The Rights of the Accused
33(2)
Due Process
34(1)
Bill of Rights
35(1)
Civil Law
35(2)
A Day in Court: ``The French Legal System''
37(5)
Basis for Filing a Civil Suit
38(1)
Remedies
39(2)
Using Civil Remedies to Fight Crime
41(1)
Civil Liability of Criminal Justice Officials
42(1)
Controversy: Should Asset Forfeiture be Limited?
42(1)
Criminal Law
43(2)
Court TV: Cabey v. Goetz
45(1)
Elements of a Crime
45(2)
Guilty Act
45(1)
Guilty Intent
46(1)
Fusion of Guilty Act and Guilty Intent
47(1)
Attendant Circumstances
47(1)
Results
47(1)
Legal Defenses
47(1)
Case Close-Up: Two Verdicts in the O. J. Trials
48(1)
Criminal Law: Constant and Changing
49(3)
Pressures for Changing the Criminal Law
50(2)
Piecemeal Change
52(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: The Question of Civil Liability
52(1)
Effects of the Criminal Law on the Courts
53(1)
Criminal Law and Inconsistencies
53(1)
Criminal Law and Plea Bargaining
53(1)
Criminal Law and Sentencing
54(1)
Conclusion
54(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
55(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
55(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
56(1)
References
56(1)
For Further Reading
57(1)
Federal Courts
58(31)
Basic Principles of Court Organization
59(2)
Jurisdiction
59(1)
Trial and Appellate Courts
60(1)
Dual Court System
61(1)
History of the Federal Courts
61(2)
The Constitutional Convention
62(1)
Controversy: Should the Double Jeopardy Clause Prohibit Parallel State and Federal Prosecutions?
63(2)
The Judiciary Act of 1789
64(1)
1789-1891
64(1)
Court of Appeals Act of 1891
65(1)
Federal Courts Today
65(1)
U.S. Magistrate Judges
65(2)
Caseload of U.S. Magistrate Judges
67(1)
U.S. District Courts
67(2)
Caseload of U.S. District Courts
68(1)
U.S. Courts of Appeals
69(1)
Caseload of U.S. Courts of Appeals
70(1)
A Day in Court: Bunton's Rocket Docket
70(1)
U.S. Supreme Court
71(2)
Caseload of U.S. Supreme Court
72(1)
Specialized Courts
73(1)
Military Justice
74(1)
CourtTV: New York v. Nelson
74(1)
Tribal Courts
75(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: A Federal Civil Rights Lawsuit is Filed
75(1)
Federal Judicial Administration
76(2)
Chief Justice
76(1)
Judicial Conference of the United States
77(1)
Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
77(1)
Federal Judicial Center
77(1)
Judicial Councils
78(1)
U.S. Sentencing Commission
78(1)
Rising Caseloads in the Federal Courts
78(3)
Dramatic Increase in Workload
79(1)
How Many Federal Judges Are Too Many?
80(1)
Reduce Federal Jurisdiction?
80(1)
Controversy: Should State Crimes Also Become Federal Violations?
81(1)
Consequences of Federal Involvement in the Criminal Justice System
82(2)
Limited Scope
82(1)
Forum for Symbolic Politics
83(1)
Federal Dollars
83(1)
Case Close-Up: U.S. v. Miller and the Right to Bear Arms
84(1)
Conclusion
85(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
85(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
86(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
86(1)
References
87(1)
For Further Reading
88(1)
State Courts
89(22)
History of State Courts
90(1)
Colonial Courts
90(1)
Early American Courts
90(1)
Courts in a Modernizing Society
91(1)
Trial Courts of Limited Jurisdiction: Lower Courts
91(1)
Trial Courts of General Jurisdiction: Major Trial Courts
92(2)
Criminal Cases
93(1)
Civil Cases
93(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: ``Doing Time at Tulane and Broad'' (Part I)
94(1)
Intermediate Courts of Appeals
95(1)
Courts of Last Resort: State Supreme Courts
96(1)
Court Unification
97(3)
Simplified Court Structure
100(1)
Centralized Administration
100(1)
Centralized Rule Making
100(1)
Centralized Judicial Budgeting
100(1)
CourtTV: California v. Powell
100(2)
Case Close-Up: Wachtler v. Cuomo and Court Financing
101(1)
Statewide Financing
102(1)
Court Reform: The Emerging Agenda
102(2)
Therapeutic Jurisprudence
102(1)
Drug Courts
103(1)
Controversy: The Politics of Court Reorganization
104(1)
Consequences of Court Organization
104(2)
Decentralization and Choice of Courts
105(1)
Local Control and Local Corruption
105(1)
A Day in Court: ``DuPage County Says the Jury Is Still Out on Its Fledgling Drug Court''
106(1)
Conclusion
107(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
107(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
108(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
109(1)
References
109(1)
For Further Reading
110(1)
PART II LEGAL ACTORS 111(134)
The Dynamics of Courthouse Justice
112(25)
The Courthouse and the People Who Work There
113(5)
The Courthouse
114(1)
The Courtroom
114(3)
Behind the Scenes
117(1)
A Day in Court: ``Those People Behind the Scenes''
118(1)
Dynamics of Courthouse Justice
118(1)
Assembly-line Justice
119(2)
Strengths of the Explanation
119(1)
Weaknesses of the Explanation
119(1)
Assembly-line Justice Reconsidered
120(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: ``Doing Time at Tulane and Broad'' (Part II)
121(1)
Discretion
122(1)
Legal Judgments
122(1)
Policy Priorities
122(1)
Personal Philosophies
123(1)
The Courtroom Work Group
123(1)
Mutual Interdependence
123(1)
CourtTV: Massachusetts v. Louise Woodward
124(2)
Socialization
124(1)
Shared Decision Making
124(1)
Variability in Courtroom Work Groups
125(1)
The Problem of Delay
126(2)
Consequences of Delay
126(2)
Assessing the Costs of Delay
128(1)
Law-on-the-Books Approach to Court Delay
128(1)
Case Close-Up: Barker v. Wingo and the Right to a Speedy Trial
129(1)
Speedy-Trial Laws
129(1)
Limits of Speedy-Trial Laws
130(1)
Law-in-Action Approach to Court Delay
130(1)
Controversy: ``Court Reform Unclogs Docket''
131(1)
Case Scheduling
132(1)
Efforts at Coordination
132(1)
Conclusion
132(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
133(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
133(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
134(1)
References
134(2)
For Further Reading
136(1)
Prosecutors
137(29)
Role of the Prosecutor
138(2)
Broad Discretion
138(2)
Decentralization
140(1)
Case Close-Up: Burns v. Reed and Prosecutorial Misconduct
140(1)
Prosecution in Federal Courts
141(2)
Controversy: Does the Federal Government Need an Independent Counsel?
143(3)
Solicitor General
144(1)
Criminal Division of the Justice Department
144(2)
U.S. Attorneys
146(1)
Prosecution in State Courts
146(1)
State Attorney General
146(1)
CourtTV: Florida v. Smith
147(2)
Chief Prosecutor
147(2)
Local Prosecutor
149(1)
The Prosecutor at Work
149(2)
Fighting
150(1)
Negotiating
150(1)
Drafting
150(1)
Counseling
150(1)
Administering
151(1)
The Prosecutor's Office at Work
151(3)
Assistant District Attorneys
151(1)
Learning the Job
152(2)
A Day in Court: The Good Fight Takes Its Toll
154(2)
Promotions and Office Structure
155(1)
Supervision
155(1)
Attempts at Greater Supervision
155(1)
Prosecutors and Courtroom Work Groups
156(2)
Conflicting Goals and Contrasting Work Groups
157(1)
Political Styles and Contrasting Work Groups
157(1)
The Expanding Domain of the Prosecutor
158(1)
Improving Police-Prosecutor Relationships
158(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: DA Harry Connick Defends His Aggressive Tactics
159(2)
Community Prosecution
160(1)
Crime & Punishment: The Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Tracy McKay
161(1)
Conclusion
162(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
162(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
162(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
163(1)
References
164(1)
For Further Reading
165(1)
Defense Attorneys
166(25)
The Right to Counsel
167(1)
Nonfelony Criminal Prosecutions
167(1)
Case Close-Up: Gideon v. Wainwright and the Right to Counsel
168(4)
Stages of the Criminal Process
168(2)
Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
170(1)
Self-Representation
170(2)
Defense Attorneys at Work
172(2)
Fighting
172(1)
Negotiating
172(1)
Drafting
173(1)
Counseling
173(1)
Administering
173(1)
Defense Attorneys and Courtroom Work Groups
174(1)
Rewards and Sanctions
174(1)
A Day in Court: ``Legal Workload Frustrating to Both Sides''
175(2)
Variations in Cooperation
176(1)
An Assessment
176(1)
The Criminal Bar
177(2)
Diversity and Stratification of the Legal Profession
177(1)
Environment of Practice
178(1)
Providing Indigents with Attorneys
179(1)
Assigned Counsel
179(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Limitations Facing the Defense
180(4)
Contract Systems
181(1)
Public Defender
182(1)
Assessing the Merits of Public Defenders
183(1)
Controversy: Are We Spending Too Little or Too Much on Indigent Defense?
184(1)
Lawyers and Clients
184(2)
Lawyers View Their Clients
185(1)
Defendants View Their Lawyers
186(1)
CourtTV: The Greatest Trials of All Time: The Scottsboro Boys
186(1)
Conclusion
187(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
187(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
188(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
189(1)
References
189(1)
For Further Reading
190(1)
Judges
191(29)
The Position of Judge
192(1)
Benefits of the Job
192(1)
Frustrations of the Job
193(1)
Judges at Work
193(2)
Fighting
193(1)
Negotiating
194(1)
Drafting
195(1)
Counseling
195(1)
Administering
195(1)
Crime & Punishment: State of Illinois v. Jane Maloy
195(1)
Judges within the Courtroom Work Group
195(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Judge Raymond Bigelow, Ex-Prosecutor
196(1)
A Day in Court: ```Frustrated' Judge Gets the Gridlocked System Moving''
197(1)
Quality and Qualification of Judges
198(1)
Varying Roads to a Judgeship
198(4)
Executive Appointments
198(2)
Election of Judges
200(1)
Merit Selection
201(1)
Consequences of Judicial Selection
202(2)
Which System Is Best?
202(1)
Similarities in Judges' Backgrounds
202(1)
Diversity and the Judiciary
203(1)
Controversy: Is Gender Bias a Significant Problem in the Courts?
204(2)
Case Close-Up: Chisom v. Roemer and Diversity and the Bench
206(1)
Judicial Education
206(2)
Judging the Judges
208(1)
Judicial Independence
208(1)
Judicial Misconduct
208(1)
Controversy: Is Judicial Independence Being Undermined?
209(5)
State Judicial Conduct Commissions
211(1)
Federal Conduct and Disability Act
212(2)
Conclusion
214(6)
Critical Thinking Questions
214(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
215(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
216(1)
References
216(2)
For Further Reading
218(2)
Defendants and Victims
220(25)
Defendants
221(2)
Characteristics of Defendants
221(2)
Defendants in Court
223(1)
Courts Through the Eyes of Victims and Witnesses
223(1)
Frustrations in Coping with the Process
223(1)
Travails of Testifying
224(1)
Surprising Support for the System
224(1)
Victims and Witnesses Through the Eyes of the Court
224(1)
A Day in Court: Trial by Ordeal for Waiting Witnesses
225(3)
Lack of Cooperation
225(2)
Characteristics of Victims
227(1)
Prior Relationships between Defendants and Victims
227(1)
Domestic Violence
227(1)
Aiding Victims and Witnesses
228(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: The Anguish of the Victims
229(2)
Victim/Witness Assistance Programs
229(2)
Victim Compensation Programs
231(1)
CourtTV: Vermont v. Grace
231(1)
Crime & Punishment: The State of Illinois v. Bobby Hart
232(1)
Victim's Bill of Rights
232(1)
Aiding or Manipulating Victims?
233(1)
The Victims' Rights Movement
233(1)
Controversy: Should the Victims' Rights Amendment Be Adopted?
234(2)
Case Close-Up: Payne v. Tennessee and Victim Impact Statements
236(2)
Differing Goals
236(1)
Do Victims Benefit?
237(1)
Conclusion
238(7)
Critical Thinking Questions
238(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
239(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
240(1)
References
240(2)
For Further Reading
242(3)
PART III PROCESSING THE ACCUSED 245(138)
Arrest to Arraignment
246(28)
Crime
247(1)
Arrest
248(2)
Quality of Arrests
248(2)
Swelling Criminal Dockets
250(1)
Crime & Punishment: The Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Darnell Jameson
250(1)
Initial Appearance
251(1)
Charging
251(1)
Controversy: Is It Time to Rethink the War on Drugs?
252(2)
A Day in Court: ``Hell's Waiting Room''
254(2)
Law on the Books: Prosecutorial Control
254(1)
Law in Action: Police Influence
255(1)
Law in Controversy: Should Prosecutors Set High Standards for Charging?
255(1)
Preliminary Hearing
256(1)
Law on the Books: Weighing Probable Cause
256(1)
Law in Action: Variations in Using the Preliminary Hearing
256(1)
Case Close-Up: County of Riverside v. McLaughlin and a Prompt Hearing before a Magistrate
257(1)
CourtTV: Campbell v. Florida
258(1)
Law in Controversy: Political Realities
259(1)
Grand Jury
259(3)
Law on the Books: Shield and Sword
260(1)
Law in Action: Prosecutorial Domination
261(1)
Law in Controversy: Reform the Grand Jury?
262(1)
Arraignment
262(2)
Law-in-Action Perspective: Case Attrition
264(1)
Why Attrition Occurs
264(2)
Legal Judgments
265(1)
Policy Priorities
266(1)
Personal Standards of Justice
266(1)
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
266(2)
Celebrated Cases
267(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: New Orleans' Bloodiest Week in Memory
268(1)
Serious Felonies
269(1)
Lesser Felonies
269(1)
The Lower Depths
269(1)
Conclusion
269(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
270(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
271(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
271(1)
References
272(1)
For Further Reading
273(1)
Bail
274(24)
Law on the Books: The Monetary Bail System
275(2)
Bail Procedures
275(1)
Forms of Bail
276(1)
Conflicting Theories of Bail
276(1)
Law in Action: The Context of Bail Setting
277(2)
Uncertainty
278(1)
Risk
278(1)
Jail Overcrowding
278(1)
The Process of Bail Setting
279(1)
A Day in Court: Get Outta Jail Free
280(2)
Seriousness of the Crime
280(1)
Prior Criminal Record
281(1)
Situational Justice
282(1)
Bail Setting and the Courtroom Work Group
282(1)
Influence of the Prosecutor
282(1)
Geographic Differences
282(1)
Bail Bondsmen
283(2)
The Business Setting
283(1)
Bail Bondsmen and the Courtroom Work Group
284(1)
A Day in Court: ``So I'm a Bounty Hunter; You Got a Problem with that, Pal?''
285(1)
Effects of the Bail System
286(1)
Jail Conditions
286(1)
Case Disposition
286(1)
Failure to Appear
287(1)
Bail Reform Based on the Due Process Model
287(2)
Ten Percent Bail Deposit
288(1)
Pretrial Service Programs
288(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Awaiting Trial in Foti's Fortress
289(1)
Bail Reform Based on the Crime Control Model
290(1)
Pretrial Crimes
290(1)
Preventive Detention
290(1)
Controversy: Should Defendants be Forced to Take a Drug Test?
291(1)
Case Close-Up: U.S. v. Salerno and Preventive Detention
292(1)
Conclusion
293(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
294(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
294(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
295(1)
References
296(1)
For Further Reading
297(1)
Disclosing and Suppressing Evidence
298(24)
Discovery
299(3)
Law on the Books: Rules Requiring Disclosure
299(1)
Law in Action: Informal Prosecutorial Disclosure
300(1)
Law and Controversy: Requiring Reciprocal Disclosure
301(1)
A Day in Court: ``Lawyers Claim DAs Exclude Evidence''
302(1)
The Exclusionary Rule and the Supreme Court
303(1)
Confessions
303(2)
The Warren Court Changes the Rules
304(1)
The Burger and Rehnquist Courts Limit Miranda
305(1)
Search and Seizure
305(1)
Case Close-Up: Miranda v. Arizona and Limiting Police Interrogations
306(3)
Search Warrants
307(2)
Warrantless Searches
309(1)
The Exclusionary Rule and the Courtroom Work Group
309(1)
Controversy: Should the Exclusionary Rule Be Abolished?
310(4)
Pretrial Motions
310(1)
Defense Attorney as Prime Mover
311(2)
The Defensive Posture of the Prosecutor
313(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: The DA Fails to Disclose a Witness Statement
314(2)
Trial Judges As Decision Makers
316(1)
Policy Testimony
316(1)
CourtTV: Florida v. Wuornos
316(1)
Law and Controversy: Costs of the Exclusionary Rule
317(1)
Conclusion
318(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
318(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
319(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
319(1)
References
320(1)
For Further Reading
320(2)
Negotiated Justice and the Plea of Guilty
322(26)
The Many Faces of Plea Bargaining
323(4)
Law on the Books: Types of Plea Agreements
324(1)
Charge Bargaining
325(1)
Count Bargaining
326(1)
Sentence Bargaining
327(1)
Law in Action: Bargaining and Caseloads
327(1)
A Day in Court: ``Where `Swift' Justice Means Just That''
328(1)
Law in Action: Bargaining and Discretion
328(1)
Presumption of Factual Guilt
328(1)
Costs and Risks of Trial
329(1)
What to Do with the Guilty
329(1)
CourtTV: New Mexico v. Gilbert
329(1)
Bargaining and the Courtroom Work Group
330(2)
Prosecutors
330(1)
Defendants
331(1)
Defense Attorneys
331(1)
Judges
332(1)
A Day in Court: ``The Name of the Game Is Plea Bargaining''
332(1)
Dynamics of Bargaining
333(3)
Interaction Norms
333(1)
Decision-Making Norms
334(1)
Why Cases Go to Trial
334(1)
Jury Trial Penalty
335(1)
Copping a Plea
336(3)
Questioning the Defendant
336(1)
Accepting a Plea
337(2)
Placing the Plea Agreement on the Record
339(1)
Case Close-Up: Santobello v. New York and Honoring a Plea Agreement
339(1)
Law in Controversy: Abolishing Plea Bargaining
340(1)
Are the Changes Implemented?
340(1)
Is Discretion Eliminated or Just Moved Elsewhere?
340(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Pleading Guilty to Four Armed Robberies
341(1)
Controversy: Who Benefits from Plea Bargaining?
342(2)
Do Offsetting Changes Occur?
343(1)
Conclusion
344(4)
Critical Thinking Questions
344(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
344(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
345(1)
References
345(2)
For Further Reading
347(1)
Trials and Juries
348(35)
History of Trial by Jury
349(1)
English Roots
349(1)
Colonial Developments
350(1)
Law on the Books: The Constitution and Trial by Jury
350(3)
Scope of the Right to a Trial by Jury
351(1)
Jury Size
352(1)
Unanimity
353(1)
Law on the Books: Selecting a Fair and Unbiased Jury
353(3)
Master Jury List
353(1)
Venire
354(1)
Voir Dire
354(1)
Jury Duty
355(1)
A Day in Court: ``The Verdict: Juries Work''
356(1)
Law in Action: Choosing a Jury Biased in Your Favor
356(1)
Educating Jurors
357(1)
Jury Consultants
357(1)
Opening Statements
357(1)
The Prosecution Presents Its Case
357(5)
Burden of Proof
360(1)
Types of Evidence
360(1)
Rules of Evidence: Trustworthiness
361(1)
Rules of Evidence: Relevance
361(1)
Scientific Evidence
361(1)
Objections to the Admission of Evidence
362(1)
CourtTV: The Greatest Trials of All Time: The Trial of Sam Sheppard
362(1)
The Defense Presents Its Case
363(2)
Reasonable Doubt
363(1)
The Defendant As Witness
363(1)
Alibi Defense
364(1)
Affirmative Defenses
364(1)
Challenging Scientific Evidence
364(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Two Trial-Day Surprises
365(1)
Controversy: Should the Insanity Defense Be Abolished?
366(2)
Rebuttal
368(1)
Closing Arguments
368(1)
Jury Instructions
368(1)
Jury Deliberations
369(1)
What Motivates a Jury?
369(1)
Are Juries Biased?
370(1)
The Verdict
370(1)
Post-Verdict Motions
370(1)
Law in Action: Trials as Balancing Wheels
371(1)
Popular Standards of Justice
371(1)
Uncertainty
372(1)
Prejudicial Pretrial Publicity
372(1)
Case Close-Up: Sheppard v. Maxwell and Prejudicial Pretrial Publicity
373(2)
Limited Gag Order
374(1)
Change of Venue
374(1)
Sequestering the Jury
375(1)
Controversy: Should Cameras Be Allowed in the Courtroom?
375(2)
Conclusion
377(6)
Critical Thinking Questions
377(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
377(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
378(1)
References
379(1)
For Further Reading
380(3)
PART IV SENTENCING THE GUILTY 383(68)
Sentencing Options
384(31)
Why Do We Sentence?
385(4)
Retribution
385(1)
Incapacitation
386(1)
Deterrence
387(1)
Rehabilitation
388(1)
Competing Sentencing Philosophies
389(1)
Who Should Decide the Sentence?
389(1)
Controversy: Should Restorative Justice Replace Revenge-Based Sentencing?
390(4)
Legislative Sentencing Responsibility
390(2)
Judicial Sentencing Responsibility
392(1)
Executive Sentencing Responsibility
393(1)
CourtTV: The Karla Faye Tucker Story
394(1)
What Sentence Should Be Imposed?
394(2)
Imprisonment
396(3)
Prison Overcrowding
396(1)
Conditions of Confinement Lawsuits
396(2)
High Costs
398(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Doing Time on the Farm
399(3)
Probation
400(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
401(1)
Fines
401(1)
Restitution
402(1)
Crime & Punishment: The State of Illinois v. Stephanie Caneelly
402(1)
The Death Penalty
403(2)
Eighth Amendment Standards
404(1)
Controversy: Should a Moratorium on the Death Penalty Be Imposed?
405(1)
Case Close-Up: Furman v. Georgia and Cruel and Unusual Punishment
406(4)
Contemporary Death Penalty Laws
406(1)
Appeals and Evolving Standards
407(2)
Death Row Inmates
409(1)
Conclusion
410(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
410(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
411(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
412(1)
References
412(2)
For Further Reading
414(1)
Sentencing
415(36)
Courtroom Work Groups and Sentencing Decisions
416(2)
Probation Officers
417(1)
A Day in Court: Probation Officers Classify Defendants
418(2)
Prosecutors
419(1)
Defense Attorneys
419(1)
Judges
420(1)
Normal Penalties and Sentencing Decisions
420(2)
Seriousness of the Offense
421(1)
Prior Record
421(1)
Aggravating or Mitigating Circumstances
422(1)
Law in Controversy: Uncertainty and Public Opinion
422(1)
Discrimination and Sentencing
422(1)
Imbalance versus Discrimination
423(1)
Crime & Punishment: The State of Illinois v. Nikita McNutt
423(1)
Conflicting Findings
424(1)
Discrimination and Economic Status
424(1)
Discrimination and Gender
424(1)
Why Are Women Increasingly Being Sentenced to Prison?
424(1)
Are Women Sentenced More Leniently than Men?
425(1)
Discrimination and Race
425(1)
Controversy: Should Federal Penalties for Crack Be Lowered to Remove Racial Disparities?
426(1)
Discrimination and Capital Punishment
427(2)
Offender-Victim Dyad
427(1)
Evidence of Discrimination since Gregg
428(1)
Evidence of No Discrimination since Gregg
428(1)
McCleskey v. Kemp Bars Social Science Evidence
429(1)
Disparities and Sentencing
429(2)
The Geography of Justice
430(1)
Judges' Backgrounds and Attitudes
430(1)
Increasing the Predictability of Sentencing
431(2)
Law in Controversy: Reducing Judicial Discretion
431(1)
Law on the Books: Determinate Sentencing Returns
432(1)
Law in Action: Diverse Impacts
432(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: The Jury Chooses Death
433(1)
Sentencing Guidelines
434(1)
Case Close-Up: Mistretta v. U.S. and Sentencing Guidelines
435(3)
Law on the Books: Voluntary versus Presumptive Guidelines
435(1)
Law in Action: Varied Impacts
436(2)
Law in Controversy: Has Too Much Discretion Been Removed?
438(1)
Increasing the Severity of the Penalty
438(1)
Law on the Books: Mandatory Minimum Sentences
438(1)
A Day in Court: ``Drug Sentencing Draws Wrath of Judges''
439(1)
Law in Action: Nullification by Discretion
439(1)
Controversy: Should ``Three Strikes and You're Out'' Laws Be Passed?
440(2)
CourtTV: Maximum Security
442(1)
Law in Controversy: Negative Side Effects
442(1)
Conclusion
443(8)
Critical Thinking Questions
443(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
443(2)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
445(1)
References
445(4)
For Further Reading
449(2)
PART V APPELLATE, LOWER, AND JUVENILE COURTS 451(79)
Appellate Courts
452(26)
Nature of the Appellate Process
452(3)
The Purposes of Appeal
454(1)
Scope of Appellate Review
454(1)
Appellate Court Procedures
455(4)
Notice of Appeal
456(1)
Appellate Court Record
456(1)
Briefing the Case
457(1)
Oral Argument
457(1)
Written Opinion
458(1)
Disposition
458(1)
Criminal Appeals
459(2)
Law on the Books: Expanded Opportunity to Appeal Criminal Convictions
459(1)
Law in Action: Defendants Rarely Win on Appeal
459(2)
Post-Conviction Review
461(1)
How Post-Conviction Remedies Differ from Appeals
461(1)
Expansion under the Warren Court
461(1)
Case Close-Up: Coleman v. Thompson and Federal Court Scrutiny of State Court Convictions
462(1)
Contraction under the Burger and Rehnquist Courts
462(1)
CourtTV: New Jersey v. Landano
463(1)
Congress Greatly Restricts Federal Habeas
463(1)
State Supreme Courts
463(1)
A Day in Court: ``A Self-Appointed Lawyer for the Nation's Condemned''
464(1)
Law on the Books: State Supreme Courts and Discretionary Dockets
464(1)
Controversy: Should Federal Courthouse Doors Be Closed to State Prisoners?
465(2)
Law in Action: State Supreme Courts as Policy Makers
466(1)
Law in Controversy: State Supreme Courts and Death Penalty Cases
466(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court and Criminal Justice Policy
467(1)
The Warren Court (1953-1969)
467(1)
Controversy: Innocent on Death Row?
468(4)
The Burger Court (1969-1986)
470(1)
The Rehnquist Court (1986-)
470(2)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: A Reversal on Narrow Grounds
472(1)
The Post-Rehnquist Court
473(1)
The Supreme Court in Broad Perspective
473(1)
Conclusion
473(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
473(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
474(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
475(1)
References
476(1)
For Further Reading
477(1)
The Lower Courts
478(23)
Scope of the Lower Courts
479(3)
Felony Criminal Cases
479(1)
Nonfelony Criminal Cases
480(1)
Civil Cases
480(2)
A Day in Court: ``(Traffic) Crime and Punishment''
482(1)
Problems of the Lower Courts
482(2)
Inadequate Financing
484(1)
Inadequate Facilities
484(1)
Lax Court Procedures
484(1)
Unbalanced Caseloads
484(1)
Rural Justice
484(2)
Lower Caseloads
484(1)
Lack of Resources
485(1)
Familiarity
485(1)
Assessing Rural Justice
485(1)
Justice of the Peace Courts
486(1)
Abolition of the JP System
486(1)
Upgrading the Quality of the Personnel
487(1)
Municipal Courts
487(1)
Case Close-Up: North v. Russell and Nonlawyer Judges
488(4)
The Assembly Line
488(2)
The Courtroom Work Group
490(1)
Sentencing
490(1)
Is the Process the Punishment?
491(1)
Controversy: Should Drunk-Driving Prosecutions Be Increased?
492(2)
Court Community Collaboration
494(2)
Community Dispute Settlement Centers
495(1)
Community Courts
496(1)
Conclusion
496(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
497(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
497(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
498(1)
References
499(1)
For Further Reading
500(1)
Juvenile Courts
501(29)
Juvenile Courts 100 Years Ago
502(1)
Industrialization, Cities, and Crime
502(1)
The Child Savers and the Progressive Movement
503(1)
Parens Patriae
503(1)
How Juvenile Courts Differ from Adult Courts
503(2)
Emphasis on Helping the Child
504(1)
Informal Proceedings
504(1)
Proceedings Based on Civil Law
504(1)
Secret Proceedings
504(1)
Absence of Jury Trials
505(1)
Law on the Books: The Organization of Juvenile Courts
505(1)
Juvenile Court as a Separate Court
505(1)
Juvenile Court as Part of Family Court
505(1)
Juvenile Court as a Unit of Trial Court
506(1)
Law in Action: The Impact of Structure
506(1)
Juvenile Court Jurisdiction: Age
506(3)
No Consensus on Age of Juveniles
506(1)
Transfer to Adult Court
506(3)
Juvenile Court Jurisdiction: Subject Matter
509(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
509(1)
Status Offenses
509(1)
Child-Victim
509(1)
Law in Action: One-Pot Jurisdiction
509(1)
Controversy: Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults?
510(1)
Due Process in Juvenile Courts
511(1)
Key Court Decisions
511(1)
Important Congressional Acts
511(1)
Courtroom Work Group
512(2)
Case Close-Up: In Re Gault and Due Process in Juvenile Courts
514(1)
Judges
514(1)
Hearing Officers
514(1)
Prosecutors
514(1)
Defense Attorneys
514(1)
Probation Officers
515(1)
A Day in Court: ``Juvenile Court Judge Finds Peace of Mind''
515(1)
Steps of the Juvenile Court Process
516(1)
Delinquency (Crime)
516(1)
Summons (Arrest)
516(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: ``Few Options or Safeguards in a City's Juvenile Courts''
517(6)
Intake (Initial Hearing)
517(2)
Detention Hearing
519(1)
Petition
520(1)
Conference
520(1)
Evidence: Gathering and Suppressing
520(1)
Plea Bargaining
521(1)
Adjudicatory Hearing
522(1)
Disposition
522(1)
Appeal
523(1)
Juvenile Courts: The Next 100 Years
523(1)
Crime Control Model: More Adult Penalties
523(1)
A Day in Court: Teen Court
524(1)
Due Process Model: More Youth Crime Prevention
525(1)
Conclusion
525(5)
Critical Thinking Questions
525(1)
World Wide Web Resources and Exercises
526(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Resources and Exercises
527(1)
References
527(1)
For Further Reading
528(2)
Epilogue 530(4)
Crime as an Empty Vessel
530(1)
Poverty and Crime
530(1)
Race and Crime
530(1)
Consequences of Political Rhetoric for the Criminal Courts
531(1)
Increased Expectations
531(1)
Disagreement over Goals
531(1)
The Dynamics of Courthouse Justice
531(1)
The Murder Trial of Shareef Cousin: Uncertainties and Contradictions
532(1)
Conclusion
533(1)
References
533(1)
Glossary 534(8)
Case Index 542(3)
Index 545


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