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Analog Integrated Circuit Design, 2nd Edition

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780470770108

ISBN10:
0470770104
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/1/2011
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Wiley
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Summary

The 2nd Edition of Analog Integrated Circuit Design focuses on more coverage about several types of circuits that have increased in importance in the past decade. Furthermore, the text is enhanced with material on CMOS IC device modeling, updated processing layout and expanded coverage to reflect technical innovations. CMOS devices and circuits have more influence in this edition as well as a reduced amount of text on BiCMOS and bipolar information. New chapters include topics on frequency response of analog ICs and basic theory of feedback amplifiers.  

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT DEVICES AND MODELLING 1

1.1 Semiconductors and pn Junctions 1

1.1.1 Diodes 2

1.1.2 Reverse-Biased Diodes 4

1.1.3 Graded Junctions 7

1.1.4 Large-Signal Junction Capacitance 9

1.1.5 Forward-Biased Junctions 10

1.1.6 Junction Capacitance of Forward-Biased Diode 11

1.1.7 Small-Signal Model of a Forward-Biased Diode 12

1.1.8 Schottky Diodes 13

1.2 MOS Transistors 14

1.2.1 Symbols for MOS Transistors 15

1.2.2 Basic Operation 16

1.2.3 Large-Signal Modelling 21

1.2.4 Body Effect 24

1.2.5 p-Channel Transistors 24

1.2.6 Low-Frequency Small-Signal Modelling in the Active Region 25

1.2.7 High-Frequency Small-Signal Modelling in the Active Region 30

1.2.8 Small-Signal Modelling in the Triode and Cutoff Regions 33

1.2.9 Analog Figures of Merit and Trade-offs 36

1.3 Device Model Summary 38

1.3.1 Constants 38

1.3.2 Diode Equations 39

1.3.3 MOS Transistor Equations 40

1.4 Advanced MOS Modelling 42

1.4.1 Subthreshold Operation 42

1.4.2 Mobility Degradation 44

1.4.3 Summary of Subthreshold and Mobility Degradation Equations 47

1.4.4 Parasitic Resistances 47

1.4.5 Short-Channel Effects 48

1.4.6 Leakage Currents 49

1.5 SPICE Modelling Parameters 50

1.5.1 Diode Model 50

1.5.2 MOS Transistors 51

1.5.3 Advanced SPICE Models of MOS Transistors 51

1.6 Passive Devices 54

1.6.1 Resistors 54

1.6.2 Capacitors 58

1.7 Appendix 60

1.7.1 Diode Exponential Relationship 60

1.7.2 Diode-Diffusion Capacitance 62

1.7.3 MOS Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect 64

1.7.4 MOS Triode Relationship 66

1.8 Key Points 68

1.9 References 69

1.10 Problems 69

CHAPTER 2 PROCESSING AND LAYOUT 73

2.1 CMOS Processing 73

2.1.1 The Silicon Wafer 73

2.1.2 Photolithography and Well Definition 74

2.1.3 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 76

2.1.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition and Defining the Active Regions 78

2.1.5 Transistor Isolation 78

2.1.6 Gate-Oxide and Threshold-Voltage Adjustments 81

2.1.7 Polysilicon Gate Formation 82

2.1.8 Implanting the Junctions, Depositing SiO2, and Opening Contact Holes 82

2.1.9 Annealing, Depositing and Patterning Metal, and Overglass Deposition 84

2.1.10 Additional Processing Steps 84

2.2 CMOS Layout and Design Rules 86

2.2.1 Spacing Rules 86

2.2.2 Planarity and Fill Requirements 94

2.2.3 Antenna Rules 94

2.2.4 Latch-Up 95

2.3 Variability and Mismatch 96

2.3.1 Systematic Variations Including Proximity Effects 96

2.3.2 Process Variations 98

2.3.3 Random Variations and Mismatch 99

2.4 Analog Layout Considerations 103

2.4.1 Transistor Layouts 103

2.4.2 Capacitor Matching 104

2.4.3 Resistor Layout 107

2.4.4 Noise Considerations 109

2.5 Key Points 113

2.6 References 114

2.7 Problems 114

CHAPTER 3 BASIC CURRENT MIRRORS AND SINGLE-STAGE AMPLIFIERS 117

3.1 Simple CMOS Current Mirror 118

3.2 Common-Source Amplifier 120

3.3 Source-Follower or Common-Drain Amplifier 122

3.4 Common-Gate Amplifier 124

3.5 Source-Degenerated Current Mirrors 127

3.6 Cascode Current Mirrors 129

3.7 Cascode Gain Stage 131

3.8 MOS Differential Pair and Gain Stage 135

3.9 Key Points 138

3.10 References 139

3.11 Problems 139

CHAPTER 4 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS 144

4.1 Frequency Response of Linear Systems 144

4.1.1 Magnitude and Phase Response 145

4.1.2 First-Order Circuits 147

4.1.3 Second-Order Low-Pass Transfer Functions with Real Poles 154

4.1.4 Bode Plots 157

4.1.5 Second-Order Low-Pass Transfer Functions with Complex Poles 163

4.2 Frequency Response of Elementary Transistor Circuits 165

4.2.1 High-Frequency MOS Small-Signal Model 165

4.2.2 Common-Source Amplifier 166

4.2.3 Miller Theorem and Miller Effect 169

4.2.4 Zero-Value Time-Constant Analysis 173

4.2.5 Common-Source Design Examples 176

4.2.6 Common-Gate Amplifier 179

4.3 Cascode Gain Stage 181

4.4 Source-Follower Amplifier 187

4.5 Differential Pair 193

4.5.1 High-Frequency T-Model 193

4.5.2 Symmetric Differential Amplifier 194

4.5.3 Single-Ended Differential Amplifier 195

4.5.4 Differential Pair with Active Load 196

4.6 Key Points 197

4.7 References 198

4.8 Problems 199

CHAPTER 5 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS 204

5.1 Ideal Model of Negative Feedback 204

5.1.1 Basic Definitions 204

5.1.2 Gain Sensitivity 205

5.1.3 Bandwidth 207

5.1.4 Linearity 207

5.1.5 Summary 208

5.2 Dynamic Response of Feedback Amplifiers 208

5.2.1 Stability Criteria 209

5.2.2 Phase Margin 211

5.3 First- and Second-Order Feedback Systems 213

5.3.1 First-Order Feedback Systems 213

5.3.2 Second-Order Feedback Systems 217

5.3.3 Higher-Order Feedback Systems 220

5.4 Common Feedback Amplifiers 220

5.4.1 Obtaining the Loop Gain, L(s) 222

5.4.2 Non-Inverting Amplifier 226

5.4.3 Transimpedance (Inverting) Amplifiers 231

5.5 Summary of Key Points 235

5.6 References 235

5.7 Problems 236

CHAPTER 6 BASIC OPAMP DESIGN AND COMPENSATION 242

6.1 Two-Stage CMOS Opamp 242

6.1.1 Opamp Gain 243

6.1.2 Frequency Response 245

6.1.3 Slew Rate 249

6.1.4 n-Channel or p-Channel Input Stage 252

6.1.5 Systematic Offset Voltage 252

6.2 Opamp Compensation 254

6.2.1 Dominant-Pole Compensation and Lead Compensation 254

6.2.2 Compensating the Two-Stage Opamp 255

6.2.3 Making Compensation Independent of Process and Temperature 259

6.3 Advanced Current Mirrors 261

6.3.1 Wide-Swing Current Mirrors 261

6.3.2 Enhanced Output-Impedance Current Mirrors and Gain Boosting 263

6.3.3 Wide-Swing Current Mirror with Enhanced Output Impedance 266

6.3.4 Current-Mirror Symbol 267

6.4 Folded-Cascode Opamp 268

6.4.1 Small-Signal Analysis 270

6.4.2 Slew Rate 272

6.5 Current Mirror Opamp 275

6.6 Linear Settling Time Revisited 279

6.7 Fully Differential Opamps 281

6.7.1 Fully Differential Folded-Cascode Opamp 283

6.7.2 Alternative Fully Differential Opamps 284

6.7.3 Low Supply Voltage Opamps 286

6.8 Common-Mode Feedback Circuits 288

6.9 Summary of Key Points 292

6.10 References 293

6.11 Problems 294

CHAPTER 7 BIASING, REFERENCES, AND REGULATORS 302

7.1 Analog Integrated Circuit Biasing 302

7.1.1 Bias Circuits 303

7.1.2 Reference Circuits 305

7.1.3 Regulator Circuits 306

7.2 Establishing Constant Transconductance 307

7.2.1 Basic Constant-Transconductance Circuit 307

7.2.2 Improved Constant-Transconductance Circuits 309

7.3 Establishing Constant Voltages and Currents 310

7.3.1 Bandgap Voltage Reference Basics 310

7.3.2 Circuits for Bandgap References 314

7.3.3 Low-Voltage Bandgap Reference 319

7.3.4 Current Reference 320

7.4 Voltage Regulation 321

7.4.1 Regulator Specifications 322

7.4.2 Feedback Analysis 322

7.4.3 Low Dropout Regulators 324

7.5 Summary of Key Points 327

7.6 References 327

7.7 Problems 328

CHAPTER 8 BIPOLAR DEVICES AND CIRCUITS 331

8.1 Bipolar-Junction Transistors 331

8.1.1 Basic Operation 331

8.1.2 Analog Figures of Merit 341

8.2 Bipolar Device Model Summary 344

8.3 SPICE Modeling 345

8.4 Bipolar and BICMOS Processing 346

8.4.1 Bipolar Processing 346

8.4.2 Modern SiGe BiCMOS HBT Processing 347

8.4.3 Mismatch in Bipolar Devices 348

8.5 Bipolar Current Mirrors and Gain Stages 349

8.5.1 Current Mirrors 349

8.5.2 Emitter Follower 350

8.5.3 Bipolar Differential Pair 353

8.6 Appendix 356

8.6.1 Bipolar Transistor Exponential Relationship 356

8.6.2 Base Charge Storage of an Active BJT 359

8.7 Summary of Key Points 359

8.8 References 360

8.9 Problems 360

CHAPTER 9 NOISE AND LINEARITY ANALYSIS AND MODELLING 363

9.1 Time-Domain Analysis 363

9.1.1 Root Mean Square (rms) Value 364

9.1.2 SNR 365

9.1.3 Units of dBm 365

9.1.4 Noise Summation 366

9.2 Frequency-Domain Analysis 367

9.2.1 Noise Spectral Density 367

9.2.2 White Noise 369

9.2.3 1/f, or Flicker, Noise 370

9.2.4 Filtered Noise 371

9.2.5 Noise Bandwidth 373

9.2.6 Piecewise Integration of Noise 375

9.2.7 1/f Noise Tangent Principle 377

9.3 Noise Models for Circuit Elements 377

9.3.1 Resistors 378

9.3.2 Diodes 378

9.3.3 Bipolar Transistors 380

9.3.4 MOSFETS 380

9.3.5 Opamps 382

9.3.6 Capacitors and Inductors 382

9.3.7 Sampled Signal Noise 384

9.3.8 Input-Referred Noise 384

9.4 Noise Analysis Examples 387

9.4.1 Opamp Example 387

9.4.2 Bipolar Common-Emitter Example 390

9.4.3 CMOS Differential Pair Example 392

9.4.4 Fiber-Optic Transimpedance Amplifier Example 395

9.5 Dynamic Range Performance 397

9.5.1 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) 398

9.5.2 Third-Order Intercept Point (IP3) 400

9.5.3 Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) 402

9.5.4 Signal-to-Noise and Distortion Ratio (SNDR) 404

9.6 Key Points 405

9.7 References 406

9.8 Problems 406

CHAPTER 10 COMPARATORS 413

10.1 Comparator Specifications 413

10.1.1 Input Offset and Noise 413

10.1.2 Hysteresis 414

10.2 Using an Opamp for a Comparator 415

10.2.1 Input-Offset Voltage Errors 417

10.3 Charge-Injection Errors 418

10.3.1 Making Charge-Injection Signal Independent 421

10.3.2 Minimizing Errors Due to Charge-Injection 421

10.3.3 Speed of Multi-Stage Comparators 424

10.4 Latched Comparators 426

10.4.1 Latch-Mode Time Constant 427

10.4.2 Latch Offset 430

10.5 Examples of CMOS and BiCMOS Comparators 431

10.5.1 Input-Transistor Charge Trapping 435

10.6 Examples of Bipolar Comparators 437

10.7 Key Points 439

10.8 References 440

10.9 Problems 440

CHAPTER 11 SAMPLE-AND-HOLD AND TRANSLINEAR CIRCUITS 444

11.1 Performance of Sample-and-Hold Circuits 444

11.1.1 Testing Sample and Holds 445

11.2 MOS Sample-and-Hold Basics 446

11.3 Examples of CMOS S/H Circuits 452

11.4 Bipolar and BiCMOS Sample-and-Holds 456

11.5 Translinear Gain Cell 460

11.6 Translinear Multiplier 462

11.7 Key Points 464

11.8 References 465

11.9 Problems 466

CHAPTER 12 CONTINUOUS-TIME FILTERS 469

12.1 Introduction to Continuous-Time Filters 469

12.1.1 First-Order Filters 470

12.1.2 Second-Order Filters 470

12.2 Introduction to Gm-C Filters 471

12.2.1 Integrators and Summers 472

12.2.2 Fully Differential Integrators 474

12.2.3 First-Order Filter 475

12.2.4 Biquad Filter 477

12.3 Transconductors Using Fixed Resistors 479

12.4 CMOS Transconductors Using Triode Transistors 484

12.4.1 Transconductors Using a Fixed-Bias Triode Transistor 484

12.4.2 Transconductors Using Varying Bias-Triode Transistors 486

12.4.3 Transconductors Using Constant Drain-Source Voltages 491

12.5 CMOS Transconductors Using Active Transistors 493

12.5.1 CMOS Pair 493

12.5.2 Constant Sum of Gate-Source Voltages 494

12.5.3 Source-Connected Differential Pair 495

12.5.4 Inverter-Based 495

12.5.5 Differential-Pair with Floating Voltage Sources 497

12.5.6 Bias-Offset Cross-Coupled Differential Pairs 499

12.6 Bipolar Transconductors 500

12.6.1 Gain-Cell Transconductors 500

12.6.2 Transconductors Using Multiple Differential Pairs 501

12.7 BiCMOS Transconductors 506

12.7.1 Tunable MOS in Triode 506

12.7.2 Fixed-Resistor Transconductor with a Translinear Multiplier 507

12.7.3 Fixed Active MOS Transconductor with a Translinear Multiplier 508

12.8 Active RC and MOSFET-C Filters 509

12.8.1 Active RC Filters 510

12.8.2 MOSFET-C Two-Transistor Integrators 512

12.8.3 Four-Transistor Integrators 515

12.8.4 R-MOSFET-C Filters 521

12.9 Tuning Circuitry 516

12.9.1 Tuning Overview 517

12.9.2 Constant Transconductance 519

12.9.3 Frequency Tuning 520

12.9.4 Q-Factor Tuning 522

12.9.5 Tuning Methods Based on Adaptive Filtering 523

12.10 Introduction to Complex Filters 525

12.10.1 Complex Signal Processing 525

12.10.2 Complex Operations 526

12.10.3 Complex Filters 527

12.10.4 Frequency-Translated Analog Filters 528

12.11 Key Points 531

12.12 References 532

12.13 Problems 534

CHAPTER 13 DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS 537

13.1 Overview of Some Signal Spectra 537

13.2 Laplace Transforms of Discrete-Time Signals 537

13.2.1 Spectra of Discrete-Time Signals 540

13.3 z-Transform 541

13.4 Downsampling and Upsampling 543

13.5 Discrete-Time Filters 545

13.5.1 Frequency Response of Discrete-Time Filters 545

13.5.2 Stability of Discrete-Time Filters 548

13.5.3 IIR and FIR Filters 550

13.5.4 Bilinear Transform 550

13.6 Sample-and-Hold Response 552

13.7 Key Points 554

13.8 References 555

13.9 Problems 555

CHAPTER 14 SWITCHED-CAPACITOR CIRCUITS 557

14.1 Basic Building Blocks 557

14.1.1 Opamps 557

14.1.2 Capacitors 558

14.1.3 Switches 558

14.1.4 Nonoverlapping Clocks 559

14.2 Basic Operation and Analysis 560

14.2.1 Resistor Equivalence of a Switched Capacitor 560

14.2.2 Parasitic-Sensitive Integrator 560

14.2.3 Parasitic-Insensitive Integrators 565

14.2.4 Signal-Flow-Graph Analysis 569

14.3 Noise in Switched-Capacitor Circuits 570

14.4 First-Order Filters 572

14.4.1 Switch Sharing 575

14.4.2 Fully Differential Filters 575

14.5 Biquad Filters 577

14.5.1 Low-Q Biquad Filter 577

14.5.2 High-Q Biquad Filter 581

14.6 Charge Injection 585

14.7 Switched-Capacitor Gain Circuits 588

14.7.1 Parallel Resistor-Capacitor Circuit 588

14.7.2 Resettable Gain Circuit 588

14.7.3 Capacitive-Reset Gain Circuit 591

14.8 Correlated Double-Sampling Techniques 593

14.9 Other Switched-Capacitor Circuits 594

14.9.1 Amplitude Modulator 594

14.9.2 Full-Wave Rectifier 595

14.9.3 Peak Detectors 596

14.9.4 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator 596

14.9.5 Sinusoidal Oscillator 598

14.10 Key Points 600

14.11 References 601

14.12 Problems 602

CHAPTER 15 DATA CONVERTER FUNDAMENTALS 606

15.1 Ideal D/A Converter 606

15.2 Ideal A/D Converter 608

15.3 Quantization Noise 609

15.3.1 Deterministic Approach 609

15.3.2 Stochastic Approach 610

15.4 Signed Codes 612

15.5 Performance Limitations 614

15.5.1 Resolution 614

15.5.2 Offset and Gain Error 615

15.5.3 Accuracy and Linearity 615

15.6 Key Points 620

15.7 References 620

15.8 Problems 620

CHAPTER 16 NYQUIST-RATE D/A CONVERTERS 623

16.1 Decoder-Based Converters 623

16.1.1 Resistor String Converters 623

16.1.2 Folded Resistor-String Converters 625

16.1.3 Multiple Resistor-String Converters 625

16.1.4 Signed Outputs 627

16.2 Binary-Scaled Converters 628

16.2.1 Binary-Weighted Resistor Converters 629

16.2.2 Reduced-Resistance-Ratio Ladders 630

16.2.3 R-2R-Based Converters 630

16.2.4 Charge-Redistribution Switched-Capacitor Converters 632

16.2.5 Current-Mode Converters 633

16.2.6 Glitches 633

16.3 Thermometer-Code Converters 634

16.3.1 Thermometer-Code Current-Mode D/A Converters 636

16.3.2 Single-Supply Positive-Output Converters 637

16.3.3 Dynamically Matched Current Sources 638

16.4 Hybrid Converters 640

16.4.1 Resistor-Capacitor Hybrid Converters 640

16.4.2 Segmented Converters 640

16.5 Key Points 642

16.6 References 643

16.7 Problems 643

CHAPTER 17 NYQUIST-RATE A/D CONVERTERS 646

17.1 Integrating Converters 646

17.2 Successive-Approximation Converters 650

17.2.1 DAC-Based Successive Approximation 652

17.2.2 Charge-Redistribution A/D 653

17.2.3 Resistor-Capacitor Hybrid 658

17.2.4 Speed Estimate for Charge-Redistribution Converters 658

17.2.5 Error Correction in Successive-Approximation Converters 659

17.2.6 Multi-Bit Successive-Approximation 662

17.3 Algorithmic (or Cyclic) A/D Converter 662

17.3.1 Ratio-Independent Algorithmic Converter 662

17.4 Pipelined A/D Converters 665

17.4.1 One-Bit-Per-Stage Pipelined Converter 667

17.4.2 1.5 Bit Per Stage Pipelined Converter 669

17.4.3 Pipelined Converter Circuits 672

17.4.4 Generalized k-Bit-Per-Stage Pipelined Converters 673

17.5 Flash Converters 673

17.5.1 Issues in Designing Flash A/D Converters 675

17.6 Two-Step A/D Converters 677

17.6.1 Two-Step Converter with Digital Error Correction 679

17.7 Interpolating A/D Converters 680

17.8 Folding A/D Converters 683

17.9 Time-Interleaved A/D Converters 687

17.10 Key Points 690

17.11 References 691

17.12 Problems 692

CHAPTER 18 OVERSAMPLING CONVERTERS 696

18.1 Oversampling without Noise Shaping 696

18.1.1 Quantization Noise Modelling 697

18.1.2 White Noise Assumption 697

18.1.3 Oversampling Advantage 699

18.1.4 The Advantage of 1-Bit D/A Converters 701

18.2 Oversampling with Noise Shaping 702

18.2.1 Noise-Shaped Delta-Sigma Modulator 703

18.2.2 First-Order Noise Shaping 704

18.2.3 Switched-Capacitor Realization of a First-Order A/D Converter 706

18.2.4 Second-Order Noise Shaping 706

18.2.5 Noise Transfer-Function Curves 708

18.2.6 Quantization Noise Power of 1-Bit Modulators 709

18.2.7 Error-Feedback Structure 709

18.3 System Architectures 711

18.3.1 System Architecture of Delta-Sigma A/D Converters 711

18.3.2 System Architecture of Delta-Sigma D/A Converters 713

18.4 Digital Decimation Filters 714

18.4.1 Multi-Stage 715

18.4.2 Single Stage 717

18.5 Higher-Order Modulators 718

18.5.1 Interpolative Architecture 718

18.5.2 Multi-Stage Noise Shaping (MASH) Architecture 719

18.6 Bandpass Oversampling Converters 721

18.7 Practical Considerations 722

18.7.1 Stability 722

18.7.2 Linearity of Two-Level Converters 723

18.7.3 Idle Tones 725

18.7.4 Dithering 726

18.7.5 Opamp Gain 726

18.8 Multi-Bit Oversampling Converters 727

18.8.1 Dynamic Element Matching 727

18.8.2 Dynamically Matched Current Source D/S Converters 728

18.8.3 Digital Calibration A/D Converter 728

18.8.4 A/D with Both Multi-Bit and Single-Bit Feedback 729

18.9 Third-Order A/D Design Example 730

18.10 Key Points 732

18.11 References 734

18.12 Problems 735

CHAPTER 19 PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS 738

19.1 Basic Phase-Locked Loop Architecture 738

19.1.1 Voltage Controlled Oscillator 739

19.1.2 Divider 740

19.1.3 Phase Detector 741

19.1.4 Loop Filer 746

19.1.5 The PLL in Lock 747

19.2 Linearized Small-Signal Analysis 748

19.2.1 Second-Order PLL Model 749

19.2.2 Limitations of the Second-Order Small-Signal Model 751

19.2.3 PLL Design Example 754

19.3 Jitter and Phase Noise 756

19.3.1 Period Jitter 760

19.3.2 P-Cycle Jitter 761

19.3.3 Adjacent Period Jitter 761

19.3.4 Other Spectral Representations of Jitter 762

19.3.5 Probability Density Function of Jitter 764

19.4 Electronic Oscillators 765

19.4.1 Ring Oscillators 766

19.4.2 LC Oscillators 771

19.4.3 Phase Noise of Oscillators 772

19.5 Jitter and Phase Noise in PLLS 777

19.5.1 Input Phase Noise and Divider Phase Noise 777

19.5.2 VCO Phase Noise 778

19.5.3 Loop Filter Noise 779

19.6 Key Points 781

19.7 References 782

19.8 Problems 782

INDEX 787



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