9780444516169

Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780444516169

  • ISBN10:

    0444516166

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-06-13
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Sensors and actuators are now part of our everyday life and appear in many appliances, such as cars, vending machines and washing machines. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) are micro systems consisting of micro mechanical sensors, actuators and micro electronic circuits. A variety of MEMS devices have been developed and many mass produced, but the information on these is widely dispersed in the literature. This book presents the analysis and design principles of MEMS devices. The information is comprehensive, focusing on microdynamics, such as the mechanics of beam and diaphragm structures, air damping and its effect on the motion of mechanical structures. Using practical examples, the author examines problems associated with analysis and design, and solutions are included at the back of the book. The ideal advanced level textbook for graduates, Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices is a suitable source of reference for researchers and engineers in the field. * Presents the analysis and design principles of MEMS devices more systematically than ever before. * Includes the theories essential for the analysis and design of MEMS includes the dynamics of micro mechanical structures * A problem section is included at the end of each chapter with answers provided at the end of the book.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Summary xiii
Chapter 1. Introduction to MEMS devices 1(32)
1.1. Piezoresistive pressure sensor
1(6)
1.1.1. Piezoresistance Effect
1(2)
1.1.2. Piezoresistive Pressure Transducer
3(4)
1.2. Piezoresistive Accelerometer
7(3)
1.3. Capacitive Pressure Sensor, Accelerometer and Microphone
10(4)
1.3.1. Capacitive Pressure Transducer
11(1)
1.3.2. Capacitive Accelerometer
11(1)
1.3.3. Capacitive Microphone
12(2)
1.4. Resonant Sensor and Vibratory Gyroscope
14(4)
1.4.1. Resonant Sensor
14(1)
1.4.2. Vibratory Gyroscope
15(3)
1.5. Micro Mechanical Electric and Optical Switches
18(2)
1.5.1. Micro Mechanical Electric Switch
18(1)
1.5.2. Micro Mechanical Optical Switch
19(1)
1.6. Micro Mechanical Motors
20(4)
1.6.1. Electrostatic Step Motor
21(1)
1.6.2. Comb Drive Vibratory Motor
22(2)
1.7. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
24(4)
1.7.1. MEMS accelerometer
24(2)
1.7.2. Digital Micro Mirror Device (DMD)
26(2)
1.8. Analysis and Design principles of MEMS Devices
28(2)
References
30(3)
Chapter 2. Mechanics of beam and diaphragm structures 33(82)
2.1. Stress and Strain
33(11)
2.1.1. Stress
33(2)
2.1.2. Strain
35(4)
2.1.3. Hooke's Law
39(2)
2.1.4. General Relations Between Stress and Strain
41(3)
2.2. Stress and Strain of Beam Structures
44(19)
2.2.1. Stress, Strain in a Bent Beam
44(2)
2.2.2. Bending Moment and the Moment of Inertia
46(2)
2.2.3. Displacement of Beam Structures Under Weight
48(6)
2.2.4. Bending of Layered Composite Beam by Residual Strain
54(5)
2.2.5. Angular Displacement of Torsion Bar Structures
59(4)
2.3. Vibration Frequency by Energy Method
63(10)
2.3.1. Spring-mass System
63(3)
2.3.2. Rayleigh-Ritz Method
66(3)
2.3.3. Vibration Frequencies of Beam Structures
69(4)
2.4. Vibration Modes and the Buckling of a Beam
73(11)
2.4.1. Differential Equation for Free Vibration of a Beam
73(2)
2.4.2. Vibration Frequencies of a Double-clamped Beam
75(3)
2.4.3. Vibration With an Axial Force
78(3)
2.4.4. Buckling of a Double-clamped Beam
81(3)
2.5. Damped and forced vibration
84(13)
2.5.1. Damping Force
84(1)
2.5.2. Vibration With Damping
85(4)
2.5.3. Vibration Driven by Force
89(3)
2.5.4. Resonance and Quality Factor
92(3)
2.5.5. Vibration Driven by Vibration
95(2)
2.6. Basic Mechanics of Diaphragms
97(11)
2.6.1. Long Rectangular Diaphragm
97(3)
2.6.2. Differential Equations of Diaphragm
100(1)
2.6.3. Circular Diaphragm
101(2)
2.6.4. Square and Rectangular Diaphragms
103(3)
2.6.5. Vibration Frequencies of Diaphragms
106(2)
2.7. Problems
108(5)
References
113(2)
Chapter 3. Air Damping 115(60)
3.1. Drag Effect of a Fluid
115(9)
3.1.1. Viscosity of a Fluid
115(3)
3.1.2. Viscous Flow of a Fluid
118(3)
3.1.3. Drag Force Damping
121(1)
3.1.4. Damping by Acoustic Transmission
122(1)
3.1.5. The Effects of Air Damping on Micro-Dynamics
123(1)
3.2. Squeeze-film Air Damping
124(20)
3.2.1. Reynolds' Equations for Squeeze-film Air Damping
124(5)
3.2.2. Long Rectangular Plate
129(1)
3.2.3. Circular and Annular Plates
130(2)
3.2.4. Rectangular Plate
132(4)
3.2.5. Perforated Infinite Thin Plate
136(2)
3.2.6. Damping of Oscillating Beams
138(4)
3.2.7. Effects of Finite Squeeze Number
142(2)
3.3. Damping of Perforated Thick Plates
144(6)
3.3.1. Modified Reynolds' Equation for Hole-plate
145(2)
3.3.2. Long Rectangular Hole-plate
147(2)
3.3.3. "Effective Damping Area" Approximation
149(1)
3.4. Slide-film Air Damping
150(9)
3.4.1. Basic Equations for Slide-film Air Damping
150(3)
3.4.2. Couette-flow Model
153(1)
3.4.3. Stokes-flow Model
154(2)
3.4.4. Air Damping of a Comb Drive Resonator
156(3)
3.5. Damping in Rarefied Air
159(14)
3.5.1. Effective Viscosity of Rarefied Air
159(2)
3.5.2. Christian's Model for Rarefied Air damping
161(2)
3.5.3. Energy Transfer Model for Squeeze-film Damping
163(6)
3.5.4. Damping in a High Vacuum
169(1)
3.6. Problems
170(3)
References
173(2)
Chapter 4. Electrostatic Actuation 175(38)
4.1. Electrostatic Forces
175(6)
4.1.1. Normal Force
175(2)
4.1.2. Tangential Force
177(1)
4.1.3. Fringe Effects
178(3)
4.2. Electrostatic Driving of Mechanical Actuators
181(17)
4.2.1. Parallel-plate Actuator
181(7)
4.2.2. Torsion Bar Actuator
188(6)
4.2.3. Comb drive Actuator
194(4)
4.3. Step and Alternative Voltage Driving
198(9)
4.3.1. Step Voltage Driving
198(4)
4.3.2. Negative Spring Effect and Vibration Frequency
202(2)
4.3.3. Alternative Voltage Driving
204(3)
4.4. Problems
207(5)
References
212(1)
Chapter 5. Capacitive Sensing and Effects of Electrical Excitation 213(34)
5.1. Capacitive Sensing Schemes
213(13)
5.1.1. DC Bias Sensing
213(2)
5.1.2. Diode-quad Sensing
215(4)
5.1.3. Opposite Excitation Sensing
219(1)
5.1.4. Force-balanced Sensing
220(3)
5.1.5. Switched Capacitor Sensing
223(2)
5.1.6. Frequency Sensing
225(1)
5.2. Effects of Electrical Excitation - Static Signal
226(9)
5.2.1. Single-sided Excitation
227(2)
5.2.2. Double-sided Excitation
229(3)
5.2.3. Force-balanced configuration
232(3)
5.3. Effects of Electrical Excitation - Step Signal
235(4)
5.3.1. Single-sided Excitation
235(1)
5.3.2. Double-sided Excitation
236(2)
5.3.3. Force-balanced configuration
238(1)
5.4. Effects of Electrical Excitation - Pulse Signal
239(3)
5.4.1. Single-sided Excitation
239(1)
5.4.2. Double-sided Excitation
240(1)
5.4.3. Force-balanced configuration
241(1)
5.5. Problems
242(2)
References
244(3)
Chapter 6. Piezoresistive Sensing 247(58)
6.1. Piezoresistance Effect in Silicon
247(7)
6.1.1. Resistivity Tensor
247(1)
6.1.2. Piezoresistive Coefficient Tensor
248(1)
6.1.3. Piezoresistive Coefficient of Silicon
249(1)
6.1.4. Dependence of Piezoresistance on Doping Level and Temperature
250(1)
6.1.5. Energy Band Theory of Piezoresistance Effect
251(3)
6.2. Coordinate Transformation of Second Rank Tensors
254(7)
6.2.1. Coordinate Transformation of a Vector
254(4)
6.2.2. Coordinate Transformation of Second Rank Tensors
258(3)
6.3. Coordinate Transformation of Piezoresistive Coefficient
261(4)
6.3.1. Coordinate Transformation of Forth Rank Tensors
261(1)
6.3.2. Simplification by Symmetric Operations
261(2)
6.3.3. Piezoresistance in an Arbitrary Coordinate System
263(2)
6.4. Piezoresistive Sensing Elements
265(9)
6.4.1. Piezoresistor
265(3)
6.4.2. Four-terminal Sensing Element
268(4)
6.4.3. Sensing Elements in a Diffusion Layer
272(2)
6.5. Polysilicon Piezoresistive Sensing Elements
274(9)
6.5.1. Piezoresistance Effect in Polysilicon
275(2)
6.5.2. Average Piezoresistive Coefficient
277(4)
6.5.3. Design of Polysilicon Piezoresistive Sensors
281(2)
6.6. Analyzing Piezoresistive Bridge
283(18)
6.6.1. Offset Voltage and Temperature Coefficient of Offset
283(4)
6.6.2. Temperature Coefficient of Sensitivity
287(2)
6.6.3. Nonlinearity of Piezoresistive Transducers
289(8)
6.6.4. Calibration of Piezoresistive Transducers
297(4)
6.7. Problems
301(3)
References
304(1)
Answers to the Problems 305(4)
Subject Index 309

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