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Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes,9780132618120
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Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780132618120

ISBN10:
0132618125
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/22/2012
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $160.00

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Summary

Design is the focal point of chemical engineering practice: the creative activity through which engineers continuously improve facility operations to create products that enhance life. Effective chemical engineering design requires students to integrate a broad spectrum of knowledge and intellectual skills, so they can analyze both the big picture and minute details - and know when to focus on each. Through three previous editions, this book has established itself as the leading resource for students seeking to apply what they've learned in real-world, open-ended process problems. The authors help students hone and synthesize their design skills through expert coverage of preliminary equipment sizing, flowsheet optimization, economic evaluation, operation and control, simulation, and other key topics. This new Fourth Edition is extensively updated to reflect new technologies, simulation techniques, and process control strategies, and to include new pedagogical features including concise summaries and end-of-chapter lists of skills and knowledge. New coverage includes four additional case studies, plus: * A new chapter on steady state simulators, addressing key capabilities found in tools such as Chemcad, Aspen Plus, Hysys, and Pro/II * A new chapter on dynamic simulators: the first of its kind in any chemical process design book * Expanded coverage of process regulation and control at both low and high levels, including Model Predictive Control * Additional updates

Author Biography

Richard Turton is professor of chemical engineering and professor in the Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources at West Virginia University. He has taught WVU’s senior design course for more than twenty-five years.

 

Richard C. Bailie, professor emeritus at WVU, taught chemical engineering design for more than twenty years. He has extensive experience in process evaluation, pilot plant operation, and plant startup.

 

Wallace B. Whiting, professor emeritus at the University of Nevada, Reno, has practiced and taught chemical process design for more than twenty-four years.

 

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz has been involved in WVU’s senior design sequence and sophomore- and junior-level integrated design projects for twenty years.

 

Debangsu Bhattacharyya, associate professor in the department of chemical engineering at WVU, has worked in computer-aided simulation, design, construction, and in the operation of a large petroleum refinery for more than ten years.

Table of Contents

Material on the CD-ROM          xix

Preface          xxiii

About the Authors         xxvii

List of Nomenclature          xxix

 

Section I: Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes           1

Chapter 1: Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes           3

What You Will Learn  3

1.1 Block Flow Diagram (BFD)  5

1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)  8

1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)   21

1.4 Additional Diagrams   26

1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process   27

1.6 The 3-D Plant Model   35

1.7 Operator and 3-D Immersive Training Simulators   37

1.8 Summary   43

What You Should Have Learned   43

References   44

Short Answer Questions   44

Problems   44

 

Chapter 2: The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams         49

What You Will Learn   49

2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design   49

2.2 Step 1–Batch versus Continuous Process   50

2.3 Step 2–The Input/Output Structure of the Process   54

2.4 Step 3–The Recycle Structure of the Process   64

2.5 Step 4–General Structure of the Separation System   78

2.6 Step 5–Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System   78

2.7 Information Required and Sources   78

2.8 Summary   78

What You Should Have Learned   80

References   80

Short Answer Questions   81

Problems   81

 

Chapter 3: Batch Processing           87

What You Will Learn   87

3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes   87

3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling   93

3.3 Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times   94

3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants   97

3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units   102

3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes   107

3.7 Summary   109

What You Should Have Learned   110

References   110

Short Answer Questions   110

Problems   110

 

Chapter 4: Chemical Product Design          115

What You Will Learn   115

4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design   116

4.2 Needs   117

4.3 Ideas   119

4.4 Selection   120

4.5 Manufacture   122

4.6 Batch Processing   123

4.7 Economic Considerations   123

4.8 Summary   123

What You Should Have Learned   124

References   124

 

Chapter 5: Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram          125

What You Will Learn   125

5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals   125

5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process   126

5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams   132

5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals   135

5.5 Limitations   135

5.6 Written Process Description   136

5.7 Summary   137

What You Should Have Learned   137

Problems   138

 

Chapter 6: Understanding Process Conditions          139

What You Will Learn   139

6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems   140

6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern   142

6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment   146

6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions   150

6.5 Summary   157

What You Should Have Learned   157

References   158

Short Answer Questions   158

Problems   158

 

Section II: Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes         161

Chapter 7: Estimation of Capital Costs   163

What You Will Learn   163

7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates   164

7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs   167

7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant   172

7.4 Summary   198

What You Should Have Learned   198

References   198

Short Answer Questions   199

Problems   200

 

Chapter 8: Estimation of Manufacturing Costs          203

What You Will Learn   203

8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product   203

8.2 Cost of Operating Labor   208

8.3 Utility Costs   209

8.4 Raw Material Costs   223

8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors   225

8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD   225

8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams   228

8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene   228

8.9 Summary   229

What You Should Have Learned   230

References   230

Short Answer Questions   230

Problems   231

 

Chapter 9: Engineering Economic Analysis          233

What You Will Learn   233

9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money   234

9.2 Different Types of Interest   238

9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations 240

9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams   241

9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams   245

9.6 Inflation   250

9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment   253

9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit   259

9.9 Summary   262

What You Should Have Learned   262

References   262

Short Answer Questions   263

Problems   263

 

Chapter 10: Profitability Analysis         269

What You Will Learn   269

10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project   269

10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation   271

10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis   279

10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk   282

10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives   283

10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities   289

10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability   293

10.8 Profit Margin Analysis   310

10.9 Summary   311

What You Should Have Learned   311

References   312

Short Answer Questions   312

Problems   312

 

Section III: Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes          327

Chapter 11: Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design   331

What You Will Learn   331

11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process   332

11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines   335

11.3 Summary   338

What You Should Have Learned   356

References   356

Problems   356

 

Chapter 12: Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD          357

What You Will Learn   357

12.1 Information Needs and Sources   358

12.2 Reactor Section   360

12.3 Separator Section   362

12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections   377

12.5 Recycle Section   378

12.6 Environmental Control Section   378

12.7 Major Process Control Loops   379

12.8 Flow Summary Table   379

12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table   380

12.10 Summary   380

What You Should Have Learned   380

References   381

Problems   382

 

Chapter 13: Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting           385

What You Will Learn   385

13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator   386

13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data   389

13.3 Handling Recycle Streams 401

13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models   403

13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process   414

13.6 Electrolyte Systems Modeling   416

13.7 Solids Modeling   429

What You Should Have Learned   434

Appendix 13.1 Calculation of Excess Gibbs Energy for Electrolyte Systems   434

Appendix 13.2 Steps to Build a Model of a Distillation Column for an Electrolyte System Using a Rate-Based Simulation with a Film Model for Mass Transfer, the Parameters Required at Each Stage, and Possible Sources of These Parameters   437

13.8 Summary   440

References   441

Short Answer Questions   444

Problems   444

 

Chapter 14: Process Optimization          451

What You Will Learn   451

14.1 Background Information on Optimization   451

14.2 Strategies   457

14.3 Topological Optimization   461

14.4 Parametric Optimization   467

14.5 Lattice Search Techniques versus Response Surface Techniques   478

14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum   479

14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems   479

14.8 Summary   487

What You Should Have Learned   487

References   487

Short Answer Questions   488

Problems   488

 

Chapter 15: Pinch Technology           499

What You Will Learn   499

15.1 Introduction   499

15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design   500

15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram   514

15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch   516

15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area   517

15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells   521

15.7 Combining Costs to give the EAOC for the Network   526

15.8 Other Considerations   527

15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program   532

15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks   532

15.11 Summary   541

What You Should Have Learned   542

References   542

Short Answer Questions   543

Problems   543

 

Chapter 16: Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators           551

What You Will Learn   551

16.1 Why the Need for Advanced Topics in Steady-State Simulation?   552

16.2 User-Added Models   552

16.3 Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations   562

16.4 Studies with the Steady-State Simulation   581

16.5 Estimation of Physical Property Parameters   586

16.6 Summary   589

What You Should Have Learned   590

References   590

Short Answer Questions   591

Problems   592

 

Chapter 17: Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design          601

What You Will Learn   601

17.1 Why Is There a Need for Dynamic Simulation?   602

17.2 Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation   603

17.3 Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods   618

17.4 Process Control   624

17.5 Summary   632

What You Should Have Learned   632

References   633

Short Answer Questions   633

Problems   634

 

Chapter 18: Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software          641

What You Will Learn   641

18.1 A Simple Regulation Problem   642

18.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves   643

18.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures   646

18.4 The Measurement of Process Variables   649

18.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes   649

18.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams   660

18.7 Logic Control   666

18.8 Advanced Process Control   669

18.9 Case Studies   670

18.10 Putting It All Together: The Operator Training Simulator (OTS)   676

18.11 Summary 677

What You Should Have Learned   677

References   678

Problems   678

 

Section IV: Analysis Of Process Performance          683

Chapter 19: Process Input/Output Models          685

What You Will Learn   685

19.1 Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs   686

19.2 Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs   689

19.3 A Process Example   690

19.4 Summary   691

What You Should Have Learned   692

Problems   692

 

Chapter 20: Tools for Evaluating Process Performance         693

What You Will Learn   693

20.1 Key Relationships   693

20.2 Thinking with Equations   694

20.3 Base-Case Ratios   696

20.4 Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances   698

20.5 Graphical Representations   700

20.6 Summary   704

What You Should Have Learned   705

References   705

Problems   705

 

Chapter 21: Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations            707

What You Will Learn   707

21.1 Application to Heat Transfer   709

21.2 Application to Fluid Flow   714

21.3 Application to Separation Problems   728

21.4 Summary   740

What You Should Have Learned   741

References   741

Short Answer Questions   741

Problems   743

 

Chapter 22: Performance of Multiple Unit Operations           749

What You Will Learn   749

22.1 Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer   749

22.2 Performance of a Distillation Column   754

22.3 Performance of a Heating Loop   759

22.4 Performance of the Feed Section to a Process   765

22.5 Summary   768

What You Should Have Learned   769

References   769

Short Answer Questions   769

Problems   769

 

Chapter 23: Reactor Performance          785

What You Will Learn   785

23.1 Production of Desired Product   786

23.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics   788

23.3 The Chemical Reactor   791

23.4 Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor   796

23.5 Reactor System Case Studies   799

23.6 Summary   812

What You Should Have Learned   813

References   813

Short Answer Questions   813

Problems   814

 

Chapter 24: Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking           819

What You Will Learn   819

24.1 Recommended Methodology   821

24.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units   825

24.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units   831

24.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem   836

24.5 Debottlenecking Problems   840

24.6 Summary   841

What You Should Have Learned   841

References   841

Problems   841

 

Section V: The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society            853

Chapter 25: Ethics and Professionalism             855

What You Will Learn   855

25.1 Ethics   856

25.2 Professional Registration   874

25.3 Legal Liability   879

25.4 Business Codes of Conduct   880

25.5 Summary   881

What You Should Have Learned   881

References   882

Problems   882

 

Chapter 26: Health, Safety, and the Environment           885

What You Will Learn   885

26.1 Risk Assessment   886

26.2 Regulations and Agencies   888

26.3 Fires and Explosions 898

26.4 Process Hazard Analysis   900

26.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board   909

26.6 Inherently Safe Design   909

26.7 Summary   910

26.8 Glossary   910

What You Should Have Learned   912

References   912

Problems   913

 

Chapter 27: Green Engineering             915

What You Will Learn   915

27.1 Environmental Regulations   915

27.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals   916

27.3 Green Chemistry   919

27.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design   920

27.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance   922

27.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention   923

27.7 Life Cycle Analysis   924

27.8 Summary   926

What You Should Have Learned   926

References   926

Problems   927

 

Section VI: Interpersonal And Communication Skills             929

Chapter 28: Teamwork           931

What You Will Learn   931

28.1 Groups   931

28.2 Group Evolution   940

28.3 Teams and Teamwork   943

28.4 Misconceptions   945

28.5 Learning in Teams   946

28.6 Other Reading   947

28.7 Summary   948

What You Should Have Learned   949

References   949

Problems   949

 

Appendix A: Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program          951

A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs   951

A.2 Pressure Factors   969

A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors   973

References   982

 

Index            983

 



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