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Analyzing English Grammar,9780205305681
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Analyzing English Grammar

by ; ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205305681

ISBN10:
0205305687
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Advanced Grammar text which encourages the readers to think critically about grammar and exposes them to a variety of linguistic theories. Supports and assists readers in learning about the structure of the English language. Teaches use of phase marker tree decisions. Includes traditional Reed-Kellogg diagrams, extensive discussion of language acquisition. Includes examples of American regional and social dialects. General interest; grammar

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1(18)
What Is Grammar?
2(4)
Grammar versus Usage
6(2)
Descriptive Grammars
8(1)
Grammatical Prototypes
9(4)
Learning about Grammar
13(2)
Aids to Learning about Language
15(2)
Diagramming
15(1)
IC Analysis
16(1)
Phrase Structure Trees
16(1)
Suggestions for Reading This Book
17(1)
Key Terms
18(1)
Endnotes
18(1)
CHAPTER 2 VARIETIES OF ENGLISH
19(18)
Regional Dialects
21(2)
Social Dialects
23(2)
Standard American English
25(3)
Styles
28(2)
Second-Language Acquisition
30(2)
English in an International Context
32(3)
Summary
35(1)
Key Terms
36(1)
Endnotes
36(1)
CHAPTER 3 THE MORPHOLOGY OF ENGLISH
37(20)
Morphemes
38(5)
Allomorphs
42(1)
Inflectional Morphemes
43(6)
Noun Inflections
45(2)
Verb Inflections
47(1)
Adjective and Adverb Inflections
48(1)
Functional Shift
49(1)
Derivational Morphemes
49(3)
Form Classes and Structure Classes
52(3)
Summary
55(1)
Review Exercises
55(1)
Key Terms
56(1)
CHAPTER 4 FORM-CLASS WORDS
57(32)
Form and Function
58(2)
Forms with Overlapping Functions
59(1)
Nouns
60(4)
Prototypes and Peripheral Cases
63(1)
Subclasses and Features
64(4)
Noun Subclasses
66(2)
Verbs
68(3)
Verb Subclasses
70(1)
Adjectives
71(4)
Adjective Subclasses
73(2)
Adverbs
75(4)
Adverb Subclasses
79(1)
Analyzing Form and Function
79(7)
Comments and Suggestions
83(3)
Summary
86(1)
Review Exercises
86(1)
Key Terms
87(1)
Endnote
87(2)
CHAPTER 5 STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS
89(58)
Structure-Class versus Form-Class Words
89(3)
Determiners
92(8)
Diagrams and Trees
98(2)
Auxiliaries
100(5)
Modal Auxiliaries
100(2)
Have
102(1)
Be
103(1)
Do
104(1)
Diagrams and Trees
105(1)
Qualifiers
105(6)
Diagrams and Trees
108(3)
Prepositions
111(7)
Diagrams and Trees
114(1)
Differences between Prepositions and Adverbs
114(1)
Differences between Prepositions and Verb Particles
115(1)
Differences between Verb Particles and Adverbs
116(2)
Pronouns
118(10)
Pronouns as Noun-Phrase Substitutes
118(1)
Personal Pronouns
119(3)
Reflexive Pronouns
122(2)
Reciprocal Pronouns
124(1)
Indefinite Pronouns
125(3)
Conjunctions
128(9)
Coordinating Conjunctions
128(3)
Conjunctive Adverbs
131(1)
Subordinating Conjunctions
132(5)
Relatives
137(4)
Interrogatives
141(2)
Summary
143(1)
Review Exercises
143(2)
Key Terms
145(2)
CHAPTER 6 PHRASES
147(42)
Subjects and Predicates
147(6)
Form and Function
153(1)
Recognizing Phrase Types
154(5)
The Main Verb Phrase
159(26)
Creating Verb Phrases
165(8)
Time, Tense, and Aspect
173(1)
Simple Tenses
174(1)
Compound Verb Forms--Perfect and Progressive
174(6)
The Meaning of Modals
180(2)
Other Auxiliaries
182(1)
Have and Be as Main Verbs
183(2)
Summary
185(1)
Review Exercises
186(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Endnotes
187(2)
CHAPTER 7 FIVE BASIC SENTENCE TYPES
189(44)
Binary Structure
190(2)
Type I--The Intransitive Type
192(7)
Types II, III, and IV--Linking (Copular) Verbs
199(13)
Type II--The Verb Be Requiring Adverbs of Time or Place
199(5)
Type III--The Linking Verb Type with Adjectival Subject Complement
204(5)
Type IV--The Linking Verb Type with Nominal Subject Complement
209(3)
Type V--The Transitive Type
212(15)
Transitive Verbs with Reflexive and Reciprocal Direct Objects
217(1)
Transitive Verbs with Object Complements
218(2)
Distinguishing between Transitive and Linking Verb Sentence Types
220(2)
Peripheral Cases
222(5)
Summary
227(3)
Review Exercises
230(1)
Key Terms
231(2)
CHAPTER 8 BASIC SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
233(46)
The Indirect Object Transformation
233(7)
Indirect Objects and Object Complements
237(3)
The Passive Transformation
240(11)
Direct and Indirect Objects
244(7)
Other Transformations
251(1)
Negative Sentences
252(8)
Negative Sentences with Auxiliary Verbs
253(1)
Negative Sentences with Be
254(1)
Negative Sentences without Auxiliary Verbs or Be
254(6)
Interrogative Sentences
260(12)
Yes/No Questions
260(3)
Wh-Questions
263(9)
Imperative Sentences
272(4)
Verbs in Imperative Sentences
274(2)
Summary
276(1)
Review Exercises
276(1)
Key Terms
277(2)
CHAPTER 9 FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART I: Adverbial and Adjectival Clauses
279(36)
Sentence Varieties
281(3)
Subordinate Clauses
284(8)
Diagramming Subordinate Clauses
289(2)
Peripheral Cases--Subordinate Clauses That Can Function Adverbially or Adjectivally
291(1)
Relative Clauses
292(20)
Relative Clauses within Prepositional Phrases
295(1)
Diagramming Relative Clauses
296(6)
The Omission of Relative Pronouns
302(1)
Relative Adverbs
303(3)
Relative Clauses Contrasted with Adverbial Subordinate Clauses
306(3)
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses
309(3)
Summary
312(2)
Review Exercises
314(1)
Key Terms
314(1)
CHAPTER 10 FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART II: Nominal Clauses
315(28)
That Clauses
315(15)
Differences between Relative Clauses and Nominal That Clauses
317(3)
Appositive That Clauses
320(1)
Relative Clauses and Deletion Transformations: Appositives
321(5)
Functions of Nominal That Clauses
326(1)
Diagramming Nominal That Clauses
326(4)
Interrogative Clauses
330(6)
Diagramming Interrogative Clauses
333(3)
Rhetorical Problems in Using Dependent Clauses
336(5)
Elliptical Dependent Clauses
339(1)
Nominal Clauses--The Omission of That
340(1)
Summary
341(1)
Review Exercises
341(1)
Key Terms
342(1)
CHAPTER 11 NONFINITE VERB PHRASES, PART I: Infinitive Phrases
343(22)
Infinitive Phrases
345(11)
Diagramming Infinitive Phrases
348(3)
Clauses Embedded within Infinitive Phrases
351(1)
Passive Infinitives
352(2)
Infinitives without To
354(2)
Functions of Infinitive Phrases
356(4)
Adverbial Infinitives
356(1)
Adjectival Infinitives
357(2)
Nominal Infinitives
359(1)
Differences between Infinitives and Prepositional Phrases
360(2)
Peripheral Cases--Ought to
362(1)
Summary
362(1)
Review Exercises
363(1)
Key Terms
363(2)
CHAPTER 12 NONFINITE VERB PHRASES, PART II: Participle and Gerund Phrases
365(36)
Present-Participle Phrases
365(11)
Diagramming Present-Participle Phrases
368(2)
Functions of Present-Participle Phrases
370(4)
Differences between Present Participles and Adjectives
374(2)
Gerunds
376(9)
Functions of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
378(2)
Differences between Gerunds and Present Participles
380(2)
Differences between Gerunds and Nouns
382(1)
Peripheral Cases--Gerunds and Participles
383(2)
Past-Participle Phrases
385(12)
Functions of Past-Participle Phrases
387(1)
Peripheral Cases--Adjectival and Adverbial Past Participles
387(1)
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Participle Phrases
388(3)
Differences between Past Participles and Adjectives
391(6)
Nominative Absolutes
397(2)
Summary
399(1)
Review Exercises
399(1)
Key Terms
400(1)
CHAPTER 13 STYLISTIC TRANSFORMATIONS AND SENTENCE ANALYSIS
401(24)
Transitive Phrasal Verbs and the Particle Movement Transformation
402(6)
The There Transformation
408(9)
Diagramming Sentences with the Expletive There
413(4)
The Cleft Sentence Transformations
417(6)
What Cleft Sentences
417(2)
It Cleft Sentences
419(4)
Summary
423(1)
Review Exercises
423(1)
Key Terms
424(1)
APPENDIX: The Sounds of American English 425(20)
Consonants of English 426(3)
Allophones 429(2)
Vowels of English 431(5)
American Pronunciation 436(1)
Pronunciation and Spelling 437(2)
Sound Changes 439(4)
Summary 443(1)
Review Exercises 443(1)
Key Terms 443(2)
Glossary 445(8)
Index 453


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