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Analyzing English Grammar

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780321182715

ISBN10:
0321182715
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $93.40
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Summary

Advanced Grammar text which encourages the readers to think critically about grammar and exposes them to a variety of linguistic theories. Supports and assists readers in learning about the structure of the English language. Teaches use of phase marker tree decisions. Includes traditional Reed-Kellogg diagrams, extensive discussion of language acquisition. Includes examples of American regional and social dialects. General interest; grammar

Table of Contents

Preface x
Introduction
1(18)
What Is Grammar?
2(4)
Grammar Versus Usage
6(2)
Descriptive Grammars
8(1)
Grammatical Prototypes
9(4)
Learning About Grammar
13(2)
Aids to Learning About Language
15(2)
Diagramming
15(1)
IC Analysis
16(1)
Phrase Structure Trees
16(1)
Suggestions for Reading This Book
17(1)
Key Terms
18(1)
Endnotes
18(1)
Varieties of English
19(18)
Regional Dialects
21(2)
Social Dialects
23(2)
Standard American English
25(3)
Styles
28(2)
Second Language Acquisition
30(2)
English in an International Context
32(3)
Summary
35(1)
Key Terms
36(1)
Endnotes
36(1)
The Morphology of English
37(24)
Morphemes
38(5)
Allomorphs
43(1)
Inflectional Morphemes
43(7)
Noun Inflections
45(2)
Verb Inflections
47(3)
Adjective and Adverb Inflections
50(1)
Functional Shift
50(1)
Derivational Morphemes
51(4)
Form Classes and Structure Classes
55(1)
Summary
56(1)
Review Exercises
57(1)
Key Terms
58(1)
Endnote
59(2)
Form-Class Words
61(32)
Form and Function
62(2)
Forms with Overlapping Functions
63(1)
Nouns
64(4)
Prototypes and Peripheral Cases
67(1)
Subclasses and Features
68(3)
Noun Subclasses
69(2)
Verbs
71(3)
Verb Subclasses
74(1)
Adjectives
74(5)
Adjective Subclasses
76(3)
Adverbs
79(3)
Adverb Subclasses
82(1)
Analyzing Form and Function
82(7)
Comments and Suggestions
86(3)
Summary
89(1)
Review Exercises
89(2)
Key Terms
91(1)
Endnote
91(2)
Structure-Class Words
93(58)
Structure-Class Versus Form-Class Words
93(4)
Determiners
97(7)
Diagrams and Trees
102(2)
Auxiliaries
104(5)
Modal Auxiliaries
105(1)
Have
106(1)
Be
106(1)
Do
107(2)
Diagrams and Trees
109(1)
Qualifiers
109(6)
Diagrams and Trees
111(4)
Prepositions
115(6)
Diagrams and Trees
116(2)
Differences Between Prepositions and Adverbs
118(1)
Differences Between Prepositions and Verb Particles
118(1)
Differences Between Verb Particles and Adverbs
119(2)
Pronouns
121(9)
Pronouns as Noun-Phrase Substitutes
121(1)
Personal Pronouns
122(3)
Reflexive Pronouns
125(2)
Reciprocal Pronouns
127(1)
Indefinite Pronouns
127(3)
Conjunctions
130(11)
Coordinating Conjunctions
131(2)
Conjunctive Adverbs
133(1)
Subordinating Conjunctions
134(7)
Relatives
141(3)
Interrogatives
144(1)
Summary
145(1)
Review Exercises
146(2)
Key Terms
148(1)
Endnote
148(3)
Phrases
151(44)
Subjects and Predicates
151(6)
Form and Function
157(1)
Recognizing Phrase Types
158(6)
The Main Verb Phrase
164(25)
Creating Verb Phrases
169(9)
Time, Tense, and Aspect
178(1)
Simple Tenses
178(1)
Compound Verb Forms---Perfect and Progressive
179(4)
The Meaning of Modals
183(2)
Other Auxiliaries
185(2)
Have and Be as Main Verbs
187(2)
Summary
189(1)
Review Exercises
190(3)
Key Terms
193(1)
Endnotes
193(2)
Five Basic Sentence Types
195(40)
Binary Structure
195(3)
Type I---The Intransitive Type
198(6)
Types II, III, and IV---Linking (Copular) Verbs
204(14)
Type II---The Verb Be Requiring Adverbs of Time or Place
204(5)
Type III---The Linking Verb Type with Adjectival Subject Complement
209(5)
Type IV---The Linking Verb Type with Nominal Subject Complement
214(4)
Type V---The Transitive Type
218(13)
Transitive Verbs with Reflexive and Reciprocal Direct Objects
222(1)
Transitive Verbs with Object Complements
223(3)
Distinguishing Between Transitive and Linking Verb Sentence Types
226(1)
Verbs That Function in More Than One Sentence Type
227(4)
Summary
231(2)
Review Exercises
233(1)
Key Terms
234(1)
Basic Sentence Transformations
235(44)
The Indirect Object Transformation
235(7)
Indirect Objects and Object Complements
239(3)
The Passive Transformation
242(11)
Direct and Indirect Objects
246(7)
Other Transformations
253(1)
Negative Sentences
254(7)
Negative Sentences with Auxiliary Verbs
254(1)
Negative Sentences with Be
255(1)
Negative Sentences Without Auxiliary Verbs or Be
256(5)
Interrogative Sentences
261(13)
Yes/No Questions
262(3)
Wh-Questions
265(9)
Imperative Sentences
274(3)
Verbs in Imperative Sentences
275(2)
Summary
277(1)
Review Exercises
277(1)
Key Terms
278(1)
Finite Verb Clauses, Part I: Adverbial and Adjectival Clauses
279(36)
Sentence Varieties
281(3)
Subordinate Clauses
284(9)
Diagramming Subordinate Clauses
289(2)
Subordinate Clauses That Can Function Adverbially or Adjectivally
291(2)
Relative Clauses
293(19)
Relative Clauses Within Prepositional Phrases
295(1)
Diagramming Relative Clauses
296(5)
The Omission of Relative Pronouns
301(2)
Relative Adverbs
303(3)
Relative Clauses Contrasted with Adverbial Subordinate Clauses
306(2)
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses
308(4)
Summary
312(1)
Review Exercises
313(1)
Key Terms
314(1)
Finite Verb Clauses, Part II: Nominal Clauses
315(28)
That-Clauses
315(14)
Differences Between Relative Clauses and Nominal That-Clauses
318(1)
Appositive That-Clauses
319(2)
Relative Clauses and Deletion Transformations: Appositives
321(4)
Functions of Nominal That-Clauses
325(1)
Diagramming Nominal That-Clauses
326(3)
Interrogative Clauses
329(6)
Diagramming Interrogative Clauses
332(3)
Rhetorical Problems in Using Dependent Clauses
335(5)
Elliptical Dependent Clauses
338(1)
Nominal Clauses---The Omission of That
338(2)
Summary
340(1)
Review Exercises
340(2)
Key Terms
342(1)
Nonfinite Verb Phrases, Part I: Infinitive Phrases
343(22)
Infinitive Phrases
345(10)
Diagramming Infinitive Phrases
348(3)
Clauses Embedded Within Infinitive Phrases
351(1)
Passive Infinitives
352(1)
Infinitives Without To
353(2)
Functions of Infinitive Phrases
355(5)
Adverbial Infinitives
355(1)
Adjectival Infinitives
356(1)
Nominal Infinitives
357(3)
Differences Between Infinitives and Prepositional Phrases
360(1)
Peripheral Case---Ought To
360(1)
Summary
361(1)
Review Exercises
361(2)
Key Terms
363(2)
Nonfinitte Verb Phrases, Part II: Participle and Gerund Phrases
365(34)
Present Participle Phrases
365(10)
Functions of Present Participle Phrases
367(1)
Diagramming Present Participle Phrases
368(5)
Differences Between Present Participles and Adjectives
373(2)
Gerunds
375(8)
Functions of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
376(3)
Differences Between Gerunds and Present Participles
379(1)
Differences Between Gerunds and Nouns
380(1)
Differences Between Gerunds and Participles
381(2)
Past Participle Phrases
383(12)
Functions of Past Participle Phrases
385(1)
Differences Between Adjectival and Adverbial Past Participles
385(1)
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Participle Phrases
386(3)
Differences Between Past Participles and Adjectives
389(6)
Nominative Absolutes
395(2)
Summary
397(1)
Review Exercises
397(1)
Key Terms
398(1)
APPENDIX: The Sounds of American English
399(20)
Consonants of English
400(3)
Allophones
403(2)
Vowels of English
405(6)
American Pronunciation
411(1)
Pronunciation and Spelling
412(2)
Sound Changes
414(4)
Summary
418(1)
Review Exercises
418(1)
Key Terms
418(1)
Glossary 419(8)
Index 427


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