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Analyzing English Grammar

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205252527

ISBN10:
0205252524
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/2012
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $125.20

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Summary

This advanced grammar text encourages students to think critically about grammar and exposes them to a variety of linguistic theories as it prepares them to become K-12 English teachers.

Table of Contents

Preface

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

What Is Grammar?

Grammar Versus Usage

Descriptive Grammars

Grammatical Prototypes

Learning About Grammar

Aids to Learning About Language

Diagramming

IC Analysis

Phrase Structure Trees

Suggestions for Reading This Book

Key Terms

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

VARIETIES OF ENGLISH

 

Chapter Preview [included for each chapter]

Chapter Goals [included for each chapter]

 

Regional Dialects

Social Dialects

Standard American English

Styles

Second Language Acquisition

English in an International Context

Summary

Key Terms

[deleted endnotes]

 

CHAPTER 3

THE MORPHOLOGY OF ENGLISH

Morphemes

Allomorphs

Inflectional Morphemes

Noun Inflections

Verb Inflections

Functional Shift

What’s the Usage? Adjective and Adverb Inflections

Derivational Morphemes

Form Classes and Structure Classes

A Word About Words

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 4

FORM-CLASS WORDS

Form and Function

Forms with Overlapping Functions

Nouns

Prototypes and Peripheral Cases

Subclasses and Features

Noun Subclasses

Verbs

Verb Subclasses

Adjectives

Adjective Subclasses

What’s the Usage? Ajjectives

Adverbs

Adverb Subclasses

Analyzing Form and Function

Comments and Suggestions

Summary

Review Exercises

Subclasses

Key Terms

 

 

CHAPTER 5

MODIFYING WORDS:

PART 1 STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS  

Structure-Class Versus Form-Class Words

Determiners

Diagrams and Trees

Auxiliaries

Modal Auxiliaries

Have

Be

Do

Diagrams and Trees

Qualifiers

Diagrams and Trees

What’s the Usage? Qualifiers

Pronouns

Pronouns as Noun-Phrase Substitutes

Personal Pronouns

What’s the Usage? Personal Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

What’s the Usage? Reflexive Pronouns

Reciprocal Pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

What’s the Usage? Indefinite Pronouns

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 6

CONNECTING WORDS

PART II STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS

Prepositions

Diagrams and Trees

Differences Between Prepositions and Adverbs

Differences Between Prepositions and Verb Particles

Differences Between Verb Particles and Adverbs

Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

What’s the Usage? Punctuating Sentences with Coordinating Conjunctions

Conjunctive Adverbs

Subordinating Conjunctions

What’s the Usage? Comma Splices and Run-On Sentences

Relatives

Interrogatives

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 7

PHRASES

Subjects and Predicates

Form and Function

Recognizing Phrase Types

The Main Verb Phrase

Creating Verb Phrases

Time, Tense, and Aspect

Simple Tenses

Finite and Nonfinite Verb Forms

What’s the Usage? Verb Tense and Aspect in AAVE

Compound Verb Forms—Perfect and Progressive

The Meaning of Modals

What’s the Usage? Can and May

Other Auxiliaries

Have and Be as Main Verbs

What’s the Usage? Shall and Will

The Subjunctive Mood

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 8

FIVE BASIC SENTENCE TYPES

Binary Structure

Type I—The Intransitive Type

Types II, III, and IV—Linking (Copular) Verbs

Type II—The Verb Be Requiring Adverbs of Time or Place

Type III—The Linking Verb Type with Adjectival Subject Complement

What’s the Usage? Adjectives and Adverbs

Type IV—The Linking Verb Type with Nominal Subject Complement

What’s the Usage? It is I Versus It is me

Type V—The Transitive Type

Transitive Verbs with Reflexive and Reciprocal Direct Objects

Transitive Verbs with Object Complements

Distinguishing Between Transitive and Linking Verb Sentence Types

Verbs That Function in More Than One Sentence Type

What’s the Usage? Comma Splices

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 9

BASIC SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS

The Indirect Object Transformation

Indirect Objects and Object Complements

The Passive Transformation

Direct and Indirect Objects

What’s the Usage? Uses and Misuses of the Passive

Other Transformations

Negative Sentences

Negative Sentences with Auxiliary Verbs

Negative Sentences with Be

Negative Sentences Without Auxiliary Verbs or Be

What’s the Usage? Double Negatives

Interrogative Sentences

Yes/No Questions

Wh-Questions

What’s the Usage? Ending a Sentence with a Preposition

Imperative Sentences

Verbs in Imperative Sentences

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 10

ADVERBIAL AND ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES:

FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART I

Sentence Varieties

Subordinate Clauses

Diagramming Subordinate Clauses

Subordinate Clauses That Can Function Adverbially or Adjectivally

Relative Clauses

Relative Clauses Within Prepositional Phrases

Diagramming Relative Clauses

What’s the Usage? Who/Whom

The Omission of Relative Pronouns

Relative Adverbs

Relative Clauses Contrasted with Adverbial Subordinate Clauses

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 11

NOMINAL CLAUSES:

FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART II

That-Clauses

Differences Between Relative Clauses and Nominal That-Clauses

Appositive That-Clauses

Relative Clauses and Deletion Transformations: Appositives

Functions of Nominal That-Clauses

Diagramming Nominal That-Clauses

Interrogative Clauses

Diagramming Interrogative Clauses

Rhetorical Problems in Using Dependent Clauses

What’s the Usage? Using Dependent Clauses

What’s the Usage? Punctuation of Dependent Clauses

What’s the Usage? Dependent Clauses as Sentence Fragments

Elliptical Dependent Clauses

Nominal Clauses The Omission of That

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

CHAPTER 12

NONFINITE VERB PHRASES

Infinitive Phrases

Diagramming Infinitive Phrases

Passive Infinitives

Infinitives Without To

Functions of Infinitive Phrases

Adverbial Infinitives

Adjectival Infinitives

Nominal Infinitives

Differences Between Infinitives and Prepositional Phrases

Present Participle Phrases

Functions of Present Participle Phrases

Diagramming Present Participle Phrases

Differences Between Present Participles and Adjectives

Gerunds

What’s the Usage? Subjects of Gerunds

Functions of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

Differences Between Gerunds and Nouns

Past Participle Phrases

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Participle Phrases

What’s the Usage? Dangling Modifiers

What’s the Usage? Misplaced Modifiers

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

 

APPENDIX:

THE SOUNDS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

Consonants of English

Allophones

Vowels of English

American Pronunciation

Pronunciation and Spelling

Phonics and Phonemic Awareness

Summary

Review Exercises

Key Terms

 

Glossary

Index

 

 

 



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