This text addresses a variety of timely and interesting moral issues, providing background information and primary source selections for each issue presented. It includes a chapter on ethical theory and covers a broad range of ethical perspectives--among them virtue ethics (Aristotelian and Confucian), Buddhist and feminist care ethics, and the Rawlsian and communitarian approaches. This fourth edition includes a new section on Ethical Egoism and has been updated to include readings and case studies covering some of the most pressing issues of recent ethical debate, such as stem cell research, the Iraqi War, the effect of the U.S. Patriot Act on academic freedom, Military conscription, racial profiling of Arab-Americans, the conflict in Darfur, and more.
Table of Contents
1. Moral Theory Moral Philosophy / What Is the Purpose of Moral Theories? / The Types of Moral Theories / Relativism in Ethics / Moving Beyond Ethical Relativism / Morality and Religion / Universality and Religious Ethics / Universal Moral Theories / Ethical Egoism / Utilitarianism / Deontology: The Ethics of Duty / Rights-Based Ethics / Virtue Ethics / Conclusion / Aristotle, from Nicomachean Ethics / Ayn Rand, from The Fountainhead / Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation / John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism / Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Ethics / John Rawls, from A Theory of Justice / John Locke, from Two Treatises of Civil Government / Ayn Rand, "Man's Rights" / Nel Noddings, from Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education / Confucius, from The Analects / P. Don Premasiri, "The Relevance of the Noble Eightfold Path to Contemporary Society" 2. Abortion Background / The History of Abortion in the United States / The U.S. Supreme Court Roe v. Wade Decision / Abortion and Religion / Stages of Fetal Development / Methods of Abortion / The Moral Issues / Conclusion / Judith Jarvis Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion" / John T. Noonan Jr., "An Almost Absolute Value in History" / Mary Anne Warren, "The Moral Significance of Birth" / Don Marquis, "Why Abortion Is Immoral" / Serrin M. Foster, "Refuse to Choose: Women Deserve Better than Abortion" / Steven D. Hales, "Abortion and Fathers' Rights" / Case Studies 3. Genetic Engineering, Cloning and Stem Cell Research The History of Genetic Engineering / The Human Genome Project / Genetic Engineering / Cloning / Stem Cell Research / Moral Issues of Genetic Engineering and Cloning / Conclusion / Matt Ridley, "The New Eugenics" / Judith A. Johnson and Erin D. Williams, "Human Cloning: ethical and Social Issues" / Leon Kass, "The Wisdom of Repugnance: Why We Should Ban the Cloning of Humans" / James Langevin, "Statement in Support of H.R. 810, the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act" / George W. Bush, "Stem Cell Research Policy" / Lori Andrews and Dorothy Nelkin, "Whose Body Is It Anyway? Dispute over Body Tissue in a Biotechnology Age" / Case Studies 4. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide What Is Euthanasia? / The Philosophers on Euthanasia / The Contemporary Debate over Euthanasia / Euthanasia Legislation / Physician-Assisted Suicide / The Hospice Movement / The Moral Issues / Conclusion / James Rachels, "Active and Passive Euthanasia" / Margaret Pabst Battin, "The Case for Euthanasia" / J. Gay-Williams, "The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia" / John Hardwig, "Is There a Duty to Die?" / Susan M. Wolf, "A Feminist Critique of Physician-Assisted Suicide" / Case Studies 5. The Death Penalty History of the Death Penalty / The Death Penalty Today / The Death Penalty: Juvenile and Mentally Retarded Offenders / The Medicalization of Executions / DNA Testing / The Philosophers on the Death Penalty / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Ernest Van Den Haag, "The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense of Capital Punishment" / Christopher W. Morris, "Punishment and Loss of Moral Standing" / Hugo Adam Bedau, "Capital Punishment" / Jeffrey Reiman, "Why the Death Penalty Should Be Abolished in the United States" / Helen Prejean, from Dead Man Walking / Case Studies 6. Drug and Alcohol Use What Is a Drug? / The History of Drug and Alcohol Use / Legal and Illegal Drugs / Drug and Alcohol Use Today / Drug and Alcohol Use among College Students / Drugs in Sports / The Disease Model of Addiction / The Moral Model of Addiction / The Philosophers on Drug and Alcohol Abuse / Moral Issues / Conclusion / Thomas Szasz, "The Ethics of Addiction" / James Q. Wilson, "Against the Legalization of Drugs" / Douglas N. Husak, "A Moral Right to Use Drugs" / Thomas H. Murray, "Drugs, Sports, and Ethics" / Norman Fost, "Ethical and S