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Anatomy of the Sacred : An Introduction to Religion,9780131835641
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Anatomy of the Sacred : An Introduction to Religion

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131835641

ISBN10:
0131835645
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $90.00
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Summary

For one-semester, undergraduate courses in Introduction to Religion and Comparative Religion, and more advanced courses dealing with issues in the theoretical study of religion. This comprehensive introduction to the nature and variety of religious phenomena, belief, and practice: 1) explores the issues in the study of religion, 2) examines the universal forms of religious experience, 3) offers a cross-cultural study of a broad range of classic types of religious belief and practice in terms of the seven basic concepts of a religious world view, and 4) surveys the challenges faced by religions today.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Part I The Study of Religion
1 What Is Religion? How Is It Studied?
3(34)
Overview
3(1)
Defining Religion
4(7)
Why Are Humans Religious?
11(1)
Why Study Religion?
12(3)
The Perspective of the Student-Commitment and Objectivity
15(4)
The Ways Religion Is Studied
19(8)
Historiography
21(1)
Anthropology
21(2)
Sociology
23(1)
Philosophy
24(2)
Phenomenology
26(1)
Interpreting and Explaining Religion
27(4)
Notes
31(1)
Key Words
32(1)
Review Questions
32(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
33(4)
Part II Universal Forms of Religious Experience and Expression 37(126)
2 The Sacred and the Holy
39(19)
Overview
39(1)
The Concept of Sacred Power
40(1)
The Ambivalence of Sacred Power
40(2)
The Holy as Mysterium Tremendum and Fascinans
42(4)
Sacred Space and Sacred Time
46(8)
The Buddhist Stupa and Pagoda as Sacred Space
48(3)
Mount Zion as Sacred Space
51(3)
Religion as Ultimate Concern
54(1)
Notes
55(1)
Key Words
56(1)
Review Questions
56(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
57(1)
3 Sacred Symbol, Myth, and Doctrine
58(22)
Overview
58(1)
Symbolic Communication
59(1)
Religious Symbols
60(4)
Metaphor, Parable, and Story
64(4)
Religious Myth
68(6)
Functionalist Theory of Myth
70(1)
A Psychotherapeutic Theory of Myth
71(2)
A Phenomenological Interpretation
73(1)
Models and Doctrines
74(3)
Notes
77(1)
Key Words
78(1)
Review Questions
78(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
79(1)
4 Sacred Ritual
80(24)
Overview
80(1)
Ritual Action
81(3)
Types of Sacred Ritual
84(11)
Life-Cycle Rites
85(6)
Life-Crisis Rites: A Healing Ritual
91(1)
Calendar or Seasonal Rituals
92(3)
Ritual and Sacrifice
95(4)
Rituals as Sacraments
99(2)
Notes
101(1)
Key Words
102(1)
Review Questions
102(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
102(2)
5 Sacred Scripture
104(31)
Overview
104(1)
The Pervasive Role of Sacred Scripture
105(3)
Using the Term Scripture
108(1)
Some Distinctive Features of Sacred Scripture
109(3)
The Authority and Canonicity of Scripture
112(4)
The Reception and Uses of Scripture
116(5)
The Interpretation of Scripture
121(11)
Buddhist Interpretation
122(5)
Christian Biblical Interpretation
127(5)
Notes
132(1)
Key Words
133(1)
Review Questions
133(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
134(1)
6 Society and the Sacred: The Social Formations and Transformations of Religion
135(28)
Overview
135(1)
The Reciprocal Relationship Between Religion and Society
136(1)
Types of Religious Communities
137(3)
Natural Religious Communities
138(2)
Voluntary Religious Communities
140(3)
Founded Religions
141(2)
Protest and Change in Voluntary Religious Communities
143(4)
Reform from within the Church
144(2)
Separation from the Church-Type Community
146(1)
The Sect
147(2)
The Cult: New Religious Movements
149(10)
The New Age: Toward Self Discovery
151(5)
The Unification Church-the "Moonies"
156(3)
Notes
159(1)
Key Words
160(1)
Review Questions
160(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
161(2)
Part III Universal Components of a Religious Worldview 163(190)
7 Deity: Concepts of the Divine and Ultimate Reality
165(31)
Overview
165(1)
Polytheism and the Worship of Nature
166(9)
Sky Gods
168(1)
Mother Goddesses
169(6)
Dualism
175(4)
Chinese Yin-Yang
175(1)
Dualism of Cosmic Struggle
176(3)
Pantheism and Monism
179(4)
Monotheism
183(9)
Notes
192(1)
Key Words
192(1)
Review Questions
193(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
193(3)
8 Cosmogony: Origins of the Natural and Social Order
196(27)
Overview
196(1)
The Practical Basis of Cosmogony
197(2)
Emergence or Procreation from a Primal Substance or Being
199(1)
The Sexual Union of a Primal Male and Female
200(2)
Creation by Conflict and the Ordering of Chaos
202(5)
Creation by a Divine Craftsman
207(2)
Creation by Decree or from Nothing
209(4)
The Rejection of Cosmogonic Speculation
213(2)
Cosmogony Today
215(5)
The Anthropic Principle
217(3)
Notes
220(1)
Key Words
221(1)
Review Questions
221(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
222(1)
9 Anthropology: The Human Problem
223(24)
Overview
223(1)
Modern Views of Our Human Plight
224(2)
Stoicism
226(3)
Christianity
229(5)
Theravada Buddhism
234(4)
Confucianism
238(5)
Notes
243(1)
Key Words
244(1)
Review Questions
245(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
245(2)
10 Theodicy: Encountering Evil
247(26)
Overview
247(2)
The Persistent Demand for Theodicy
249(1)
Theodicy of "Mystical Participation"
250(1)
A Future, This-Worldly Theodicy
251(4)
Other-Worldly Theodicy
255(2)
Dualism
257(1)
The Karma-Samsara Theodicy
258(2)
Monotheistic Theodicies
260(10)
Suffering as Recompense for Sin
261(1)
Suffering as a Test and as a Necessary Condition of "Soul-Making"
262(3)
A Theodicy of Submission: The Mystery of God's Sovereignty
265(3)
Process Theodicy
268(1)
A Theodicy of Protest
269(1)
Notes
270(1)
Key Words
271(1)
Review Questions
271(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
272(1)
11 Ethics: Patterns of Moral Action
273(28)
Overview
273(1)
Virtues and Obligations
274(2)
The Sources and Norms of Moral Authority
276(21)
Cosmic or Natural Law
276(6)
Charismatic Leaders
282(6)
An Ethics of Divine Command
288(9)
Notes
297(1)
Key Words
298(1)
Review Questions
299(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
299(2)
12 Soteriology: Ways and Goals of Salvation and Liberation
301(52)
Ways of Salvation and Liberation
301(1)
The Way of Grace through Faith
302(6)
Martin Luther
303(3)
Amida Buddhism-Shinran
306(2)
The Way of Devotion
308(3)
The Way of Action and Obligation
311(9)
Hinduism
312(2)
Islam
314(4)
Judaism
318(2)
The Way of Meditation and Insight
320(5)
The Yoga Techniques of Patanjali
321(2)
Theravada Buddhism
323(2)
Goals of Salvation and Liberation
325(1)
Psychic Wholeness and a Healthy Social Order
326(8)
A Messianic, or Utopian, Age
330(1)
Ancient Israel's Messianic Hope
330(4)
Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life
334(8)
Immortality in Ancient Egypt and Greece
336(2)
Postbiblical Judaism and Christianity
338(4)
Samadhi and Nirvana
342(6)
Hindu Samadhi
343(3)
Buddhist Nirvana 344 Notes
346(2)
Key Words
348(1)
Review Questions
349(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
350(3)
Part IV The Sacred and the Secular in Modernity 353(38)
13 The Sacred and the Secular in Modernity
355(36)
Overview
355(1)
Secularization and Pluralism
356(2)
The Reactions of Religious Fundamentalisms Today
358(1)
The Characteristics of Contemporary Religious Fundamentalism
359(17)
American Protestant Fundamentalism
360(5)
Contemporary Islamic Fundamentalism
365(11)
The Role of Women in Modern Christianity
376(4)
The Role of Women in Islam
380(4)
Notes
384(2)
Key Words
386(1)
Review Questions
386(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
387(4)
Glossary 391(12)
Index 403

Excerpts

Anatomy of the Sacredis a comprehensive introduction to the nature and variety of religious belief and practice. Designed primarily for those who have not had a previous course in religion, it provides the student with an understanding of what religion is, of the universal forms of religious experience, and of the basic concepts that make up a religious worldview. By employing a comparative analysis across a rich range of ancient and modern religious traditions, this introduction allows students to see the ways in which certain classic forms of religious life appear in different societies over time, as well as to recognize the incredible diversity of human religious expression and belief. The book is divided into four parts. Part I is concerned with such questions as the problem of defining religion, why it is important to study religion, and how one goes about the task, including the several disciplines or methods used in the study of religion. Each method is illustrated with specific examples from the work of eminent scholars in the field. Part II is an introduction to the universal forms of religious experience and expression and includes discussions of the sacred and holy; religious symbolism, myth, and doctrine; sacred ritual; sacred scripture; and the social dimensions of religion. Part III, which constitutes more than half of the book, consists of a comparative analysis of seven concepts, each one representing a fundamental structure or component of a religious worldview. A religious worldview is holistic, that is, it sees nature, human life, and the divine as interrelated and as forming a comprehensive vision of the world. A religion, therefore, includes a conception of sacred power and of an exemplary natural and social order. It offers an analysis of the breakdown or corruption of that order and of the human problem, but it also provides an answer to the ever-present threat of evil and chaos. Finally, a religious worldview affords an ethical pattern of action, a way of achieving liberation or enlightenment, and an ideal vision of the goal or end of human life. Part III thus includes analyses of such concepts as deity, cosmogony, the human problem, theodicy, ethics, the ways to salvation or liberation, and the end or goal of salvation. Again, each theme is illustrated by examples drawn from a wide variety of religious belief and behavior, ranging from primal and archaic cultures through the religions of the present. Part IV addresses the question, What impact has Modernity, that is, the immense changes that have occurred in our social, political, legal, and economic institutions, as well as the wider access to education, the influence of science, technology, and mass communications, had on religious life and institutions today? It then examines the secularization thesis and raises questions about its validity. Finally, it explores contemporary religious Fundamentalism and the changing roles of women in religion and society as two different responses to these modern challenges facing religion today and in the future. In preparing a new edition of this book I am especially aware of my debt to those teachers who were asked to evaluate the fourth edition and who offered excellent advice. I am, of course, also in the debt of many scholars whose highly specialized studies I was required to consult in updating substantive discussions in the text as well as the notes and suggestions for further reading. The important additions and revisions incorporated in this edition include an entirely new chapter on the response of religion to modernity; an extensive new discussion of the changing roles of women in religion; a new, substantive discussion of New Age religious movements and their significance; more illustrative material from contemporary religious life (e.g., an extended discussion of science and religion), and an extensive updating of the review questions and the s


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