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Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students,9780321172761
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Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321172761

ISBN10:
0321172760
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $85.40
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Summary

This rhetoric revives the classical strategies of ancient Greek and Roman rhetoricians and adapts them to the needs of contemporary writers and speakers. This is a fresh interpretation of the ancient canons of composing: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. It shows that rhetoric, as it was practiced and taught by the ancients, was an intrinsic part of daily life and of communal discourse about current events. This book gives special emphasis to classic strategies of invention, devoting separate chapters to stasis theory, common and special topics, formal topics, ethos, pathos, extrinsic proofs, and Aristotelian means of reasoning. The authors' engaging discussion and their many contemporary examples of ancient rhetorical principles present rhetoric as a set of flexible, situational practices. This practical history draws the most relevant and useful concepts from ancient rhetorics and discusses, updates, and offers them for use in the contemporary composition classroom. Individuals interested in reading about the ancient canons of composing. Crowley Ancient_Rhetorics_for_Contemporary_Students SMP Page 1 of 1

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
CHAPTER 1 Ancient Rhetorics: Their Differences and the Differences They Make 1(35)
A History of Ancient Rhetorics
7(9)
Early Rhetors, Rhetoricians, and Teachers
8(1)
The Older Sophists
9(2)
Philosophers on Rhetoric
11(1)
Isocrates
12(1)
An Early Sophistic Textbook
13(1)
Hellenistic Rhetoric
13(1)
Roman Rhetorics
14(1)
Rhetoric in Later Antiquity
15(1)
Some Differences Between Ancient and Modern Thought
16(12)
Just the Facts, Please
17(4)
That's Just Your Opinion
21(4)
On Ideology and the Commonplaces
25(2)
Rhetorical Situations
27(1)
Language as Power
28(5)
EXERCISES
33(2)
NOTES
35(1)
WORKS CITED
35(1)
PART ONE: INVENTION
CHAPTER 2 Kairos and the Rhetorical Situation: Seizing the Moment
36(17)
Ancient Depictions of Kairos
37(3)
Kairos, Change, and Rhetorical Situations
40(3)
Questions Raised by Kairos
43(1)
An Example of Kairos at Work
43(5)
Urgency: How Urgent or Immediate Is the Issue?
48(1)
Arguments and Interests
49(1)
A Web of Related Issues
50(1)
EXERCISES
51(1)
WORKS CITED
52(1)
CHAPTER 3 Stasis Theory: Asking the Right Questions
53(42)
The Stases and Contrary Arguments
55(1)
Theoretical Versus Practical Questions
56(4)
Putting These Distinctions to Work
60(2)
What Happens When Stasis Is Not Achieved?
62(5)
The Four Questions
67(1)
Elaborating the Questions
68(6)
Using the Stases
74(18)
The First Example: Abortion
75(8)
A Second Example: Hate Speech
83(9)
EXERCISES
92(2)
NOTE
94(1)
WORKS CITED
94(1)
CHAPTER 4 The Common Topics and the Commonplaces: Finding the Available Means
95(38)
Ancient Topical Traditions
96(2)
Aristotle's Topical System
98(8)
The Topic of Past and Future Fact (Conjecture)
99(3)
The Common Topic of Greater/Lesser (Degree)
102(3)
The Common Topic of Possible/Impossible (Possibility)
105(1)
Commonplaces and Ideology
106(6)
Commonplaces in American Political Rhetoric
112(6)
Using Common Topics and Commonplaces to Invent Arguments
118(3)
The Common Topic of Conjecture
120(1)
The Common Topic of Degree
120(1)
The Common Topic of Possibility
121(1)
An Extended Example
121(3)
The Example Embedded in a Rhetorical Situation
124(6)
EXERCISES
130(2)
NOTES
132(1)
WORKS CITED
132(1)
CHAPTER 5 Logical Proof Reasoning in Rhetoric
133(30)
Probabilities
135(2)
Aristotle on Reasoning in Rhetoric
137(19)
Deduction
137(3)
Induction
140(1)
Enthymemes
141(5)
Rhetorical Examples
146(2)
Historical Examples-Brief and Extended
148(3)
Fictional Example
151(1)
Analogy
152(3)
Similar and Contrary Examples
155(1)
Using Examples
156(5)
Maxims
158(2)
Signs
160(1)
EXERCISES
161(1)
WORKS CITED
162(1)
CHAPTER 6 Ethical Proof Arguments from Character
163(42)
Ethos in Ancient Rhetorics
166(2)
Invented Ethos
168(13)
Demonstrating Intelligence by Doing the Homework
171(4)
Establishing Good Character
175(4)
Achieving Good Will
179(2)
Voice and Rhetorical Distance
181(15)
Grammatical Person
183(8)
Verb Tense and Voice
191(2)
Word Size
193(1)
Qualifiers
193(2)
Punctuation
195(1)
Situated Ethos
196(3)
An Example
199(3)
EXERCISES
202(1)
NOTE
203(1)
WORKS CITED
203(2)
CHAPTER 7 Pathetic Proof Passionate Appeals
205(15)
Ancient Teachers on the Emotions
207(2)
Emotions as Rhetorical Proofs
209(2)
The Characters of Audiences
211(2)
Composing Passionate Proofs
213(5)
Enargeia
214(3)
Honorific and Pejorative Language
217(1)
EXERCISES
218(1)
NOTE
219(1)
WORKS CITED
219(1)
CHAPTER 8 Extrinsic Proofs: Arguments Waiting to Be Used
220(19)
Extrinsic Proofs in Ancient Rhetorics
221(2)
Testimony
223(8)
Community Authorities
223(3)
Evaluating Community Authorities
226(3)
Proximate Authorities
229(2)
Data
231(3)
Evaluating Data
233(1)
Some Examples
234(3)
EXERCISES
237(1)
WORK CITED
238(1)
PART TWO: ARRANGEMENT
CHAPTER 9 The Sophistic Topics: Define, Divide, and Conquer
239(18)
Definition
242(8)
Definition by Species/Genus
242(3)
Enumerative Definition
245(1)
Analytic Definition
245(1)
Etymological Definition
245(5)
Division
250(1)
Classification or Generalization
251(2)
Similarity or Comparison
253(2)
EXERCISES
255(2)
CHAPTER 10 Arrangement: Getting It Together
257(21)
Ancient Teachings about Arrangement
258(2)
The Exordium
260(5)
Introductions
261(2)
Topics for Making Audiences Attentive and Receptive
263(2)
Insinuations
265(1)
The Narrative (Statement of the Case)
265(3)
The Partition
268(1)
The Arguments: Confirmation and Refutation
269(1)
The Peroration (Conclusion)
270(3)
Composing a Summary
270(1)
Composing Appeals to the Emotions
270(2)
Enhancing Ethos
272(1)
An Example
273(3)
EXERCISES
276(1)
WORKS CITED
277(1)
PART THREE: STYLE, MEMORY, AND DELIVERY
CHAPTER 11 Style: Composition and Ornament
278(38)
Correctness
280(1)
Clarity
280(2)
Appropriateness: Kairos and Style
282(3)
Ornament
285(28)
Sentence Composition
286(4)
Figurative Language
290(8)
Figures of Thought
298(8)
Tropes
306(7)
EXERCISES
313(1)
NOTES
314(1)
WORKS CITED
315(1)
CHAPTER 12 Memory: The Treasure-House of Invention
316(14)
Memory and Kairos
317(1)
Memory in Ancient Rhetorics
317(2)
Ancient Memory Systems
319(3)
Modern Versions of Ancient Memory Systems
322(6)
Cultural Memory
322(1)
Organizational Memory
323(2)
Literate Memory Systems
325(3)
Electronic Memory Systems
328(1)
WORKS CITED
329(1)
CHAPTER 13 Delivery: Attending to Eyes and Ears
330(23)
Ancient Commentary on Delivery
331(3)
Delivery of Oral Discourse
334(2)
Delivery of Written Discourse
336(7)
Spelling and Punctuation
338(3)
Traditional Grammar and Usage
341(2)
Visual Rhetoric
343(5)
Ocular Demonstration
343(1)
Textual Presentation
344(2)
Picture Theory
346(2)
Cyberrhetors
348(2)
EXERCISES
350(1)
RESOURCES FOR PRINT DESIGN
351(1)
RESOURCES FOR WEB DESIGN
352(1)
WORKS CITED
352(1)
PART FOUR: RHETORICAL EXERCISES
CHAPTER 14 Imitation: Achieving Copiousness
353(31)
Ancient Rhetorical Exercises
354(2)
The Exercises in Ancient Rhetorics
356(27)
Reading Aloud and Copying
356(3)
Imitation
359(7)
Translation
366(1)
Paraphrase
366(6)
Paraphrasing Poetry
372(11)
WORKS CITED
383(1)
CHAPTER 15 The Progymnasmata, or Rhetorical Exercises
384(44)
Fable
386(3)
Tale
389(3)
Chreia
392(3)
Proverb
395(1)
Confirmation and Refutation
396(3)
Commonplace
399(2)
Encomium and Invective
401(6)
Comparison
407(5)
Character
412(6)
Description
418(2)
Thesis
420(4)
Introduction of Law
424(3)
WORKS CITED
427(1)
Glossary 428(12)
Appendix A: A Calendar of Ancient Rhetorics 440(1)
Appendix B: Signposts in Ancient Rhetorics 441(4)
Bibliography 445(3)
Suggestions for Further Readings 448(1)
Credits 449(4)
Index 453


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