9781420080094

Animal Hematotoxicology: A Practical Guide for Toxicologists and Biomedical Researchers

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781420080094

  • ISBN10:

    1420080091

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-07-25
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Hematology data from in vivotoxicology studies remains one of  the most predictive measures for human risk, as the same measurements made in pre-clinical toxicology studies can be made in early clinical trials.Covering the three main blood cell types ' erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes, this work is designed to clarify topics for new entrants to the fields of laboratory animal hematology and toxicology, especially those topics where the rules for human hematology do not always apply. An entire chapter is devoted to immunotoxicology, a scientific discipline that is closely aligned with hematology.The text also addresses pre-analytical and analytical variables that affect animal studies, as these play a far more important part when interpreting data in contrast to humans where many of these variables can be well controlled or have less physiological effect. Information has been collated from published papers, textbooks and unpublished data: Readers are provided withkey references to encourage further study

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
The Authorp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Developing Areas of Interestp. 5
Referencesp. 7
Hemopoiesis, Blood Cell Types, and Bone Marrow Examinationp. 9
Hemopoiesisp. 9
Bone Marrow Stromap. 11
Erythrocytesp. 12
Leukocytesp. 13
Lymphocytesp. 14
Plateletsp. 15
Plasmap. 16
Monocyte-Macrophage System (or Reticuloendothelial System)p. 16
Bone Marrow Examinationsp. 17
Bone Marrow Smear Preparationp. 17
Flow Cytometric Examination of Bone Marrow Aspiratesp. 18
In Vitro Techniquesp. 18
Toxic Effectsp. 19
Referencesp. 20
Erythrocytes, Anemias, and Polycythemiasp. 23
Erythrocyte Morphology Terminologyp. 24
Erythrokineticsp. 26
Species Characteristicsp. 27
Mousep. 27
Ratp. 28
Beagle Dogp. 28
Rabbitp. 28
Hamsterp. 28
Guinea Pigp. 28
Ferretp. 28
Nonhuman Primatesp. 28
Marmosetsp. 28
Catp. 28
Erythrocytic Functionsp. 29
Derivatives of Hemoglobinp. 29
Anemiap. 30
Pseudoanemiap. 37
Response to and Recovery from Anemiap. 37
Secondary Anemiap. 37
Polycythemiap. 38
General Commentsp. 38
Referencesp. 39
Additional Erythrocytic Measurementsp. 43
Osmotic Fragilityp. 43
In Vitro Hemolysisp. 44
Plasma Hemoglobinp. 45
Plasma Haptoglobinp. 45
Hematuriap. 45
Fecal Occult Bloodp. 46
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)p. 46
Antiglobulin or Coombs Testp. 46
Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenasep. 47
Glutathionep. 47
Erythropoietin (EPO)p. 47
Oxygen Dissociation Curvesp. 47
Porphyrinsp. 48
Hemorrheologyp. 49
Glycated Hemoglobinp. 49
Micronucleus Testsp. 49
Referencesp. 50
Iron, Associated Proteins, and Vitaminsp. 55
Iron Metabolismp. 55
Transferrinp. 56
Ferritinp. 57
Cobalamin (Vitamin B[subscript 12])p. 57
Folatep. 57
Analytical Methodsp. 58
Ironp. 58
Transferrin and Ferritinp. 58
Total Iron-Binding Capacity (TIBC)p. 59
Unsaturated Iron-Binding Capacity (UIBC)p. 59
Analyses of Cobalamin and Folatep. 59
Potential Markersp. 59
Soluble Transferrin Receptor (sTfR)p. 59
Additional Reticulocyte Indicesp. 60
Toxic Effectsp. 60
Ironp. 60
Cobalamin and Folatep. 61
Referencesp. 61
Leukocytesp. 65
Abbreviationsp. 65
LUCsp. 65
Granulocytesp. 65
Leukocyte Morphology Terminologyp. 66
Leukocyte Kineticsp. 67
Species Characteristicsp. 68
Dogp. 69
Rabbitp. 69
Guinea Pigp. 71
Hamsterp. 71
Nonhuman Primatesp. 72
Mousep. 72
Ratp. 72
Functions of Leukocytesp. 72
Neutrophilsp. 74
Lymphocytesp. 75
Toxic Effects on Leukocytesp. 76
Neutrophilsp. 76
Lymphocytesp. 78
Monocytesp. 78
Basophilsp. 79
Eosinophilsp. 79
Neoplasiasp. 79
Leukemiasp. 80
Myelodysplasia (MDS)p. 81
Other Tests Applied to Leukocytesp. 82
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatasep. 82
Myeloperoxidasep. 82
Phospholipidosisp. 82
Referencesp. 82
Immunotoxicologyp. 85
Components of the Immune Systemp. 85
T and B Lymphocytesp. 85
Other Cellsp. 87
Soluble Mediatorsp. 87
Immune Responsesp. 90
Hypersensitivity and Allergyp. 90
Autoimmunityp. 91
Assaysp. 91
Flow Cytometry and Antibodiesp. 92
Antibodiesp. 92
T and B Lymphocytesp. 92
T-Cell-Dependent Antibody Response (TDAR) Assaysp. 93
Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) Assayp. 93
Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and Tetanus Toxoid (TT) Assaysp. 93
NK Cellsp. 93
NK Cell Cytotoxic Functionp. 94
Phagocytic Activity and Oxidative Burst Activity of Monocytes and Granulocytesp. 94
Plasma Globulinsp. 94
Immunoglobulin Measurementsp. 94
Direct Immunoglobulin and Antibodies for Erythrocytes, Neutrophils, and Plateletsp. 95
Complement Systemp. 95
Cytokinesp. 95
Host Resistance and Hypersensitivity Studiesp. 95
Immunotoxicityp. 95
Strategies for Immunotoxicity Testingp. 97
Referencesp. 99
Hemostasisp. 107
Analytical Methodsp. 111
Plateletsp. 111
Mean Platelet Volumep. 112
Coagulation Cascadep. 113
Prothrombin Time (PT)p. 113
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)p. 114
Bleeding Time (BT)p. 114
Whole Blood Clotting Time (WBCT)p. 114
Activated Clotting Time (ACT)p. 114
Thrombin Time (TT)p. 114
Fibrinogenp. 115
Platelet Function Testsp. 115
Other Factor Assaysp. 116
Toxic Effects on Platelets and Coagulationp. 117
Effects on the Coagulation Pathwaysp. 119
Other Coagulation Factor Measurementsp. 120
Referencesp. 120
Preanalytical Variablesp. 125
Animals: Species, Strain, Age, and Genderp. 125
Strain Differencep. 125
Age-Related Changesp. 126
Genderp. 126
Blood Collectionp. 127
Volume and Frequencyp. 127
Anticoagulantsp. 127
Sample Storagep. 128
Blood Collection Proceduresp. 128
Stress, Environment, and Transportationp. 130
Nutrition and Fluid Balancep. 131
Chronobiological Effectsp. 131
Summaryp. 132
Referencesp. 132
Analytical Variables and Biosafetyp. 139
Blood Films (Smears)p. 142
Heinz Bodiesp. 143
Reticulocytesp. 143
Methemoglobin and Sulfhemoglobin Measurementsp. 143
Coagulationp. 144
Platelet Aggregation Studiesp. 144
Chromogenic Factor Assaysp. 144
General Method Principlesp. 144
Linearityp. 145
Calibration and Quality Control Materialsp. 146
ELISA Methodsp. 147
Maintenancep. 147
Biohazards and Chemical Safetyp. 147
Referencesp. 148
Data Processing and Interpretationp. 153
Data Definitions and Securityp. 153
Repeated Analyses on the Same Samplep. 154
Intra- and Inter-Individual Variationsp. 154
Critical Differencesp. 155
Reference Valuesp. 156
Data Distributionsp. 156
Statistical Methodsp. 157
Control Groupsp. 158
Statistical Analysesp. 159
Sensitivity and Specificityp. 161
Extrapolation of Animal Data to Humansp. 162
Referencesp. 163
References for Laboratory Animal Hematology Datap. 167
SI Units and Conversionsp. 173
Expectable Rangesp. 175
General Abbreviationsp. 187
Some Common Biochemical Abbreviationsp. 191
p. 193
Compounds Causing Reductions and Destruction of Erythrocytesp. 193
Compounds Causing Reductions of Neutrophil Numbersp. 195
Compounds Affecting Numbers, Function, and Aggregation of Plateletsp. 196
Leukocyte-Cluster of Differentiationp. 197
Indexp. 201
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