Animal Physiology

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2016-09-13
  • Publisher: Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Animal Physiology, Fourth Edition, presents all the branches of modern animal physiology with a strong emphasis on integration of physiological knowledge, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Integration extends from genes to organ systems and from one physiological discipline to another. The book takes an entirely fresh approach to each topic. Its full-color illustrations include many novel, visually-effective features to help students learn. Each of the twenty-five main chapters starts with an animal example to engage student interest and demonstrate the value of the material that will be learned. The book includes five additional, briefer "At Work" chapters that apply students' newfound physiological knowledge to curiosity-provoking and important topics, including diving by marine mammals, the mechanisms of navigation, and muscle plasticity in use and disuse.

The book is committed to a comparative approach throughout. Whereas mammalian physiology is consistently treated in depth, emphasis is also given to the other vertebrate groups, arthropods, and molluscs. Concepts and integrative themes are emphasized while giving students the specifics they need.

The whole animal is the principal focus of this book. The book's extensive coverage of genomics and cellular-molecular biology is therefore carefully linked to whole-animal biology. With this edition, coverage of physiologically relevant genomics has been greatly expanded. The subject matter of animal physiology is also linked to topics in human affairs, such as athletic training and global warming. Always, the central organizing principle for the array of topics presented is to understand whole animals in the environments where they live.

Complex principles are developed clearly using classroom-tested pedagogy, often with carefully designed conceptual illustrations. Concepts from chemistry, physics, and mathematics are explained so that the book will be accessible to science students at the sophomore or higher level. Pedagogical aids include embedded summaries throughout chapters, study questions (with online answers), partially annotated reference lists, an extensive glossary, ten appendices (covering logarithms, phylogenetically independent contrasts, basic physics terms, etc.), and an upgraded index. Carefully worded balloons are used extensively to guide students through the interpretation of figures. For all three authors, teaching physiology to undergraduate students has been a lifelong priority.


For Students

The Animal Physiology Companion Website includes content that expands on the coverage in the textbook as well as study and review resources for students.

*Chapter Outlines & Summaries provide quick overviews and reviews of each chapter
*Box Extensions expand on topics introduced in the textbook and cover important additional conceptual material
*Online Quizzes cover key material in each chapter. These can be assigned by the instructor or used as self-quizzes.
*Flashcards help students learn and review the many new terms introduced in the textbook

For Instructors (available to qualified adopters)

The Animal Physiology, Fourth Edition Instructor's Resource Library (IRL) contains a wealth of resources for use in lecture development and assessment. Contents include:

Presentation Resources
*Figures & Tables: All of the textbook's figures (both line art and photographs) are provided as JPEG files at two sizes: high-resolution (excellent for use in PowerPoint) and low-resolution (ideal for web pages and other uses). All the artwork has been reformatted and optimized for exceptional image quality when projected in class.
*Unlabeled Figures: Unlabeled versions of all figures are provided

PowerPoint Presentations:
*Figures & Tables: Includes all the figures and tables from the chapter, making it easy to insert any figure into an existing presentation
*Layered Art PowerPoints: Selected key figures throughout the textbook are prepared as step-by-step and animated presentations that build the figure one piece at a time

The Test Bank consists of a broad range of questions covering the key facts and concepts in each chapter. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions are provided. The Test Bank also includes the Companion Website online quiz questions.

The Computerized Test Bank is provided in the Diploma exam-creation program (software included). Diploma makes it easy to assemble quizzes and exams from any combination of publisher-provided questions and instructor-created questions. In addition, quizzes and exams can be exported to many different course management systems, such as Blackboard, WebCT, and Moodle.

Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions

Author Biography

Richard W. Hill is Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology at Michigan State University and a frequent Guest Investigator at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He received his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Michigan. Apart from the multiple editions of Animal Physiology, Dr. Hill is a coauthor of Principles of Life, Second Edition, and has authored two other books on animal physiology, as well as numerous articles for scientific journals, encyclopedias, and edited volumes. Among the awards he has received are the Outstanding Faculty Award (Michigan State University Senior Class Council) and election as Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was a U.S. Senior Fulbright Scholar from 2000-2001. His research interests include: temperature regulation and energetics in birds and mammals, especially neonates; and environmental physiology of marine tertiary sulfonium and quaternary ammonium compounds, especially in the contexts of biogeochemistry and animal-algal symbioses.

Gordon A. Wyse is Professor of Biology Emeritus and Lecturer at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan, then did postdoctoral and sabbatical work at Stanford University and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Wyse helped found the graduate program in Neuroscience and Behavior at UMass Amherst. He has served as Associate Dean of the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and on the Editorial Board of Advances in Physiology Education. His research interests include the neural control of feeding behavior and other behavior patterns.

Margaret Anderson is Professor Emerita of Biological Sciences at Smith College. After completing her Ph.D. at Stanford University, she undertook postdoctoral studies at the Universidad Católica de Chile, Harvard University, and the University of Puerto Rico. At Smith, Dr. Anderson served as an Academic Dean, Director of the Program in Neuroscience, and premedical advisor. She is one of six founding members of the Consortium of Medical Schools and Women's Colleges, and she contributes to several efforts that encourage women and minorities in the sciences. Her research interests include the functional properties of excitable cells.

Table of Contents


1. Animals and Environments: Function on the Ecological Stage
The Importance of Physiology
The Highly Integrative Nature of Physiology
Mechanism and Origin: Physiology's Two Central Questions
This Book's Approach to Physiology
Evolutionary Processes individual Variation and the Question of "Personalities" within a Population

2. Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology
Cell Membranes and Intracellular Membranes
Elements of Metabolism
Enzyme Fundamentals
Regulation of Cell Function by Enzymes
Evolution of Enzymes
Enzymes Are Instruments of Change in All Time Frames
The Life and Death of Proteins
Light and Color
Reception and Use of Signals by Cells

3. Genomics, Proteomics, and Related Approaches to Physiology
Top-down versus Bottom-up Approaches to the Study of Physiology
Screening or Profiling as a Research Strategy
The Study of Gene Transcription: Transcriptomics

4. Physiological Development and Epigenetics
The Physiology of Immature Animals Always Differs from That of Adults
Introduction to Phenotypic Plasticity and Epigenetics
Phenotypic Plasticity during Development

5. Transport of Solutes and Water
Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion
Passive Solute Transport by Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Diversity and Modulation of Channels and Transporters
Osmotic Pressure and Other Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions


6. Nutrition, Feeding, and Digestion
Digestion and Absorption
Responses to Eating
The Control of Hunger and Satiation
Nutritional Physiology in Longer Frames of Time

7. Energy Metabolism
Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement
Factors That Affect Metabolic Rates
Basal Metabolic Rate and Standard Metabolic Rate
Metabolic Scaling: The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size

8. Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism
Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications
Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production
Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and Muscle Fiber Types
The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise
Responses to Impaired O2 Influx from the Environment

9. The Energetics of Aerobic Activity
How Active Animals Are Studied
The Energy Costs of Defined Exercise
The Maximum Rate of Oxygen Consumption
The Energetics of Routine and Extreme Daily Life
Long-Distance Migration
Ecological Energetics

10. Thermal Relations
Temperature and Heat
Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments
Poikilothermy (Ectothermy)
Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds
Warm-Bodied Fish
Endothermy and Homeothermy in Insects

11. Food, Energy, and Temperature at Work: The Lives of Mammals in Frigid Places
Food, Nutrition, Energy Metabolism, and Thermoregulation in the Lives of Adult Reindeer
Newborn Reindeer
The Future of Reindeer: Timing and Ice
Thermoregulatory Development: Small Mammals Compared with Large
The Effect of Body Size on Mammals' Lives in Cold Environments: An Overview
Hibernation as a Winter Strategy: New Directions and Discoveries


12. Neurons
The Physiology of Control: Neurons and Endocrine Cells Compared
Neurons Are Organized into Functional Circuits in Nervous Systems
The Cellular Organization of Neural Tissue
The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials
The Action Potential
The Propagation of Action Potentials

13. Synapses
Synaptic Transmission is Usually Chemical but Can Be Electrical
Synaptic Potentials Control Neuronal Excitability
Fast Chemical Synaptic Actions Are Exemplified by the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction
Presynaptic Neurons Release Neurotransmitter Molecules in Quantal Packets
Neurotransmitters Are of Two General Kinds
Postsynaptic Receptors for Fast ionotropic Actions: Ligand-Gated Channels
Postsynaptic Receptors for Slow, Metabotropic Actions: G Protein-Coupled Receptors
Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity

14. Sensory Processes
Organization of Sensory Systems
Mechanoreception and Touch
Vestibular Organs and Hearing
Chemoreception and Taste
Visual Sensory Processing

15. Nervous System Organization and Biological Clocks
The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems
The Vertebrate Nervous System: A Guide to the General Organizational Features of Nervous Systems
Biological Clocks

16. Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology
Introduction to Endocrine Principles
Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Hormones
Types of Endocrine Cells and Glands
Control of Endocrine Secretion: The Vertebrate Pituitary Gland
The Mammalian Stress Response
Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals
Endocrine Control of Salt and Water Balance in Vertebrates
Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism in Mammals
Endocrine Principles in Review
Chemical Signals along a Distance Continuum
Insect Metamorphosis

17. Reproduction
The Two Worlds of Reproductive Physiology
What Aspects of Reproduction Do Physiologists Study?
The Environment as a Player in Reproduction
Reproduce Once or More Than Once?
Eggs, Provisioning, and Parental Care
External or Internal Fertilization?
The Timing of Reproductive Cycles
Sex Change
Reproductive Endocrinology of Placental Mammals

18. Integrating Systems at Work: Animal Navigation
The Adaptive Significance of Animal Navigation
Navigational Strategies
Innate and Learned Components of Navigation


19. Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle is the Basis of Animal Behavior
Neural Generation of Rhythmic Behavior
Control and Coordination of Vertebrate Movement

20. Muscle
Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Cells
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Whole Skeletal Muscles
Muscle Energetics
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle
Vertebrate Smooth (Unstriated) Muscle
Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle

21. Movement and Muscle at Work: Plasticity in Response to Use and Disuse
Muscle Phenotypes
Regulating Muscle Mass


22. Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Physiology
The Properties of Gases in Gas Mixtures and Aqueous Solutions
Diffusion of Gases
Convective Transport of Gases: Bulk Flow
The Oxygen Cascade
Expressing the Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units
The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water
Respiratory Environments

23. External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing
Fundamental Concepts of External Respiration
Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation
Low O2: Detection and Response
Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing
Breathing by Fish
Breathing by Amphibians
Breathing by Reptiles Other than Birds
Breathing by Mammals
Breathing by Birds
Breathing by Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups
Breathing by Insects and Other Tracheate Arthropods

24. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Body Fluids (with an Introduction to Acid-Base Physiology)
The Chemical Properties and Distributions of the Respiratory Pigments
The O2-Binding Characteristics of Respiratory Pigments
The Functions of Respiratory Pigments in Animals
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Acid-Base Physiology

25. Circulation
Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems
Circulation in Mammals and Birds
Circulation in Fish
Circulation in Amphibians and in Reptiles Other than Birds
Concluding Comments on Vertebrates
Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory Systems
Invertebrates with Open Circulatory Systems

26. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport at Work: Diving by Marine Mammals
Diving Feats and Behavior
Types of Dives and the Importance of Method
Physiology: The Big Picture
The Oxygen Stores of Divers
Circulatory Adjustments during Dives
Metabolism during Dives
The Aerobic Dive Limit: One of Physiology's Key Benchmarks for Understanding Diving Behavior
Decompression Sickness
A Possible Advantage for Pulmonary O2 Sequestration in Deep Dives


27. Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms
The Importance of Animal Body Fluids
The Relationships among Body Fluids
Types of Regulation and Conformity
Natural Aquatic Environments
Natural Terrestrial Environments
Organs of Blood Regulation
Food and Drinking Water
Metabolic Water
Cell-Volume Regulation
From Osmolytes to Compatible Solutes: Terms and Concepts

28. Water and Salt Physiology of Animals in Their Environments
Animals in Freshwater
Animals in the Ocean
Animals That Face Changes in Salinity
Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals
Animals on Land: Fundamental Physiological Principles
Animals on Land: Case Studies
Control of Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals

29. Kidneys and Excretion (with Notes on Nitrogen Excretion)
Basic Mechanisms of Kidney Function
Urine Formation in Amphibians
Urine Formation in Mammals
Urine Formation in Other Vertebrates
Urine Formation in Decapod Crustaceans
Urine Formation in Molluscs
Urine Formation in Insects
Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion

30. Water, Salts, and Excretion at Work: Mammals of Deserts and Dry Savannas
Desert and Dry-Savanna Environments
The Relations of Animals to Water
The Dramatic Adaptations of Particular Species

Appendix A. The systčme international and other Units of measure
Appendix B. Prefixes indicating orders of magnitude
Appendix C. Gases at Standard Temperature and Pressure
Appendix D. Fitting Lines to Data
Appendix E. Logarithms
Appendix F. Exponential and Allometric Equations
Appendix G. Phylogenetically independent Contrasts
Appendix H. Mitosis and Meiosis
Appendix I. The Standard Amino Acids
Appendix J. Basic Physics Terms
Appendix K. Summary of Major Bloodborne Hormones in Mammals
Photograph Credits
Figure and Table Citations
Additional References

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