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Table of Contents
Annual Editions: Drugs, Society, and Behavior, 11/12
UNIT 1: Living with Drugs
1. History of Alcohol and Drinking around the World, David J. Hanson, PhD, adapted from David J. Hanson, Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995
Alcohol use by humans, probably tens of thousands of years old, has both comforted and plagued almost every society. In this discussion author David Hanson describes the drug’s journey through time.
2. Did Prohibition Really Work?, Jack S. Blocker, Jr., American Journal of Public Health, February 2006
This article discusses the legacies of Prohibition from diverse historical perspectives. Is failure the correct word to associate with this complex social process?
3. Tackling Top Teen Problem—Prescription Drugs, George Lauby and Kamie Wheelock, North Platte Bulletin, April 11, 2009
The illegal use of prescription drugs looms larger than problem drinking or marijuana use. This article examines the lives of a group of teens who currently use prescription drugs.
4. Smoking, Drugs, Obesity Top Health Concerns for Kids, Medical News Today, May 6, 2007
Concern about kids’ health, on the roads, at school, and even online is a given. This article discusses some of today’s biggest worries relative to kids nd drugs.
5. San Diego State U. Defends Its Role in Federal Drug Sting, Sara Lipka, The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 23, 2008
Drugs on college campuses are common; federal stings are not. This article discusses the investigation at San Diego State and briefly examines when colleges should punish instead of educate.
6. Reflections on 40 Years of Ethnographic Drug Abuse Research: Implications for the Future, Robert Carlson, Merrill Singer, Richard Stephens and Claire Sterk, Journal of Drug Issues, Vol. 39, Issue 1, Winter 2009
This article focuses on past, present, and potential future contributions of ethnographic research to better understand street cultures of drug use and their relationship to various intervention processes.
7. Mexico Drug Cartels Extend Reach in U.S., Carol Cratty, CNN, March 28, 2010
The availability of illegal drugs remains persistent in the United States fueled largely by expanding activity from Mexican drug cartels. These organizations have infiltrated every region of the United States having expanded into both rural and suburban areas.
8. A Pill Problem, Karmen Hanson, State Legislatures, March 2010
Prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing form of drug abuse. What is behind this steadily increasing and alarming trend?
UNIT 2: Understanding How Drugs Work—Use, Dependency, and Addiction
9. Drug Addiction and Its Effects, Drug Abuse and Addition, February 26, 2008
What is drug addiction? This article briefly explains what it is, how it affects the brain, and addresses the question of why some people become addicted and others do not.
10. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated with Problematic Drinking among College Students, Joseph W. LaBrie, Savannah Migliuri, Shannon R. Kenney, and Andrew Lac, Addictive Behaviors, 35(7), 2010
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are conflicting and suffer from research limitations. This report investigates family history of alcohol abuse and its potential for predicting future alcohol-related problems.
11. Biological Perspectives- Antimethamphetamine Antibodies: A New Concept for Treating Methamphetamine Users, Cynthia J. Anderson, SN, Kathleen Gilchrist, PhD, RN, and Norman L. Keltner, EdD, APRN Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol. 46, No. 2, April 2010
This article reviews pathophysiological issues that nurses should consider when working with methamphetamine-addicted individuals.
12. Medical Marijuana and the Mind, Harvard Mental Health Letter, Vol. 26, No. 10, April 2010
More is known about the risks of medical use of marijuana than the benefits. Most of the research is based on the study of those who have smoked the drug for recreational, not medical, purposes. The movement to legalize marijuana in the U.S. has renewed the discussion about how this drug affects the brain, and whether it might be useful in treating psychiatric disorders.
13. Scripps Research Team Finds Stress Hormone Key to Alcohol Dependence, M. Roberto, The Scripps Research Institute, 2010
Scientists have found that a specific stress hormone may be a key to the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in animals. Chemically blocking this stress hormone also blocked the signs and symptoms of addiction. What are the implications for humans?
14. The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence, Danielle M. Dick and Arpana Agrawal, Alcohol Research and Health, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2008
This article explores the hypothesis that certain genetic factors increase a person’s risk for both alcohol and drug abuse.
15. Role of Cannabis and Endocannabinoids in the Genesis of Schizophrenia, Emilio Fernandez-Espejo, Maria-Paz Viveros, Luis Núñez, Bart A. Ellenbroek and Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Psychopharmacology, 206(4), 2009
This study looks at the relationship between cannabis abuse and endocannabiniods and their association to schizophrenia.
16. Movement Disorders and MDMA Abuse, James Allen Wilcox, D O, PhD. and Aidee Herrera Wilcox, B.A., Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 41 (2), June 2009
This article examines the cases of two young men who abused MDMA and later developed movement disorders typical of the Parkinson’s disease. Potential risks of MDMA use and movement disorders are discussed.
UNIT 3: The Major Drugs of Use and Abuse
17. An Update on the Effects of Marijuana and Its Potential Medical Use: Forensic Focus, Sherwood O. Cole, Forensic Examiner, Fall 2005
While the public continues to be bombarded with information about the effects and usefulness of marijuana, author Sherman Cole attempts to clarify some of the reasons fueling these debates.
18. Methamphetamines, Matt York, The New York Times, May 11, 2010
Known as crank, ice, Tina, or crystal meth, methamphetamine is not new. For years, meth abuse has spread from rural areas of the West and South, slowly expanding to the Midwest and the East. Today meth abuse is the world’s number one drug problem.
19. Crystal Meth: The Dangers of Crystal Meth, Chemist and Druggist, January 31, 2009
With OTC sales of pseudoephedrine medicines coming under scrutiny in the UK, community pharmacist Bob Dunkley looks at the dangers posed by crystal meth, how the U.S. addressed the problem and how the UK may adopt a similar approach.
20. Binge Drinking and Its Consequences Up Among American College Students, Madeline Ellis, Family Health, June 16, 2009
Binge drinking among college students is on the rise, and so are the consequences. It is estimated that as many as 300,000 of today’s college students will eventually die of alcohol-related causes. What is behind this disturbing trend?
21. Public Lands: Cartels Turn U.S. Forests into Marijuana Plantations Creating Toxic Mess, Phil Taylor, Land Letter, E&E Publishing, LLC, July 30, 2009
Mexican cartels are crossing the border and setting up pot farms on public lands, creating not only a public menace, but an environmental one as well.
22. Pseudoephedrine Smurfing Fuels Surge in Large-Scale Methamphetamine Production in California, Situation Report, U.S. Department of Justice National Drug Intelligence Center, June 2009
This report presents information regarding pseudoephedrine smurfing in California. The NDIC discusses data related to the use of OTC ephedrine to produce meth.
UNIT 4: Other Trends in Drug Use
23. Adolescent Painkiller Use May Increase Risk of Addiction, Heroin Use, Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly, Vol. 20, No. 36, September 22, 2008
A recent study found that oxycodone produced different effects in adolescents than in adults. Adolescents who use opiates may be more likely to become addicts as adults. This article suggests that prescription opiates are gateway drugs to heroin.
24. Caffeinated Energy Drinks—A Growing Problem, Chad J. Reissig, Eric C. Strain, and Roland R. Griffiths, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 99, 2009
Regulatory implications concerning labeling, advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed.
25. Issues in Correctional Care: Propofol and Intravenous Drug Abuse, Abe M. Macher, MD, American Jails, Criminal Justice Periodicals, 23(6), January/February 2010
Propofol is a central nervous system depressant that is administered by anesthesiologists. Unfortunately, illicit "drug diversion" of powerful anesthetic agents has made these psychotropic drugs available for abuse, leading to sometimes deadly consequences.
26. College Students’ Cheap Fix, Trina Jones, Katie Berger and Alexandra Schwappach, The Spokesman Review, November 15, 2009
An increasing number of students are using ADHD drugs to stay alert. It’s cheap and available, providing a quick and focused high. The increasing rate of abuse is alarming.
27. Availability of Websites Offering to Sell Psilocybin Spores and Psilocybin, Jason P. Lott, M D, M S H P, Douglas B. Marlowe, J D, PhD, and Robert F. Forman, Ph.D., Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 41 (3), September 2009
These authors investigated the online availability of psilocybin. Is this particular hallucinogen widely available for purchase on the Internet?
28. Youth Use of Legal Drugs Eclipses Illicit-Drug Use, Annual Survey Reports, Bob Curley, Join Together, December 11, 2008
The War on Drugs has long been cast as a battle against illegal narcotics, but the latest federal data shows that seven of the top 10 drugs being misused by high-school seniors are legal prescription or over-the-counter medications.
UNIT 5: Measuring the Social Costs of Drugs
29. The Problem with Drinking, Cheryl Harris Sharman, Perspectives in Health, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2005
The abuse of alcohol is an international issue. The wider problem of alcohol in the Americas is discussed in this article. Is this a good example of a world-wide epidemic of alcohol abuse?
30. With Cars as Meth Labs, Evidence Litters Roads, Susan Saulny, The New York Times, April 15, 2010
The ‘mobile method’ for making meth has grown in popularity because it’s easier, cheaper, and harder to notice. It doesn’t require a lot of space, is a one-pot recipe, and disposing of the meth lab is done by putting it in a trash bag and tossing it out of a car window.
31. Los Zetas: The Ruthless Army Spawned by a Mexican Drug Cartel, George W. Grayson, Foreign Policy Research Institute, May 2008
This article methodically explores the U.S.-Mexican narcotics relations. Specifically examined are the origins of Los Zetas, their resources and major operations.
32. The Role of Substance Abuse in U.S. Juvenile Justice Systems and Populations, Heather Horowitz, Hung-En Sung, and Susan E. Foster, Corrections Compendium, January/February 2006
Nearly 89 percent of juvenile arrests involve children and teens who are under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. This article includes some discussion of the variables that influence this.
UNIT 6: Creating and Sustaining Effective Drug Control Policy
33. Catch and Release, Janelle Weiner, Sacramento News & Review, April 2, 2009
California’s prisons are packed with repeat nonviolent drug offenders. Folsom State Prison’s Parolee Substance Abuse Program seeks to rehabilitate, not incarcerate.
34. Drugs: To Legalize or Not, Steven B. Duke, American News Essay, April 25, 2009
Supporters argue that decriminalizing the possession and use of marijuana would raise billions in taxes and eliminate much of the profits that fuel bloodshed and violence in Mexico. Do you agree?
35. Do No Harm: Sensible Goals for International Drug Policy, From AE October 2011
This article discusses the problems nations—specifically the United States—encounter in the pursuit of a sensible and diplomatic drug policy.
36. It is Time to End the War on Drugs, Anonymous, Judicature, 93(2), September/October 2009
This author argues that an over reliance on law enforcement and incarceration to address the drug problem has led to seriously adverse consequences not only for public health, but also for the courts and correctional systems.
37. New Drug Control Strategy Signals Policy Shift, Sam Hananel, The Associated Press, May 11, 2010
The White House is putting more resources toward drug prevention and treatment as part of the Presidents pledge to treat illegal drug use more as a public health issue than a criminal justice problem. In spite of this, is the administrations’ focus on treatment and prevention more rhetoric than reality?
38. Beyond Supply and Demand: Obama’s Drug Wars in Latin America, Suzanna Reiss, NACLA Report on the Americas, 43(1), January/February 2010
The article focuses on President Obama’s drug policy in Latin America. The author stresses the need to understand and question the international political and economic foundations of drug policy in the U.S.
39. Feature: Twenty Years of Drug Courts—Results and Misgivings, Drug War Chronicle, Issue #580, April 10, 2009
The first drug court, designed to find a more effective way for the criminal justice system to deal with drug offenders, was born in Miami in 1989. Since then drug courts have expanded dramatically and include one in at least one in every state. Are they working?
UNIT 7: Prevention, Treatment, and Education
40. Crime and Treatment: Overcrowded Prisons and Addicted Inmates Are a Tough Challenge for Lawmakers, Donna Lyons, State Legislators, March 2010
With a prison population that surged 12 percent from 2007 to 2008, Kentucky lawmakers are looking for a solution. Have they found one in a measure that passed last year that offers some felony offenders the option of treatment in lieu of criminal charges?
41. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: When Science, Medicine, Public Policy and Laws Collide, Kenneth R. Warren and Brenda G. Hewitt, Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15, 2009
This article provides an overview of the inherent confusion that asks when new scientific findings confront prevailing medical practice.
42. Identifying the Proper Drug-Abuse Treatment for Offenders, Mark T. Simpson, Corrections Today, December 2008
It is now estimated that the criminal justice system generates nearly 50 percent of all referrals to community-based drug-abuse treatment. With state legislatures searching for cost-effective alternatives to incarceration, the growth in drug abuse treatment for offenders can only be expected to continue.
43. Whose Responsibility Is Substance Abuse Treatment?, Melvin L. Williams, Corrections Today, Vol. 70, No. 6, December 2008
Treating drug abuse is difficult in the best of circumstances and there are no magic bullets. Who should do what to treat huge numbers inmates with long histories of drug abuse?
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