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The Annual Editions series is designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. Annual Editions volumes have a number of organizational features designed to make them especially valuable for classroom use: a general introduction; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; an annotated listing of supporting World Wide Web sites; Learning Outcomes and a brief overview at the beginning of each unit; and a Critical Thinking section at the end of each article. Each volume also offers an online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing materials. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is a general guide that provides a number of interesting and functional ideas for using Annual Editions readers in the classroom. Visit www.mhhe.com/annualeditions for more details.
Table of Contents
Annual Editions: Educational Psychology 13/14, Twenty-Eighth Edition
UNIT 1: Perspectives on Teaching
1. Inspired Responses, Carol Frederick Steele, Educational Leadership, December 2010/January 2011
Ms. Steele equates effective teaching with inspired teaching, and expands on four of the thirteen most important skills in the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. She helps us see how novice teaching develops into inspired teaching.
2. Reform: To What End?, Mike Rose, Educational Leadership, April 2010
Mr. Rose argues that educational reform efforts should concentrate on developing teacher expertise with professional development activities such as summer workshops with subject-matter experts and effective teachers. These workshops would energize teachers to consider effective teaching techniques and help them create learning-friendly environments with intellectual rigor, student responsibility for learning, and respect.
3. Embarking on Action Research, Catherine M. Brighton, Educational Leadership, February 2009
The author leads us through seven basic steps for conducting action research. She shows how teachers can conduct reflective, systematic inquiry to address problems they encounter while teaching.
4. Teaching with Awareness: The Hidden Effects of Trauma on Learning, Helen Collins Sitler, The Clearing Houses, January/February 2009
This pertinent article helps teachers understand the psychological effects of trauma on students and how they might mitigate those effects.
5. Supporting Adolescents Exposed to Disasters, Anne K. Jacobs, Eric Vernberg, and Stephanie J. Lee, The Prevention Researcher, September 2008
The authors present ways to prepare and support youth before, during, and after a major disaster. Online resources are also listed to help meet the unique needs of students as they deal with traumatic events.
Unit 2: Development
Part A. Childhood
6. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood, Doris Bergen and Doris Pronin Fromberg, Phi Delta Kappan, February 2009
The authors discuss how play is valuable for children's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. They present ways in which teachers and parents can facilitate play that supports student growth.
7. It's All in the Game: Designing and Playing Board Games to Foster Communication and Social Skills, Kathleen M. Collins et al., Young Children, March 2011
The authors explain the many benefits to children creating their own board games to promote language and literacy development. This approach can also promote social skills while meeting learning standards.
8. Why We Should Not Cut P.E., Stewart G. Trost and Hans van der Mars, Educational Leadership, December 2009/January 2010
The authors discuss five studies that show that instructional time for physical education does not harm academic achievement, and may help it. They also show that physical fitness and physical activity benefit the health of children, their academic performance and cognitive activity in general.
Part B. Adolescence
9. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs, Ken C. Winters, and Amelia Arria, The Prevention Researcher, April 2011
The authors review the basics of how the adolescent brain develops and examine how brain development affects adolescent decision making about risky behavior. They also explore the vulnerability of the adolescent brain to drug use and implications for drug prevention and treatment.
10. A Brief Primer on Self-Esteem, Richard W. Robins, Kali H. Trzesniewski, and M. Brent Donnellan, The Prevention Researcher, April 2012
Richard Robins and colleagues explain the concept of self esteem, and how it changes through childhood and adolescence. They also discuss whether self-esteem intervention programs work.
11. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination, Stacey S. Horn and Katherine E. Romeo, The Prevention Researcher, November 2010
This article explores how the attitudes and beliefs of peers can alienate LGBT youth. Ways in which schools can construct more supportive peer contexts for LGBT adolescents and promote greater tolerance of diversity are discussed.
12. What Educators Need to Know about Bullying Behaviors, Sandra Graham, Phi Delta Kappan, September 2010
Ms. Graham dispels myths about the characteristics of bullies and victims. Internet resources are provided to help support adolescents who are targets of peer victimization.
13. "I Want a Multicultural Classroom": Preparing Social Studies Teachers for Culturally Diverse Classrooms, Antonio J. Castro, et al., The Social Studies, February 2012
Diversity is an important foundation when discussing controversial issues. Mr. Castro argues that civility is a moral virtue that ought to be taught and modeled by teachers. He acknowledges that incivility is often protected by the first amendment; however he outlines ways that teachers can and should induce children and adolescents to be civil because it is the morally correct path.
UNIT 3: Individual Differences among Learners
Part A. Exceptional Learning Needs
14. Prove Them Wrong: Be There for Secondary Students With an Emotional or Behavioral Disability, Ernest Solar, TEACHING Exceptional Children, September/October 2011
Mr. Solar explains the needs of adolescents with an emotional or behavioral disability and describes ten tips to manage a student with these special needs in inclusive classrooms.
15. The 5-Point Plan: Fostering Successful Partnerships with Families of Students with Disabilities, Caitlin C. Edwards and Alexandra Da Fonte, TEACHING Exceptional Children, January/February 2012
Partnering with families significantly benefits students with special learning needs. This article outlines a way that teachers can develop collaborative relationships with parents. These tips for family involvement can work with all students.
Part B. Gifted and Talented
16. The Right Fit for Henry, J. Christine Gould, Linda K. Staff, and Heather M. Theiss, Educational Leadership, February 2012
The authors discuss the challenges faced by students who are twice-exceptional, being both gifted and having a disability. They describe how teachers can partner with the special educator to identify appropriate accommodations for the student's special learning needs.
17. The Relationship of Perfectionism to Affective Variables in Gifted and Highly Able Children, Mary M. Christopher and Jennifer Shewmaker, Gifted Child Today, Summer 2010
This study examines the relationship between perfectionism and emotional development of gifted students. It finds that some perfectionist tendencies are related to depression, but may not necessarily be anxiety provoking.
Part C. Diversity
18. Students Without Homes, Vicky S. Dill, Educational Leadership, November 2010
Ms. Dill discusses the rights of children who are at-risk because they are homeless. Indicators of homelessness, and ways in which teachers can support students who have become homeless are presented.
19. Improving Schooling for Cultural Minorities: The Right Teaching Styles Can Make a Big Difference, Hani Morgan, Educational Horizons, Winter 2010
Multi-cultural education includes effectively teaching students from different cultures. Hani Morgan describes differing needs of students from a variety of cultures and suggests ways to avoid stereotyping students and teach in a culturally responsive manner.
20. The Myth of PINK & BLUE Brains, Lise Eliot, Educational Leadership, November 2010
Lise Eliot explains how small gender differences in infancy become magnified through parental interactions with their children. She argues that teachers, as well, need to be aware of how they treat boys and girls so they do not exacerbate gender stereotypes.
21. Gender Matters in Elementary Education: Research-based Strategies to Meet the Distinctive Learning Needs of Boys and Girls, Virginia Bonomo, Educational Horizons, Summer 2010
Ms. Bonomo discusses gender-based differences between boys and girls and how they learn. She suggests teaching strategies appropriate to each.
Unit 4: Learning and Instruction
Part A. Learning and Cognition
22. What Does the Brain Have to Do with Learning?, Jennifer M. Worden, Christina Hinton, and Kurt W. Fischer, Phi Delta Kappan, May 2011
The authors discuss five myths commonly held (and too often promoted) about neuroscience, the brain, and their influence on education. Research findings de-bunking each myth are presented, along with suggested ways that the emerging field of Mind, Brain and Education (MBE) can bring the expertise of neuroscience, cognitive science, and education together to further our understanding of how people learn. They suggest that ignoring important findings from educational neuroscience or embracing findings and programs that are "brain-based" without critical examination are both detrimental to the field.
23. What Will Improve a Student's Memory?, Daniel T. Willingham, American Educator, Winter 2008–2009
In this selection from Mr. Willingham's column "Ask the Cognitive Psychologist," he summarizes three key principles about how human memory works and common myths or misconceptions about memory. He suggests a number of applications to the classroom, including a list of more common mnemonic devices and how they work to increase students' memory of information.
24. Classroom Assessment and Grading to Assure Mastery, James P. Lalley and J. Ronald Gentile, Theory Into Practice, January 2009
In this article, the authors present the difference between mastery and expertise, as well as the importance of mastery with regard to initial learning, forgetting, and re-learning. They highlight the key components to be considered when designing a mastery learning environment and the important role of assessment to the process.
25. Backward Design: Targeting Depth of Understanding for All Learners, Amy Childre, Jennifer R. Sands, and Saundra Tanner Pope, Teaching Exceptional Children, May/June 2009
The authors argue that developing instruction that enables students to construct understanding (as opposed to knowledge) requires thoughtful planning and curriculum design. They present a step-by-step guide to backward design, including both elementary and high school examples reflecting the process, and highlight the importance of this approach for inclusive classrooms.
Part B. Instructional Strategies
26. Principles of Instruction: Research-Based Strategies That All Teachers Should Know, Barak Rosenshine, American Educator, Spring 2012
In this article, Mr. Rosenshine presents 10 research-based principles of instruction, the research supporting them, and suggestions for classroom practice all teachers should know. The principles include starting each lesson with a brief review, presenting new material in smaller chunks, providing models and opportunities for guided practice, scaffolding learning for difficult tasks, and engaging students in routine review of what they have learned on a regular basis.
27. Cheating Themselves Out of an Education: Assignments That Promote Higher-Order Thinking and Honesty in the Middle Grades, Nicole Zito and Patrick J. McQuillan, Middle School Journal, November 2010
In this article, the authors report findings from a small scale study that examined academic (dis)honesty in the context of a small private day school. They use goal theory to examine the academic context of the school and highlight providing students with inherently valuable and meaningful assignments as one way to decrease incidences of dishonesty because students appreciate that the system rewards them for understanding rather than performance.
28. What Happens When Eighth Graders Become the Teachers?, Stephanie Stecz, Teachers College Record, August 2009
In this article from a special issue on teacher research, Ms. Stecz, a teacher in the Chicago Public Schools, reports findings from an action research project she conducted in her classroom. In the project, she asked a group of eighth grade students to work in small groups to develop and teach lessons about Japan to second-, third-, and fourth grade classes over a 10-week period. She uses excerpts from a personal journal, quotes from student discussions, and comments on surveys to describe the process and reactions of the students involved in the project. Ms. Stecz discusses how students' ownership of the content changed, unexpected students emerged as leaders, and her own beliefs and approach to teaching were affected by the project.
Part C. Technology & the Internet
29. Using Websites Wisely, Julie Coiro and Jay Fogleman, Educational Leadership, February 2011
As the title suggests, this article focuses on ways online resources can be used to deepen learning if the right tasks and appropriate supports for students are designed by the teacher. The authors identify three types of web-based learning environments—informational reading systems, interactive learning systems, and instructional learning systems. They discuss how websites from each category present information, their limitations, sample websites, and strategies for designing lessons to successfully integrate them.
30. Transforming Education with Technology: A Conversation with Karen Cator, Marge Scherer, Educational Leadership, February 2011
In this article, Ms. Scherer has a conversation with the U.S. Department of Education Director of the Office of Educational Technology, Karen Cator. The conversation covers a range of topics from online learning experiences and inequities in access to technology to the national technology plan and the need for research.
31. Plagiarism in the Internet Age, Rebecca Moore Howard and Laura J. Davies, Educational Leadership, March 2009
The authors discuss dealing with plagiarism in the classroom, an issue made more complex by the Internet and accessibility of information online. They suggest that worthwhile attempts to prevent plagiarism at any grade level should include discussing values, both broad and those specific to writing, guiding students in the process of online research, and teaching students how to critically read and summarize sources.
32. Assessing Middle School Students' Knowledge of Conduct and Consequences and Their Behaviors Regarding the Use of Social Networking Sites, Stacey L. Kite, Robert Gable, and Lawrence Filippelli, The Clearing House, July 2010
In this article, the authors discuss findings from a survey study involving seventh and eighth graders. They asked students to fill out a questionnaire about their knowledge of appropriate behavior on social networking sites, bullying sites, and internet use of social networking sites. The authors discuss the implications of students' responses for parents and teachers, specifically with regard to cyberbullying and internet predators.
Unit 5: Motivation, Engagement, and Classroom Management
Part A. Motivation and Engagement
33. The Perils and Promises of Praise, Carol S. Dweck, Educational Leadership, October 2007
In this article, Carol Dweck, well-known for her work on the impact of praise on students, summarizes research that examines the relationships among intelligence, student effort, teacher praise, and student motivation. She suggests that educators should move away from the belief that intellectual ability is fixed and adopt a "growth mind-set." Students also need to learn that intellectual development involves forming new connections through effort and learning. The article reports results of an investigation in which students were taught to think about their "brains as muscles that needed exercising," in addition to study skills, time management techniques, and memory strategies.
34. Regulation of Motivation: Contextual and Social Aspects, Christopher A. Wolters, Teachers College Record, February 2011
In this article, Mr. Wolters reviews what it means to be a self-regulated learner by specifically examining regulation of motivation. He discusses previous research that has focused on regulation of motivation across contexts and developmental levels and highlights the importance of social influences on the development of regulation of motivation. He concludes that regulation of motivation is a critical aspect of self-regulation and deserves further attention and greater examination.
Part B. Classroom Management
35. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships, Mary Ellen Beaty-O'Ferrall, Alan Green, and Fred Hanna, Middle School Journal, March 2010
In this article, the authors focus on classroom management as relationship building. They highlight the importance of classroom management and relationships, particularly for students during the middle grades, not only academically, but socially and emotionally as well. A number of well-supported strategies for building positive and effective relationships, including a special focus on multicultural connections, are provided, which are applicable to students of any age or grade level.
36. From Ringmaster to Conductor: 10 Simple Techniques Can Turn an Unruly Class into a Productive One, Matthew A. Kraft, Phi Delta Kappan, April 2010
Mr. Kraft draws the distinction between classroom management (practices that provide the foundation for the classroom environment and structure) and behavior management (techniques that are used to address specific or individual situations and essential to a positive, safe learning environment). He provides a list of five specific strategies under each area that allow the teacher to foster a classroom environment similar to a "symphony of learners" rather than a "three-ring circus."
37. Calling All Frequent Flyers, Ross W. Greene, Educational Leadership, October 2010
Mr. Greene promotes a problem-solving and collaborative approach to addressing problem behaviors at the school/building rather than individual teacher/classroom level. He provides a review of how, when, and why students are challenging—taking the perspective that challenging behaviors arise when students don't have the skills and capacity to adapt to the demands placed upon them.
Unit 6: Assessment
Part A. Standards, Accountability and Standardized Testing
38. Building on the Common Core, David T. Conley, Educational Leadership, March 2011
In this article, the author discusses the release of the Common Core Standards in June 2010 and their implication for the classroom. Using his work at the Educational Policy Improvement Center during the last 10 years as a basis, Mr. Conley identifies key cognitive strategies necessary for post-secondary and career success and how they can be supported through the common core standards.
39. Data-Driven Decision Making, Michael J. Donhost and Vincent A. Anfara, Jr., Middle School Journal, November 2010
In synthesizing the literature on data-driven decision making, the authors identify five essential phases that must be part of the process if school administrators and educators attempt to make sense of the overwhelming amounts of data they are required to collect as part of NCLB. The article also highlights two key gaps in the literature related to: (1) criticism by researchers of the use of accountability test data to drive school improvement strategies; and (2) involving students in the decisionmaking process.
40. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance, Anthony Milanowski, Phi Delta Kappan, April 2011
In this article the topics of teacher evaluation and how best to measure teacher performance are addressed. Mr. Milanowski suggests three essential measurement systems of teacher practice to demonstrate competency, in combination with value-added measures of productivity as models that have the most promise.
41. What Are Achievement Gains Worth—To Teachers?, Julie A. Marsh and Daniel F. McCaffrey, Phi Delta Kappan, December 2011/January 2012
The authors examine a recent initiative in the New York City schools that instituted a "Schoolwide Performance Bonus Program (SPBP)" in which groups of educators in a building rather than individual teachers were accountable for student achievement. Ms. Marsh and Mr. McCaffrey present highlights from their full 2011 report and suggest that a number of factors prevented the program from positively impacting students in the schools where it was implemented. They conclude with several recommendations for pay-for-performance incentives.
Part B. Classroom Assessment
42. Peer Assessment, Keith J. Topping, Theory Into Practice, January 2009
An in-depth discussion of the use of peer assessment, including an example from a secondary English classroom, is presented by the author. Mr. Topping identifies benefits of peer assessment, as well as concerns about implementation, and issues associated with reliability and validity, concluding with several considerations when organizing peer assessment in the classroom.
43. Assessment-Driven Improvements in Middle School Students' Writing, Heidi Andrade, et al., Middle School Journal, March 2009
The authors discuss their efforts to improve students' writing skills and scores on the English Language Arts (ELA) test in a school in New York State. The process focused on developing consistency across all classes and grade levels, by designing common rubrics, incorporating peer and self-assessment, examining the reliability and validity of the assessments, using assessments to plan instruction, and ensuring students were able to transfer their learning to the test.
44. Students' Reactions to a "No Failure" Grading System and How They Informed Teacher Practice, Dick Corbett and Bruce Wilson, Theory Into Practice, Summer 2009
The authors describe the central ideas of a program implemented in several low-income middle schools to remove failure as an option for grading on assignments for students. In place of "F's" for missing or incomplete assignments, teachers developed a variety of options students could choose from to demonstrate mastery of critical skills and knowledge. They use quotes from interviews with educators and students over a five-year period to describe some of the important reactions from both groups and highlight decisions/reactions by the educators in response to the students' reactions.
45. Creating Student-Friendly Tests, Spencer J. Salend, Educational Leadership, November 2011
Mr. Salend raises important points regarding the development of classroom tests that are student-friendly and allow students to show what they have learned. He focuses on topics such as validity and accessibility, provides tips for developing a variety of different traditional test items (multiple choice, true/false, sentence completion, essay) and includes sample items that have been revised to demonstrate how teachers can make improvements to their own tests.