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Table of Contents
Annual Editions: Multicultural Education, Sixteenth Edition
Unit 1: Notice Cultures and Cultural Characteristics
1. Becoming Citizens of the World, Vivien Stewart, Educational Leadership, April 2007
Global competence in today's world requires young people to understand the interconnectedness of economies with the rise of Asia; that science and technology are vital changes in the world; that health and security matters are interrelated and impact everyone everywhere; and that the world's demographics have accelerated international migration patterns. U.S. students must expand their world knowledge, international language skills, and civic values. The trends and suggestions associated with the challenges of living in a globalized society are described in detail.
2. Colorblind to the Reality of Race in America, Ian F. Haney López, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 3, 2006
The author provides an argument concerning the phenomenon of race relations in the United States and the "color blindness" of many white Americans and its effects on the lives of persons of color. He argues that there are efforts to ignore the reality of "race" in American life. Issues related to the concept of race continue to be litigated in the courts.
3. "What Are You?" Biracial Children in the Classroom, Traci P. Baxley, Childhood Education, June 2008
On the 2000 U.S. Census, for the first time Americans were given the opportunity to identify themselves as biracial. Approximately 2.4 percent of the U.S. population or 6.8 million people could report their heritages and biracial identity accurately. Biracial students comprise one of the fastest growing populations in today's schools and classrooms. Educators need to be aware of the biracial identity and practices that support biracial students intellectually, emotionally, and socially and promote multicultural education for all students in all classrooms.
4. Beyond "Culture Clash": Understandings of Immigrant Experiences, Bic Ngo, Theory Into Practice, 2008
Immigrants to U.S. schools and society and their families construct cultures and identities based on their new experiences. Clashes may occur between immigrants and native U.S. citizens; clashes can also occur between immigrant youth and their parents as the youth strive to become both a part of their new peer culture and yet remain a part of their families. The author offers an explanation of the double movement of identity development experienced through international migration patterns and the need for redefining identity as the in-between that immigrants frequently express.
5. Metaphors of Hope, Mimi Brodsky Chenfield, Phi Delta Kappan, December 2004
The author describes the promising examples of four wonderful teachers and how their students have responded to their teaching. Teaching since 1956, the author has traveled the nation observing students and teachers in classroom interaction.
Unit 2: Negotiate and Evaluate Curriculum and Content
6. A Letter Long Overdue, Michael L. Fischler, ASCD New Hampshire, Spring 2007
In a letter written to Coretta Scott King, the author reflects on the life and legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the impact of his assassination in 1968. On the day following that fateful date four decades ago, the author was a junior high school English teacher. Seizing the moment, the author redirected his planned learning experiences for the day to facilitate a powerful lesson in honor of MLK Jr. This letter retells the lesson and the influences on the author's life.
7. Status of the Dream: A Study of Dr. King in Little Rock and Memphis Classrooms, Angela Webster-Smith, Arkansas Association of Teacher Education Electronic Journal, Spring 2011
Having attended the last speech given by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the author surveyed 50 elementary school teachers in Memphis and Little Rock to investigate how they honor the life and legacy of Dr. King in their classrooms today in a country where the new American civil right is founded on education. Findings from this study show that today's teachers continue to bring historical context through creative instruction that fulfills their state standards and academic expectations. Themes of fairness and equity resonated through the classroom teachers' descriptions.
8. Teaching for Social Justice in Multicultural Urban Schools: Conceptualization and Classroom Implication, Jose Lalas, Multicultural Education, Spring 2007
Teaching and learning for social justice in schools is defined and conceptualized with various terminologies that do not always translate into meaningful, productive, and beneficial classroom experiences. However, common principles are applicable, relevant, and translatable into effective classroom practices. Classroom teachers and school administrators can and are encouraged to develop their ideological and political commitment for promoting social justice in all classrooms, particularly in urban schools.
9. The Human Right to Education: Freedom and Empowerment, Caetano Pimentel, Multicultural Education, Summer 2006
Education is an entitled right; through a phenomenological method of inquiry, the author advocates that education empowers one's thinking, learning, living, and earning. All students are entitled to an effective education to ensure both present and future opportunities. Critical are the women's rights to schooling at every level. Women contribute as equals in society, provide future educational opportunities for their families and community, and serve as role models for all young learners.
10. An Investigation of How Culture Shapes Curriculum in Early Care and Education Programs on a Native American Indian Reservation, Jennifer L. Gilliard and Rita A. Moore, Early Childhood Education Journal, February 2007
Children initiate their sense of belonging in their homes and communities shaping their cultural identities that they take to school. However, with 90 percent of all teachers coming from White, European American backgrounds, many Native American and immigrant students who see the world through their cultural perspectives and who are English language learners may not feel accepted or educated in classrooms and schools; they are not visible or valued in the curriculum and instruction. Teachers need to understand culture and education from backgrounds other than their own. Research conducted with members of three Native American tribes provides guidelines for valuing the presence of family and community in education.
Unit 3: Establish Community and Context
11. The Need to Reestablish Schools as Dynamic Positive Human Energy Systems That Are Non-Linear and Self-Organizing: The Learning Partnership Tree, Michele Acker-Hocevar et al., International Journal of Learning, 2005/2006
Begun as research on accountability evidenced by federal and state mandates, standardized test scores, and school rankings in high-performing elementary schools, the authors redirected their study to focus on practices and beliefs educators held that helped them sustain high performance at nine high-performing schools. The outcomes showed that success was created where faculties created highly developed internal cultures that were enabling and capacity building. The research evolved into The Learning Partnership Model.
12. Promoting School Achievement among American Indian Students throughout the School Years, Kristin Powers, Childhood Education, International Focus Issue, 2005
The author reports on a preliminary research study of Native American students' perceptions of their schooling experience in two midwestern cities and how they perceive their relationships with their teachers. The author offers suggestions for how Native American students may improve their school achievement levels in the later school grades and recommendations for how teachers in the later grades may improve their relations with Native American students.
13. Discarding the Deficit Model, Beth Harry and Janette Klingner, Educational Leadership, February 2007
The results of a three-year study reveal that several conditions mar the placement process of students having learning needs and challenges. The authors report that the deficit model is substantiated by the lack of adequate classroom instruction prior to referrals, inconsistencies in policy implementation, and arbitrary referrals and assessment decisions result in disproportionate placement of some minority groups in special education. More resources should be dedicated to providing curriculum and instruction emphasizing effective multicultural education in classrooms.
14. Arts in the Classroom: "La Llave" (The Key) to Awareness, Community Relations, and Parental Involvement, Margarita Machado-Casas, Multicultural Education, Winter 2004
The author discusses how the arts can be used in classroom instruction and how she attempted to implement Freire's ideas about critical theory in education as well as the theories of others in teaching students.
15. Strengthening the Case for Community-Based Learning in Teacher Education, Jewell E. Cooper, Journal of Teacher Education, Spring 2007
Teacher education must be reconceptualized by community-based learning into the formal curriculum to better prepare candidates for today's schools, classrooms, and learners. Contemporary candidates benefit greatly from authentic opportunities to explore their stereotypic views and interpretations of history; to discover their cultural existence coupled with their presence of power and privilege; and to view the nation's student populations realistically in terms of becoming part of the solution. The author offers activities that assist with strengthening teacher preparation to enhance teacher efficacy and increase career retention.
Unit 4: Seek and Engage Collaboration and Construction
16. As Diversity Grows, So Must We, Gary R. Howard, Educational Leadership, March 2007
The author proposes that school administrators implement five phases of professional development with their faculties and staffs to (1) build trust, (2) engage personal cultures, (3) confront social dominance, (4) transform instructional practices, and (5) engage the entire school community to understand and promote social justice. These five phases of professional development will help ensure social justice in schools accompanied with equity and excellence for and among classroom teachers for students in today's world.
17. In Urban America, Many Students Fail to Finish High School, Karin Fischer, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 3, 2006
This article by Karin Fischer examines the cultural issues influencing school dropout rates in the urban setting.
18. A Critically Compassionate Intellectualism for Latina/o Students: Raising Voices above the Silencing in Our Schools, Julio Cammarota and Augustine Romero, Multicultural Education, Winter 2006
When Latina/o students are given school work that is remedial and unchallenging, the curriculum and instruction are failing to provide them with the preparation and credentials necessary to advance socially and economically. These classroom experiences deny Latina/o students the opportunities to critical voices and intellectual capacities to challenge the current system and enact change. The authors present guidelines for all teachers to empower all students in the content and practices communicating authentically to all students that they are significant.
19. Educating Vietnamese American Students, Huong Tran Nguyen, Multicultural Education, Fall 2007
Although advancing English proficiency among students with limited English proficiency and English language learners is a cornerpost of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, reading levels among Vietnamese American students fall years below their corresponding grade level for their year of school. Cognitive language academic proficiency, in particular, was significantly lower. Pushed to learn all subjects in English, the author advocates that academic learning should be taught in the native language allowing students to transfer knowledge and skills across languages.
20. The Diversity Merry-Go-Around: Planning and Working in Concert to Establish a Culture of Acceptance and Respect in the University, Raphael C. Heaggans and Walter W. Polka, Educational Planning, Winter 2009
Universities across the United States must honestly address and actively engage in a collaborative process of strategic planning to make diversity an endemic part of the institution. Leaders must apply quality management principles that increase awareness, review policies, modify procedures, and act inclusively to make a difference in all aspects of the university setting and its purposes before, during, and after implementation. The authors provide guidelines and resources to assist with the unlearning that must be accomplished prior to instituting change.
Unit 5: Spark Conversations and Climate
21. Developing Collective Classroom Efficacy: The Teacher's Role as Community Organizer, LeAnn G. Putney and Suzanne H. Broughton, Journal of Teacher Education, Spring 2011
The authors relate the process of creating shared classroom efficacy with the teacher as organizer to discuss topics and issues in their curriculum, community, and classroom, all of which involve understanding and practicing cultural competence. Through their efficacy, the teacher and students become both the promoters and the participants as everyone guides and learns from one another reflective of Vygotsky's view of individual and collective development.
22. Meeting ACTFL/NCATE Accreditation Standards: What World Language Teacher Candidates Reveal about Program Preparation, Freddie A. Bowles, Arkansas Association of Teacher Education Electronic Journal, Fall 2010
Research conducted with teacher candidates pursuing careers as teachers of world languages resulted in two major findings: These particular teacher candidates need to demonstrate oral proficiency in their individual languages, and, like all other candidates, these candidates need to develop their cultural competency. Too often it is believed that world language teachers model cultural competence given their content areas; however, candidates revealed that they, too, need guidance with teaching all students.
23. Examining Second Language Literacy Development in an Urban Multi-Age Classroom, Sharon H. Ulanoff et al., International Journal of Early Childhood Education, 2007
This article covers Ethnographic research conducted in one urban multi-age classroom over three years. Observations revealed three major themes occurring in this sociolinguistic and sociocultural context: Students were guided in making meaning of the content by using literacy and connecting to prior learning; students were allowed to structure the learning environment to create a safe and welcoming learning community based on respect with returning students from past years serving as role models; students and teachers were encouraged to take risks with their vocabulary, concepts, and practices.
24. Celebrating Diversity through Explorations of Arab Children's Literature, Tami Al-Hazza and Bob Lucking, Childhood Education, Spring 2007
Teachers must offer literature representative of all students in their classrooms and people around the world, but few teachers are acquainted with or appreciate Arab children's literature. To promote the efforts to establish cultural pluralism, the authors provide a detailed description of important references and insights for honoring cultural diversity. Balancing traditional literature with contemporary realistic fiction with historical fiction, guidelines for choosing Arab children's literature are provided to enrich multicultural education in classrooms.
25. Chica Lit: Multicultural Literature Blurs Borders, Marie Loggia-Kee, Multicultural Review, Spring 2007
Preteen and teenage girls seek literature that reflects their gender, ages, and interests. Too often they are required to read literature that may be quite serious and difficult to connect to their own lives. Chica lit offers a genre of Latina literature that is fun and fashionable. Latina girls are provided a range of books with characters whose cultural background and daily adventures mirror their own experiences. To capture their students' interest and increase their students' achievement levels, teachers can incorporate the literature into the choices of literature that their students can read and review.
Unit 6: Strengthen and Weave Together Complexities and Controversies
26. One Nation, Many Gods, Carrie Kilman, Teaching Tolerance, Fall 2007
Many middle level and high schools now offer courses in religion in schools and classrooms. Teachers are expected to teach the subject of religion inclusively; teachers cannot take a stance in which they either promote or demote particular religions. However, teacher education has not prepared teachers with the content curriculum or equipped them with the pedagogical instruction. As teachers begin teaching appropriately about the world's religions, they benefit from the ten tips described by the author so students learn in depth and with respect.
27. "Because I Had a Turban," Khyati Y. Joshi, Teaching Tolerance, Fall 2007
This author discusses the experiences of Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh students, individuals who are Indian Americans who feel ignored, marginalized, or discriminated against due to their religious cultures and customs. Religious beliefs, traditions, and customs frequently establish the social outlooks, habits, and practices both at home and in public including and extending celebrations. However, not all religions are recognized and understood, causing conflict among students. Five practices for educators to help make religion matter in schools and classrooms are highlighted.
28. Asian American Teachers, Hema Ramanathan, Multicultural Education, Fall 2006
The author discusses the possible influence of Asian American teachers. She reports on the growing literature on Asian Americans and outlines the contributions they can make to the teaching profession. The author describes professional challenges Asian American teachers encounter as well as means by which they can meet those challenges. This essay is based on a research survey and conversations with Asian American teachers.
Unit 7: Waken Compassion and Commitment
29. Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity, Wendy Kopp, Phi Delta Kappan, June 2008
Teach for America was established on the premise of addressing educational inequity. When children grow up in poverty, they tend to remain academically behind other children. If children of poverty graduate from high school, there is little hope academically or financially of them attending college, entering a career, or contributing to society. Classroom teachers provide the means for children in poverty to possibly overcome their challenges. Teach for America has launched initiatives to prepare classroom teachers and school administrators to work with underserved populations through local programs and community collaborations.
30. The Promise of Black Teachers' Success with Black Students, H. Richard Milner, IV, Educational Foundations, Summer/Fall 2006
Research on Black teachers shows that they contribute to the ever-growing literature about successful teachers of Black students with results that benefit all teachers. The research also indicates that some current guidelines advance the success of Black students. Careful to avoid professional racism, the author analyzes the Black teachers and their multiple roles, identities, and contributions in constructing culturally informed relationships and advancing academically connected accomplishments that both equip and empower Black students for higher education, professional careers, and social responsibilities.
31. Good Intentions Are Not Enough: A Decolonizing Intercultural Education, Paul C. Gorski, Intercultural Education, December 2008
The author contends that, although well intended, most intercultural education contributes to dominant hegemony and power, rather than challenging inequities and social structures. Ascribing to a philosophy of decolonizing intercultural education through subtle shifts in personal relationships and professional practices, critical changes of cultural consciousness and sociopolitical contexts based on theory and research follow.
32. Advancing Cultural Competence and Intercultural Consciousness through a Cross-Cultural Simulation with Teacher Candidates, Nancy P. Gallavan and Angela Webster-Smith, Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, Fall 2009
To create an authentic learning environment to advance teacher candidates' acquisition, application, and appreciation of cultural competence, the authors facilitated a cross-cultural simulation called Barnga with the candidates. During the simulation, participants experience a variety of cultural settings accompanied with the unarticulated rules and expectations as encountered in our daily lives, especially by individuals with less privilege and power. Candidates become members of marginalized and disenfranchised members of society. The authors share their findings expressed through the layers of reflections shared by the participants and the benefits for teacher educators to enhance cultural competence.
Unit 8: Nurture and Welcome Challenges and Changes
33. Sustaining Ourselves under Stressful Times: Strategies to Assist Multicultural Educators, Penelope Wong and Anita E. Fernández, Multicultural Education, Spring 2008
It is well documented that teacher candidates exhibit continued resistance to learning effective multicultural education concepts and practices and for becoming multicultural educators. Resistance also occurs among educators in P-12 as well as higher education institutions, including teacher education programs. The authors have developed a theoretical framework described through multiple dimensions for multicultural educators to use for professional development to address such resistance to support their work and reduce feelings of despair, hopelessness, and burnout.
34. Toward a Conceptual Framework of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: An Overview of the Conceptual and Theoretical Literature, Shelly Brown-Jeffy and Jewell E. Cooper, Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter 2011
As the demographics in the United States and schools continues to change, teachers are encouraged to increase their understanding and use of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (CRP). CRP provides teachers with the historical development of this effective approach to teaching and learning to promote acceptance and achievement by and among all students. Focused on the goal of attaining equity and excellence for all young learners of today, the adults of tomorrow, CRP equips teachers with the tools and techniques that are authentic and natural to fulfill the hopes of everyone from the individual child to the good of our nation.
35. Approaches to Diversifying the Teaching Force: Attending to Issues of Recruitment, Preparation, and Retention, Ana María Villegas and Danné E. Davis, Teacher Education Quarterly, Fall 2007
The shortage of teachers of color results in unfortunate consequences for all students, especially students of color. Recruitment of teacher candidates of color should become a greater priority that begins in elementary and middle school continuing through high school and community colleges where students of color are enrolled. Support from institutions as well as communities of color can strengthen the commitment of teacher candidates and novice teachers of color in becoming teachers and staying in teacher education serving as models for future teachers of color.
36. Realizing Students' Every Day Realities: Community Analysis as a Model for Social Justice, Jeanette Haynes Writer and H. Prentice Baptiste, Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, Summer 2009
All students are entitled to participate equitably in learning communities that connect students' lives to learning contexts and authentic opportunities in their schools. The authors describe the Community Analysis (CA) Project featured in a multicultural education course at their university. Analyzing systemic inequities and inequalities along with the presence of privilege and power, preservice teachers discover organize knowledge possessed by students and families that bridge with school curriculum.
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