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Anthropology : A Global Perspective

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130885081

ISBN10:
0130885088
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $76.87
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Summary

"Anthropology: A Global Perspective" introduces students to the four fields of anthropology. This text integrates historical, biological, archaeological, and global approaches with ethnographic data available from around the world. Information is drawn from both classic and recent research in the field and reflects the current state-of-the-art understanding of social and cultural changes. Using an applied perspective, "Anthropology: A Global Perspective "demonstrates how anthropologists use research techniques and methods to help solve practical problems, thus showing students how anthropology is relevant to improving human societies.

Table of Contents

Boxes xiv
Preface xv
About the Authors xxii
PART I BASIC CONCEPTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY
Introduction to Anthropology
1(19)
Anthropology: The Four Subfields
3(7)
Physical Anthropology
4(3)
Archaeology
7(1)
Linguistic Anthropology
8(2)
Ethnology
10(1)
Holistic Anthropology, Interdisciplinary Research, and the Global Perpective
10(2)
Applied Anthropology
12(1)
Anthropological Explanations
12(3)
The Scientific Method
14(1)
Anthropology and the Humanities
15(1)
Why Study Anthropology?
15(2)
Critical Thinking and Global Awareness
15(2)
Summary
17(1)
Questions to Think About
18(1)
Key Terms
18(1)
Internet Exercises
18(1)
Suggested Readings
18(2)
The Record of the Past
20(27)
Answering Questions
24(3)
Fossils and Fossil Localities
27(2)
Paleoanthropological Study
27(2)
The Archaeological Record
29(8)
Locating Sites
32(2)
Archaeological Excavation
34(3)
Dating Methods
37(5)
Relative Dating
37(2)
Numerical, or Absolute, Dating
39(2)
Seriation
41(1)
Interpretations About the Past
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
Questions to Think About
44(1)
Key Terms
44(1)
Internet Exercises
45(1)
Suggested Readings
45(2)
Evolution
47(25)
Cosmologies and Human Origins
48(2)
Western Traditions of Origin
49(1)
The Scientific Revolution
50(1)
Catastrophism versus Uniformitarianism
50(1)
Theories of Evolution
51(4)
Darwin, Wallace, and Natural Selection
53(1)
Examples of Natural Selection
54(1)
Principles of Inheritance
55(5)
Mendel and Modern Genetics
55(3)
Molecular Genetics
58(2)
Population Genetics and Evolution
60(2)
Mutations
60(1)
Gene Flow
61(1)
Genetic Drift
61(1)
Natural Selection
62(1)
How Does Evolution Occur?
62(2)
Speciation
63(1)
Adaptive Radiation
63(1)
The Evolution of Life
64(4)
Analogy and Homology
64(1)
Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift
65(2)
Blood Chemistry and DNA
67(1)
The Paleontological Record
67(1)
Scientific Creationism and Evolution
68(1)
The Shortcomings of Creationism
68(1)
Summary
69(1)
Questions to Think About
70(1)
Key Terms
70(1)
Internet Exercises
71(1)
Suggested Readings
71(1)
PART II PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
The Primates
72(28)
Primate Characteristics
74(1)
Dentition, Eyesight, and Brain Size
74(1)
Reproduction and Maturation
75(1)
Classification of Primates
75(2)
Primate Subdivisions
76(1)
Classification of Fossil Primates
77(1)
The Evolution of the Primate Order
77(17)
Primate Origins
77(2)
Fossil Prosimians
79(1)
Modern Prosimians
80(1)
Evolution of the Anthropoids
80(4)
Emergence of the Hominoids
84(6)
Modern Apes
90(4)
Primate Behavior
94(2)
Primate Social Groups
94(1)
Sociobiology
95(1)
The Human Primate
96(1)
Summary
97(1)
Questions to Think About
98(1)
Key Terms
98(1)
Internet Exercises
98(1)
Suggested Readings
99(1)
Hominid Evolution
100(27)
Trends in Hominid Evolution
102(3)
Bipedalism
102(2)
Reduction of the Face, Teeth, and Jaws
104(1)
Increase in Cranial Capacity
105(1)
Other Physical Changes
105(1)
Fossil Evidence for Hominid Evolution
105(10)
The Oldest Hominids
105(2)
The First Australopithecines: Kanapoi and East Turkana
107(1)
Australopithecus afarensis
107(2)
The Laetoli Footprints
109(1)
Taung Child: A South African Australopithecine
110(2)
Australopithecus aethiopicus: The ``Black Skull''
112(1)
Australopithecus boisei: The ``Nutcracker Man''
113(1)
Robust Australopithecines from South Africa
113(1)
Homo habilis: The ``Handyman''
114(1)
Java Man: The ``First'' Homo erectus
114(1)
Peking Man and Other Homo erectus
114(1)
Interpreting the Fossil Record
115(3)
Australopithecus africanus as Ancestor
116(1)
Australopithecus afarensis as Ancestor
116(1)
Revised Models
116(1)
Missing Pieces in the Fossil Record?
117(1)
Genetic Differences and Hominid Evolution
118(1)
From Homo erectus to Homo sapiens
118(1)
Transitional Forms
119(1)
The Evolution of Homo sapiens
119(2)
Multiregional Evolutionary Model
119(1)
Replacement Model
120(1)
Mitochondrial DNA Research
121(1)
Archaic Homo sapiens
121(3)
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
122(2)
Summary
124(1)
Questions to Think About
125(1)
Key Terms
125(1)
Internet Exercises
125(1)
Suggested Readings
126(1)
Human Variation
127(20)
Sources of Human Variation
128(2)
Genetics and Evolution
129(1)
The Physical Environment
129(1)
Culture
129(1)
Evaluating Reasons for Variation
130(1)
The Concept of Race
130(4)
Ancient Classification Systems
132(1)
Early ``Scientific'' Studies of Race
132(1)
Limitations of Classification Systems
132(1)
Geographical Races
133(1)
Alternative Approaches to Human Variation
134(2)
Clinal Distribution
134(1)
Multivariate Analysis
135(1)
Adaptive Aspects of Human Variation
136(5)
Skin Color
136(1)
Body Build
137(1)
Cranial and Facial Features
137(1)
Biochemical Characteristics
138(1)
Sickle-Cell Anemia
139(1)
Lactase Deficiency
140(1)
Effects of the Physical Environment
141(1)
High-Altitude Adaptations
141(1)
Cultural Diversity in Human Populations
141(1)
The Impact of Modern Urban Life
141(1)
Heredity and Intelligence
142(3)
Measuring Intelligence
143(1)
What Do Intelligence Tests Measure?
144(1)
Summary
145(1)
Questions to Think About
145(1)
Key Terms
145(1)
Internet Exercises
146(1)
Suggested Readings
146(1)
PART III ARCHAEOLOGY
Paleolithic Cultures
147(21)
Lifestyles of the Earliest Hominids
148(3)
The Oldowan
149(2)
Primate Models of Human Behavior
151(1)
Homo erectus Culture
151(3)
The Acheulian
152(2)
The Appearance of Homo sapiens
154(2)
Technological Advances
154(1)
Neandertal Technology
155(1)
Neandertal Ritual Beliefs
156(1)
Modern Homo sapiens and Their Cultures
156(4)
The Technology of Homo sapiens
156(2)
Ethnicity and Social Organization
158(2)
The Upper Paleolithic in Europe
160(1)
Carving and Cave Painting
161(1)
The Migration of Upper Paleolithic Humans
161(4)
Upper Paleolithic Hunters in the Americas
161(2)
Homo sapiens in Asia, Australia, and Oceania
163(2)
Summary
165(1)
Questions to Think About
165(1)
Key Terms
166(1)
Internet Exercises
166(1)
Suggested Readings
166(2)
The Origins of Domestication and Settled Life
168(23)
The Late Pleistocene: Changes in Climate and Culture
169(3)
Mesolithic and Archaic Technology
170(2)
Origins of Food Production: The Neolithic Period
172(3)
Plant and Animal Domestication
172(3)
Why Did Domestication Occur?
175(2)
The Oasis Theory
175(1)
The Readiness Hypothesis
175(1)
Population Models
176(1)
Human Selection and the Environment
176(1)
Coevolution
177(1)
Agricultural Origins in Perspective
177(1)
Domestication in Different Regions of the World
177(7)
Southwest Asia
178(2)
Europe
180(1)
East Asia
181(1)
Africa
182(2)
The Origins of Domestication in the Americas
184(2)
Mesoamerica
184(1)
South America
185(1)
North America
185(1)
Consequences of Domestication
186(2)
Population Growth
186(1)
Health and Nutrition
186(1)
Increasing Material Complexity
187(1)
Increasing Social Stratification and Political Complexity
187(1)
Summary
188(1)
Questions to Think About
189(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
Internet Exercises
189(1)
Suggested Readings
190(1)
The Rise of the State and Complex Society
191(24)
The State and Civilization
192(3)
Types of Political Systems
193(1)
Early States
194(1)
Studying Complex Societies
195(5)
Written Language
195(1)
Defining States Archaeologically
196(1)
Monumental Architecture
197(1)
Specialization
198(1)
Status and Social Ranking
199(1)
Trade and Exchange
199(1)
The Archaeology of Religion
200(1)
Theories About State Formation
200(3)
Integrationist Perspectives
201(1)
Conflict Theories
202(1)
Perspectives on State Formation
203(1)
States in Different World Areas
203(6)
Civilizations in Southwest Asia
204(1)
Agricultural Civilizations in Africa
204(2)
Early Asian Civilizations
206(1)
Empires of the Americas
207(2)
Andean Civilizations
209(1)
The Collapse of State Societies
209(3)
Reasons for Collapse
209(3)
Summary
212(1)
Questions to Think About
213(1)
Key Terms
213(1)
Internet Exercises
213(1)
Suggested Readings
214(1)
PART IV BASIC CONCEPTS OF CULTURE AND SOCIETY
Culture
215(23)
The Characteristics of Culture
216(1)
Culture Is Learned
217(4)
Symbols and Symbolic Learning
220(1)
Culture Is Shared
221(1)
The Components of Culture
221(3)
Values
222(1)
Beliefs
222(1)
Norms
223(1)
Ideal versus Real Culture
224(1)
Cultural Diversity
224(3)
Food and Adaptation
225(1)
Dress Codes and Symbolism
226(1)
Race, Racism, and Culture
227(7)
Racism in Western Society
227(2)
Critiques of Scientific Racism
229(1)
The Cultural and Social Significance of Race
229(1)
Ethnicity
230(1)
Ethnicity: Two Anthropological Perspectives
230(4)
Cultural Universals
234(1)
Summary
235(1)
Questions to Think About
236(1)
Key Terms
237(1)
Internet Exercises
237(1)
Suggested Readings
237(1)
The Process of Enculturation
238(28)
Biology versus Culture
240(1)
Instincts and Human Nature
240(3)
Human Beings as Animals
240(1)
Instincts in Animals
241(1)
Instincts and Learned Behaviors
241(1)
Do Humans Posses Instincts?
242(1)
Drives
242(1)
Culture versus Instinct
242(1)
Enculturation: Culture and Personality
243(6)
Early Studies of Enculturation
243(3)
Childhood Training
246(3)
Psychoanalytic Approaches in Anthropology
249(3)
Sigmund Freud
249(1)
Modern Psychoanalytic Anthropology
250(2)
Understanding Incest Avoidance and the Incest Taboo
252(2)
Biological Explanations of Incest Avoidance
252(1)
Marital Alliance and the Incest Taboo
253(1)
Childhood Familiarity Hypothesis
253(1)
Incest Avoidance: Interactionist Perspectives
254(1)
Enculturation and the Sex Drive
254(2)
Codes of Sexual Behavior
254(1)
Homosexual Behavior
255(1)
Enculturation and Cognition
256(2)
Structuralism
256(1)
Jean Piaget
256(2)
Evolutionary Psychology
258(1)
Enculturation and Emotions
259(1)
Culture and Mental Illness
260(2)
What Is Abnormal?
260(1)
Culture-Specific Disorders
261(1)
The Limits of Enculturation
262(1)
Unique Biological Tendencies
262(1)
Individual Variation
262(1)
Summary
263(1)
Questions to Think About
264(1)
Key Terms
264(1)
Internet Exercises
264(1)
Suggested Readings
264(2)
Language
266(28)
Nonhuman Communication
268(2)
Teaching Apes to Sign
268(1)
Ape Sign Language Reexamined
268(1)
Ethological Research on Ape Communication
269(1)
Animal Communication and Human Language
270(1)
Productivity
270(1)
Displacement
270(1)
Arbitrariness
271(1)
Combining Sounds to Produce Meanings
271(1)
The Evolution of Language
271(2)
The Anatomy of Language
271(2)
The Structure of Language
273(5)
Phonology
273(1)
Syntax
274(1)
Semantics
275(3)
Language Acquisition
278(4)
Chomsky on Language Acquisition
279(3)
Language, Thought, and Culture
282(2)
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
282(2)
Historical Linguistics
284(2)
The Family-Tree Model
284(1)
Assessing Language Change
285(1)
Sociolonguistics
286(3)
Dialectal Differences in Spoken Language
287(1)
Honorifics in Language
287(1)
Greeting Behaviors
287(2)
Nonverbal Communication
289(2)
Kinesics
289(1)
Proxemics
290(1)
Summary
291(1)
Questions to Think About
292(1)
Key Terms
292(1)
Internet Exercises
292(1)
Suggested Readings
293(1)
Anthropological Explanations
294(14)
Nineteenth-Century Evolutionism
295(2)
Unilineal Evolution: Tylor
296(1)
Unilineal Evolution: Morgan
296(1)
Unilineal Evolution: A Critique
297(1)
Diffusionism
297(1)
British Diffusionism
297(1)
German Diffusionism
297(1)
The Limitations and Strengths of Diffusionism
297(1)
Historical Particularism
298(1)
Boas versus the Unilineal Evolutionists
298(1)
Functionalism: British Anthropology
299(1)
Structural Functionalism: Radcliffe-Brown
299(1)
Psychological Functionalism: Malinowski
299(1)
The Limitations of Functionalism
300(1)
Twentieth-Century Evolutionism
300(2)
Steward and Cultural Ecology
301(1)
The Strengths of Neoevolutionism
301(1)
Criticisms of Cultural Ecology
302(1)
Cultural Materialism
302(1)
Criticisms of Cultural Materialism
303(1)
Marxist Anthropology
303(1)
Evaluation of Marxist Anthropology
304(1)
Symbolic Anthropology
304(1)
Criticisms of Symbolic Anthropology
304(1)
Materialism versus Culturalism
305(1)
Summary
305(1)
Questions to Think About
306(1)
Key Terms
306(1)
Internet Exercise
307(1)
Suggested Readings
307(1)
Analyzing Sociocultural Systems
308(27)
Ethnological Fieldwork
309(7)
Ethnological Research and Strategies
310(3)
Ethics in Anthropological Research
313(1)
Analysis of Ethnological Data
313(3)
Variables Studied by Ethnologists
316(1)
Subsistence and the Physical Environment
316(1)
Modern Cultural Ecology
316(1)
Biomes
317(1)
Subsistence Patterns and Environments
317(1)
Demography
317(3)
Fertility, Mortality, and Migration
317(2)
Population and Environment
319(1)
Population and Culture
320(1)
Technology
320(1)
Anthropological Explanations of Technology
320(1)
Economy
321(1)
The Formalist Approach
321(1)
The Substantivist Approach
321(1)
Modern Economic Anthropology
322(1)
Social Structure
322(4)
Components of Social Structure
322(1)
The Family
323(1)
Marriage
323(1)
Gender
324(1)
Age
325(1)
Political Organization
326(3)
Types of Political Systems
327(1)
Decision Making in a Political System
327(1)
Warfare and Feuds
327(1)
Law and Social Control
328(1)
Religion
329(2)
Myths
330(1)
Rituals
330(1)
Religious Specialists
331(1)
Religious Movements
331(1)
Cross-Cultural Research
331(1)
Summary
332(1)
Questions to Think About
332(1)
Key Terms
333(1)
Internet Exercises
333(1)
Suggested Readings
334(1)
PART V PRESTATE SOCIETIES
Band Societies
335(23)
Modern Foraging Environments and Subsistence
337(3)
Deserts
337(1)
Tropical Rain Forests
338(1)
Arctic Regions
339(1)
Mobility and Subsistence
340(1)
Optimal Foraging Theory
340(1)
Foragers and Demographic Conditions
340(2)
Fissioning
341(1)
Infanticide
341(1)
Fertility Rates
341(1)
Technology in Foraging Societies
342(1)
Economics in Foraging Societies
342(3)
Reciprocity
343(1)
Collective Ownership of Property
344(1)
The Original Affluent Society?
344(1)
The Affluence Hypothesis Challenged
345(1)
Social Organization in Foraging Societies
345(6)
Marriage and Kinship
346(2)
Gender
348(1)
Age
349(2)
Political Organization in Foraging Societies
351(2)
Characteristics of Leadership
351(1)
Warfare and Violence
352(1)
Conflict Resolution
353(1)
Religion in Foraging Societies
353(3)
The Dreamtime
353(1)
Eskimo Religion
354(1)
Art, Music, and Religion
355(1)
Summary
356(1)
Questions to Think About
356(1)
Key Terms
357(1)
Internet Exercises
357(1)
Suggested Readings
357(1)
Tribes
358(31)
Environment and Subsistence for Horticulturalists
360(2)
Amazon Horticulturalists: The Yanomamo
361(1)
New Guinea Horticulturalists: The Tsembaga
362(1)
Horticulturalists in Woodland Forest Areas: The Iroquois
362(1)
Environment and Subsistence for Pastoralists
362(1)
East African Cattle Complex
363(1)
Demographics and Settlement
363(1)
Technology
364(1)
Horticulturalist Technology
364(1)
Pastoralist Technology
365(1)
Economics
365(1)
Money
365(1)
Property Ownership
365(1)
Social Organization
366(11)
Families
366(1)
Descent Groups
367(1)
Functions of Descent Groups
368(1)
Marriage
369(4)
Gender
373(2)
Age
375(2)
Political Organization
377(6)
Sodalities
377(1)
How Leaders Are Chosen
377(1)
Pastoralist Tribal Politics
378(1)
Explaining Tribal Warfare
379(2)
Law and Conflict Resolution
381(2)
Religion
383(1)
Animism and Shamanism in South America
383(1)
Witchcraft and Sorcery
383(1)
Familistic Religion
384(1)
Art and Music
384(2)
Musical Traditions
385(1)
Summary
386(1)
Questions to Think About
386(1)
Key Terms
387(1)
Internet Exercises
387(1)
Suggested Readings
387(2)
Chiefdoms
389(20)
Environment, Subsistence, and Demography
391(3)
Pacific Island Chiefdoms
391(1)
African Chiefdoms
391(1)
Native American Chiefdoms
392(1)
Demography
393(1)
Technology
394(1)
Housing
394(1)
Political Economy
395(5)
Food Storage
395(1)
Property Ownership
395(1)
The Evolution of Chiefdoms
395(1)
Economic Exchange
396(4)
Social Organization
400(4)
Rank and Sumptuary Rules
400(2)
Marriage
402(1)
General Social Principles
402(1)
Gender
403(1)
Age
403(1)
Slavery
403(1)
Law and Religion
404(2)
Law
404(1)
Religion
404(1)
A Case Study: Law and Religion in Polynesia
404(1)
Shamanism
405(1)
Human Sacrifice
405(1)
Art, Architecture, and Music
406(1)
Music
406(1)
Summary
407(1)
Questions to Think About
407(1)
Key Terms
408(1)
Internet Exercises
408(1)
Suggested Readings
408(1)
PART VI STATE SOCIETIES
Agricultural States
409(18)
Demography
411(1)
Technology
412(2)
Agricultural Innovations
412(1)
The Diffusion of Technology
413(1)
Political Economy
414(1)
The Division of Labor
414(1)
Property Rights
414(1)
The Command Economy versus the Entrepreneur
415(2)
The Peasantry
415(1)
Trade and Monetary Exchange
416(1)
Social Organization
417(3)
Kinship and Status
417(1)
Marriage
418(1)
Gender, Subsistence, and Status
419(1)
Social Stratification
420(1)
The Caste System
420(1)
Racial and Ethnic Stratification
421(1)
Law
421(1)
Mediation and Self-Help
422(1)
Warfare
422(1)
Religion
423(1)
Ecclesiastical Religions
424(1)
Universalistic Religions
424(1)
Divine Rulers, Priests, and Religious Texts
424(1)
Summary
424(1)
Questions to Think About
425(1)
Key Terms
426(1)
Internet Exercises
426(1)
Suggested Readings
426(1)
Industrial States
427(29)
The Commercial, Scientific, and Industrial Revolution
429(1)
Modernization
430(1)
Environment and Energy Use
430(1)
Demographic Change
431(1)
The Demographic Transition
431(1)
Urbanization
432(1)
Technology and Economic Change
432(5)
Technology and Work
432(1)
The Division of Labor
432(1)
Economic Exchange
433(1)
Perspectives on Market Economies
434(2)
The Evolution of Economic Organizations
436(1)
Social Structure
437(7)
Kinship
437(1)
Family
437(3)
Marriage
440(2)
Gender
442(1)
Age
443(1)
Social Stratification
444(3)
The British Class System
444(1)
Class in the United States
445(1)
Class in Japan and the Former Soviet Union
445(1)
Ethnic and Racial Stratification
446(1)
Political Organization
447(3)
Political Organization in Socialist States
448(2)
Industrialism and State Bureaucracy
450(1)
Law
450(1)
Japanese Law
450(1)
Warfare and Industrial Technology
450(1)
Religion
451(2)
Religion in Socialist States
453(1)
Religion in Japan
453(1)
Summary
453(1)
Questions to Think About
454(1)
Key Terms
454(1)
Internet Exercises
455(1)
Suggested Readings
455(1)
PART VII CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION
Globalization and Aboriginal Peoples
456(27)
Globalization: Theoretical Approaches
457(7)
Modernization Theory
457(2)
First, Second, and Third Worlds
459(1)
Dependency Theory
460(1)
World-Systems Theory
461(2)
Anthropological Analysis and Globalization
463(1)
Globalization and Prestate Societies
464(1)
Vanishing Foragers
464(3)
The Ju/'hoansi Foragers
464(1)
The Dobe Ju/'hoansi
465(1)
The Mbuti Pygmies
466(1)
The Ik
466(1)
The Siriono
467(1)
Tribes in Transition
467(4)
North American Horticulturalists
468(1)
South American Horticulturalists
469(1)
Pastoralist Tribes
470(1)
Chiefdoms in Transition
471(2)
The Hawaiian Islands
471(2)
Forms of Resistance in Native Societies
473(4)
Revitalization among Native Americans
473(1)
Melanesia and New Guinea: The Cargo Cults
474(2)
A Hawaiian Religious Renaissance
476(1)
A Lost Opportunity?
477(3)
A Case Study: Native American Knowledge
478(1)
Preserving Indigenous Societies
478(2)
Summary
480(1)
Questions to Think About
481(1)
Key Terms
481(1)
Internet Exercises
481(1)
Suggested Readings
482(1)
Globalization in Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean
483(31)
Globalization and Colonialism in Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean
485(3)
Latin America
485(1)
Africa
486(1)
The Caribbean
487(1)
Consequences of Globalization and Colonialism
488(5)
Demographic Change
488(1)
Economic Change
489(2)
Religious Change
491(2)
Political Changes: Independence and Nationalist Movements
493(5)
Explaining Revolution
497(1)
Uneven Development in Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean
498(3)
Peripheral Societies
498(1)
Semiperipheral Societies
499(2)
Ethnological Studies of the Peasantry in Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean
501(2)
African Peasants: A Unique Phenomenon?
501(2)
Social Structure in Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean
503(3)
Latin American Social Relationships
504(1)
African Social Relationships
505(1)
Patterns of Ethnicity in Latin America, Africa, and the Caribbean
506(3)
Ethnicity in Latin America
506(1)
Ethnicity in Africa
507(2)
Ethnicity in the Caribbean
509(1)
Patterns of Urban Anthropology
509(2)
Summary
511(1)
Questions to Think About
511(1)
Key Terms
512(1)
Internet Exercises
512(1)
Suggested Readings
512(2)
Globalization in the Middle East and Asia
514(30)
Colonialism and Globalization in the Middle East and Asia
516(4)
The Middle East
516(2)
Asia
518(2)
Consequences of Colonialism for the Middle East and Asia
520(3)
Demographic Change
520(1)
Economic Change
520(1)
Religious Change
521(1)
Political Change: Independence and Nationalism
521(1)
Revolutionary Movements in Asia
522(1)
Uneven Development in the Middle East and Asia
523(2)
Oil and the Middle East
523(1)
Withdrawal from the Global Economy
524(1)
Ethnological Studies of the Societies in the Middle East and Asia
525(7)
A Middle Eastern Village in Transition
525(1)
Middle Eastern Family, Marriage, and Gender
526(4)
Social Structure, Family, and Gender in India and South Asia
530(2)
Family and Gender in China
532(2)
Ethnic Tensions in the Middle East and Asia
534(2)
Islamic Revitalization
536(5)
A Case Study: The Islamic Revolution in Iran
537(2)
Islamic Revitalization in Afghanistan
539(2)
Summary
541(1)
Questions to Think About
542(1)
Key Terms
542(1)
Internet Exercises
543(1)
Suggested Readings
543(1)
PART VIII ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE GLOBAL FUTURE
Contemporary Global Trends
544(25)
Environmental Trends
545(1)
Mechanized Agriculture and Pollution
546(1)
Air Pollution
546(1)
Population Trends
546(4)
The Demographic-Transition Model Applied
547(3)
Technological Change
550(1)
Energy Consumption Patterns
550(1)
Loss of Biodiversity
550(1)
Pessimists versus Optimists on Global Issues
551(4)
The Doomsday Model
551(1)
The Optimists: The Logic-of-Growth Model
551(1)
The Pessimists and the Optimists: An Assessment
552(3)
The Sustainability Model
555(1)
Economic Trends
555(7)
Multinational Corporations
555(1)
Case Study: The Potlatch Corporation
556(1)
Emerging Economic Trends
557(5)
Political Trends
562(1)
Ethnic Trends
562(1)
Religion and Secularization
563(3)
The Role of Anthropology
566(1)
Summary
567(1)
Questions to Think About
567(1)
Key Terms
568(1)
Internet Exercises
568(1)
Suggested Readings
568(1)
Applied Anthropology
569(28)
The Roles of the Applied Anthropologist
570(1)
Physical Anthropology
571(6)
Forensic Anthropology
573(2)
Medical Anthropology
575(1)
Interventions in Substance Abuse
576(1)
Applied Archaeology
577(6)
Preserving the Past
578(3)
The Study of Garbage
581(2)
Who Owns the Past?
583(4)
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
586(1)
The Roles of Applied Anthropologists in Planned Change
587(3)
Applied Anthropology and Human Rights
590(4)
Cultural Relativism and Human Rights
590(1)
The Problem of Intervention
591(1)
Universal Human Rights
592(1)
The Role of Applied Anthropology
592(2)
Summary
594(1)
Questions to Think About
594(1)
Key Terms
595(1)
Internet Exercises
595(1)
Suggested Readings
595(2)
Glossary 597(13)
References 610(24)
Photo Credits 634(1)
Index 635


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