9780131128316

Applied Animal Reproduction

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780131128316

  • ISBN10:

    0131128310

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 8/12/2003
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

Fresh and up-to-date, the sixth edition of Applied Animal Reproduction is perfect for anyone studying in the fields of animal science, dairy science, or pre-veterinary medicine. Providing a complete overview of animal reproductive processes, it is divided into five parts. Parts One and Two are designed to help the reader develop both the terminology needed to discuss reproductive problems associated with physiology of reproduction as well as understand the physiological processes controlling reproduction. Parts Three, Four, and Five emphasize the application of basic concepts to the management of reproduction in livestock. In fact, as the title suggests, this text is unique in the emphasis it places on the applied aspects of reproduction. The authors have successfully endeavored to retain the book's overall writing style. There has been some reorganization and substantial revision with three new chapters replacing two chapters from earlier editions. These chapters are Mating Behavior (Chapter 7), Synchronization of Estrus and Superovulation with Embryo Transfer (Chapter 18), and Reproductive Biotechnology (Chapter 19). Other new features of this edition are sections on hormone-like factors and other hormonal mediators, and methods for measuring reproductive hormones in Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Regulators of Reproduction (Chapter 4), immunological considerations during pregnancy in Gestation (Chapter 9), biosynthesis of milk in Lactation (Chapter 11), and Physiological, Toxicological, and Psychological Causes of Reproductive Failure (Chapter 25). Color plates representative of material covered in the book are found in two locations.

Author Biography

H. Joe Bearden, John W. Fuquay, Scott T. Willard: Mississippi State University

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Chapter 1 Introduction and Early History 1(6)
Suggested Reading
4(3)
PART 1 Anatomy, Function, and Regulation
Chapter 2 The Female Reproductive System
7(15)
2-1 Ovaries
7(6)
2-2 Oviducts
13(1)
2-3 Uterus
13(4)
2-4 Cervix
17(2)
2-5 Vagina
19(1)
2-6 Vulva
19(1)
2-7 Support Structures, Nerves, and Blood Supply
19(2)
Suggested Reading
21(1)
Chapter 3 The Male Reproductive System
22(14)
3-1 Testes
22(5)
3-2 Scrotum and Spermatic Cord
27(2)
3-3 Epididymis
29(2)
3-4 Vasa Deferentia and Urethra
31(1)
3-5 Accessory Glands
31(2)
3-6 Penis
33(1)
3-7 Prepuce
33(2)
Suggested Reading
35(1)
Chapter 4 Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Regulators of Reproduction
36(25)
4-1 Primary Reproductive Hormones of the Pituitary Gland
38(2)
4-2 Neuroendocrine Control of the Pituitary Gland
40(4)
4-3 Hormones of the Gonads
44(4)
4-4 Primary Reproductive Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
48(1)
4-5 Endocrine Function of the Uterine/Placental Unit
49(1)
4-6 Reproductive Role of Prostaglandins
49(1)
4-7 Hormone-like Factors and Other Hormonal Mediators
50(2)
4-8 Regulation of Hormonal Receptor Sites
52(1)
4-9 Intracellular Mechanisms of Hormone Actions
53(2)
4-10 Methods of Hormone Detection and Measurement
55(2)
4-11 Summary
57(1)
Suggested Reading
57(4)
PART 2 Reproductive Processes
Chapter 5 The Estrous Cycle
61(14)
5-1 Puberty
61(2)
5-2 Periods of the Estrous Cycle
63(1)
5-3 Hormonal Control of the Estrous Cycle
64(3)
5-4 Follicular Dynamics
67(3)
5-5 Seasonal Breeders
70(3)
Suggested Reading
73(2)
Chapter 6 Spermatogenesis and Maturation of Spermatozoa
75(12)
6-1 Puberty
75(2)
6-2 The Process of Spermatogenesis
77(5)
6-3 The Seminiferous Epithelial Cycle and Spermatogenic Wave
82(2)
6-4 Capacitation of Spermatozoa and Acrosome Reaction
84(2)
Suggested Reading
86(1)
Chapter 7 Mating Behavior
87(9)
7-1 Regulation of Mating Behavior
87(3)
7-2 Behavioral Characteristics of Estrus
90(1)
7-3 Mating Behavior in Males
91(4)
Suggested Reading
95(1)
Chapter 8 Ovigenesis and Fertilization
96(13)
8-1 Ovigenesis
96(2)
8-2 Ovulation
98(1)
8-3 Gamete Transport
99(4)
8-4 Fertilization
103(2)
8-5 Polyspermy
105(1)
8-6 Aging of Gametes
105(2)
Suggested Reading
107(2)
Chapter 9 Gestation
109(19)
9-1 Cleavage
110(2)
9-2 Differentiation
112(7)
9-3 Fetal Growth
119(2)
9-4 Maintenance of Pregnancy
121(3)
9-5 Twinning
124(2)
Suggested Reading
126(2)
Chapter 10 Parturition and Postpartum Recovery
128(14)
10-1 Overview of the Parturition Process
128(1)
10-2 Approaching Parturition
128(3)
10-3 Parturition
131(4)
10-4 Dystocia
135(1)
10-5 Care of the Newborn
135(1)
10-6 Retained Placentae
136(1)
10-7 Postpartum Recovery
137(3)
Suggested Reading
140(2)
Chapter 11 Lactation
142(13)
11-1 Structure of Mammary Glands
142(4)
11-2 Hormonal Regulation of the Development and Function of the Mammary Gland
146(4)
11-3 Composition of Milk
150(2)
Suggested Reading
152(3)
PART 3 Artificial Insemination
Chapter 12 Introduction and History of Artificial Insemination
155(5)
12-1 Introduction
155(1)
12-2 History
156(3)
12-3 Advantages and Disadvantages
159(1)
Suggested Reading
159(1)
Chapter 13 Semen Collection
160(13)
13-1 Facilities Needed for Semen Collection
160(1)
13-2 Methods of Semen Collection
160(12)
Suggested Reading
172(1)
Chapter 14 Semen and Its Components
173(10)
14-1 Spermatozoa
173(4)
14-2 Seminal Plasma
177(1)
14-3 Energy Metabolism by Spermatozoa
178(1)
14-4 Factors Affecting Rate of Metabolism
179(3)
Suggested Reading
182(1)
Chapter 15 Semen Evaluation
183(15)
15-1 Gross Examination
183(1)
15-2 Progressive Motility
184(2)
15-3 Concentration of Sperm Cells
186(4)
15-4 Sperm Cell Morphology
190(2)
15-5 Differential Staining of Live and Dead Sperm
192(1)
15-6 Speed of Sperm
192(1)
15-7 Evaluating Frozen Semen
193(2)
15-8 Computer Automated Semen Analyzer
195(1)
15-9 Other Tests
196(1)
Suggested Reading
197(1)
Chapter 16 Semen Processing, Storage, and Handling
198(25)
16-1 Importance and Properties of Semen Diluters
199(1)
16-2 Buffer Solutions Used in Semen Diluters
200(1)
16-3 Antimicrobial Agents for Semen Diluters
201(1)
16-4 Effective Diluters for Bull Semen
202(2)
16-5 Processing Bull Semen
204(7)
16-6 Storage and Handling of Bull Semen
211(1)
16-7 What Does the Future Hold for Liquid Bull Semen?
212(2)
16-8 Processing Boar Semen
214(3)
16-9 Processing Ram Semen
217(1)
16-10 Processing Stallion Semen
218(3)
16-11 Processing Buck Semen
221(1)
Suggested Reading
221(2)
Chapter 17 Insemination Techniques
223(14)
17-1 Insemination of the Cow
223(7)
17-2 Insemination of the Ewe and Doe
230(1)
17-3 Insemination of the Sow
231(2)
17-4 Insemination of the Mare
233(1)
Suggested Reading
234(3)
PART 4 Management for Improved Reproduction
Chapter 18 Synchronization of Estrus and Superovulation with Embryo Transfer
237(24)
18-1 Synchronization of Estrus
237(12)
18-2 Superovulation and Embryo Transfer
249(10)
Suggested Reading
259(2)
Chapter 19 Reproductive Biotechnology
261(30)
19-1 Assisted Reproductive Technologies
261(8)
19-2 Sex Determination and Control
269(7)
19-3 Cloning
276(2)
19-4 Genetic Engineering (Transgenics)
278(4)
19-5 Gene Discovery-Markers for Reproduction
282(4)
19-6 Technologies for the Future-Definitions
286(3)
Suggested Reading
289(2)
Chapter 20 Reproductive Management
291(27)
20-1 Measurements of Reproductive Efficiency
291(1)
20-2 Management Related to the Female
292(17)
20-3 Management Related to the Male
309(4)
20-4 Altering Male Reproduction
313(4)
Suggested Reading
317(1)
Chapter 21 Pregnancy Diagnosis
318(20)
21-1 Cow
318(11)
21-2 Ewe and Doe
329(2)
21-3 Mare
331(3)
21-4 Sow
334(3)
Suggested Reading
337(1)
Chapter 22 Environmental Management
338(10)
22-1 Environmental Stressors
338(3)
22-2 Physiological Relationship of Environmental Stress to Reproduction
341(2)
22-3 Thermoregulation
343(1)
22-4 Modification of Summer Environments to Reduce Stress
343(2)
22-5 Other Management Considerations in Hot Environments
345(1)
Suggested Reading
346(2)
Chapter 23 Nutritional Management
348(13)
23-1 Nutritive Components
348(6)
23-2 Growing Animals
354(1)
23-3 Maintaining Reproductive Efficiency
355(2)
Suggested Reading
357(4)
PART 5 Causes of Reproductive Failure
Chapter 24 Anatomical and Inherited Causes of Reproductive Failure
361(9)
24-1 Freemartin
361(2)
24-2 Infantile Reproductive System
363(1)
24-3 Incomplete Structures-Oviduct, Uterus, Cervix, or Vagina
363(1)
24-4 Hermaphrodite
364(1)
24-5 Cryptorchid
365(1)
24-6 Injuries
366(2)
24-7 Prolapse of Vagina and Uterus
368(1)
24-8 Genetic Abnormalities
369(1)
Suggested Reading
369(1)
Chapter 25 Physiological, Toxicological, and Psychological Causes of Reproductive Failure
370(19)
25-1 Cystic Ovaries
370(3)
25-2 Retained Corpus Luteum
373(1)
25-3 Anestrus
374(1)
25-4 Irregular Estrous Cycles
375(1)
25-5 Quiet Ovulation
376(1)
25-6 Age
377(1)
25-7 Reproductive Toxicology
378(7)
25-8 Psychological Disturbances
385(2)
Suggested Reading
387(2)
Chapter 26 Infectious Diseases That Cause Reproductive Failure
389(24)
26-1 Bacterial Diseases
389(14)
26-2 Protozoan Diseases
403(3)
26-3 Viral Diseases
406(5)
Suggested Reading
411(2)
Index 413

Excerpts

We are pleased to present the sixth edition of Applied Animal Reproduction.Some significant changes will be apparent in this edition, as compared with earlier editions. Dr. Scott T. Willard is now a part of the author team. Dr. Willard is an emerging reproductive physiologist with an interest in and a philosophy for teaching undergraduate students that is compatable with that of the other two authors of this text. There is some reorganization of chapters in this edition and three new chapters have been included. A new chapter, "Mating Behavior," has combined elements from Chapter 5, "The Estrous Cycle," and old Chapter 11, "Male Mating Behavior." This is the new Chapter 7 and is located in front of the chapter entitled "Ovigenesis and Fertilization." Chapter 18 from earlier editions is now two chapters, Chapter 18, "Synchronization of Estrus and Superovulation with Embryo Transfer," and Chapter 19, "Reproductive Biotechnology." The information in these chapters has been updated and expanded considerably. Several tables and figures have been added to the text, and color plates that are representative of material covered in the book are grouped at two locations. There has been substantial revision of several other chapters. Two new sections, "Hormone-like Factors and Other Hormonal Mediators" and "Methods of Hormone Detection and Measurement," are found in Chapter 4, "Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Regulators of Reproduction:" A section on immunological considerations has been added to Chapter 9, "Gestation," and a section on reproductive toxicology has been added to Chapter 25, "Physiological, Toxicological, and Psychological Causes of Reproductive Failure." Further, Chapter 11, "Lactation," has been expanded to include new information on the biosynthesis of milk. Updated information can be found throughout the text. Even though there is considerable revision in this edition, the writing style has not changed. Also, the reorganization has been minor and should not affect the lecture format of instructors who have been using this text...This text is intended to give the undergraduate student majoring in animal or dairy science a complete overview of the reproductive processes. It is assumed that these students have a limited background in physiology. Therefore, a major effort has been made to maintain clarity. It is hoped that this style of writing will also encourage use of this text in 2-year agricultural curricula and in short courses where participants have a more limited educational background. Sixty combined years of experience in teaching a course in physiology of reproduction-to students with a wide divergence of backgrounds have influenced the level of writing and the organization of the book. Comments and suggestions from students were given careful consideration during the preparation of the text. Parts 1 and 2 are designed to help students develop both the terminology needed to discuss problems associated with physiology of reproduction and an understanding of the physiological processes controlling reproduction. These parts have been updated to provide students with recent information. Chapter 4 will be difficult because the concept of endocrine regulation will be new to most undergraduate students. When this information is reinforced in later chapters on reproductive processes in the female and the male, these concepts will seem less troublesome. Early introduction permits development of a more profound understanding of the neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction. Parts 3, 4, and 5 emphasize the application of basic concepts to the management of reproduction in livestock. This text is unique in the emphasis that is given to the applied aspects of reproduction. Five chapters are devoted to artificial insemination. These include collection, evaluation, storage, and utilization of semen through artificial insemination. Five chapters are written on reproductive management with specific chapters on environmental management, nutritional management, pregnancy diagnosis, and diseases affecting reproduction. The goal of these chapters goes beyond description of simple techniques for good reproductive management. They are designed to help students understand the rationale and principles used in developing guidelines for good reproductive management. Several steps have been taken to make this text more readable. Important terms are italicized and defined when first introduced. Only the most prevalent theories are presented, and these have been simplified rather than presented in lengthy discussions on the pros and cons of these concepts. A consensus is presented where disagreement exists in the literature. Also, reference citations are not listed in the text. A carefully selected reading list has been included at the end of each chapter. It is intended to provide the student with references to classical as well as more recent literature pertaining to reproduction. These lists of suggested reading are not intended as a complete and up-to-date bibliography used in the development of each chapter. The references have been limited to encourage additional reading, rather than overwhelming students with the vast number of publications available on each topic. The writing style used in this book may be troublesome to instructors who are accustomed to delving into scientific literature. Referenced texts are currently available, while few have been written specifically for undergraduates. The selected readings after each chapter include both reviews and publications of original research, which will be useful for documentation. H. Joe Bearden John W. Fuquay Scott T. Willard

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