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Applied English Phonology



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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 1/25/2011.

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Applied English Phonology has been extensively revised and expanded, using an accessible style and numerous exercises to explore the fundamental aspects of the English sound system. Covers the fundamental aspects of the English sound system, including basic phonetic elements; phonemics; allophonic rules of English consonants and vowels; phonotactics; and stress and intonation Includes brand new sections on U.S. regional vowel shifts, sociophonetic variations, and the role of perception and Optimality Theory with reference to second language phonology Accompanied by new sound files for numerous transcription exercises Incorporates extensive exercises to aid students in understanding and assimilating the material more effectively Supported by an Instructors' Manual for lecturers, available on publication at

Author Biography

Mehmet Yavas is Professor of Linguistics at Florida International University. He has published numerous articles on applied phonology and is the principal author of Avaliacao Fonologica da Crianca, a phonological assessment procedure for Brazilian Portuguese. His other publications include Phonological Disorders in Children (1991), First and Second Language Phonology (1994), and Phonology: Development and Disorders (1998).

Table of Contents

Preface to Second Editionp. ix
Prefacep. x
Note to the Instructorp. xi
Phoneticsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Phonetic Transcriptionp. 1
Description and Articulation of Sounds of Englishp. 4
The vocal tractp. 4
Voicingp. 5
Places of articulationp. 6
Manners of articulationp. 7
Voice onset timep. 9
Vowels and diphthongsp. 11
Additional Soundsp. 12
States of the glottisp. 12
Places and manners of articulationp. 13
Secondary articulationsp. 15
Consonants made with non-pulmonic airstream mechanismsp. 17
Vowelsp. 18
Cardinal Vowelsp. 19
Syllables and Suprasegmentalsp. 20
Summaryp. 23
Exercisesp. 24
Phonologyp. 30
Introductionp. 30
Complementary versus Overlapping Distributionp. 31
Overlapping distribution and contrastp. 31
Complementary distributionp. 33
Phonemic Analysis: A Mini-demop. 37
Free Variationp. 45
Morphophonologyp. 45
Practical Uses of Phonological Analysisp. 48
Summaryp. 51
Exercisesp. 52
English Consonantsp. 57
Stopsp. 57
Fricativesp. 62
Affricatesp. 65
Nasalsp. 67
Approximantsp. 68
Sociophonetic Variationp. 71
Summaryp. 72
Exercisesp. 73
English Vowelsp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Vowel Set of American Englishp. 77
Phonetic properties of vowelsp. 78
Tense-laxp. 79
Nasalized vowelsp. 80
Lengthp. 80
Vowels before /$$$/p. 81
Vowels before /l/p. 82
Front Vowelsp. 83
Central Vowelsp. 84
Back Vowelsp. 84
Diphthongsp. 86
Sociophonetic Variationp. 88
Non-US Varietiesp. 89
Full Vowels-Reduced Vowelsp. 92
Full (Strong) Forms versus Reduced (Weak) Forms of Function Wordsp. 93
Summaryp. 96
Exercisesp. 97
Acoustics of Vowels and Consonantsp. 100
Introductionp. 100
Vowelsp. 102
Diphthongsp. 106
Consonantsp. 107
Stopsp. 107
Fricativesp. 111
Affricatesp. 114
Approximantsp. 115
Nasalsp. 115
Putting It Togetherp. 116
Contextp. 119
Practical Applications: Some Examplesp. 121
Summaryp. 124
Appendixp. 125
Exercisesp. 127
Syllablesp. 131
Introductionp. 131
Number of Syllablesp. 134
Sonorityp. 135
Syllabificationp. 137
English Syllable Phonotacticsp. 139
Single onsetsp. 140
Double onsetsp. 140
Triple onsetsp. 142
Codasp. 142
Double codasp. 143
Triple codasp. 143
Written Syllabificationp. 146
Syllable Weight and Ambisyllabicityp. 149
Practical Applicationsp. 151
Summaryp. 153
Exercisesp. 154
Stress and Intonationp. 156
Introductionp. 156
Noun and Adjective Stressp. 157
Verb Stressp. 160
Secondary Stressp. 162
Affixesp. 164
Stress-bearing (attracting) suffixesp. 165
Stress-neutral suffixesp. 165
Stress-shifting (fixing) suffixesp. 166
Stress in Compoundsp. 168
Differences between American and British Englishp. 169
Intonationp. 172
Variations among the Varietiesp. 177
Summaryp. 178
Exercisesp. 180
Structural Factors in Second Language Phonologyp. 183
Introductionp. 183
Mini Contrastive Analysesp. 185
Spanish-Englishp. 185
Turkish-Englishp. 190
Greek-Englishp. 192
French-Englishp. 193
German-Englishp. 195
Arabic-Englishp. 196
Russian-Englishp. 198
Korean-Englishp. 199
Portuguese-Englishp. 201
Persian (Farsi)-Englishp. 203
Differential Treatment of Mismatchesp. 204
Basic vs. derived contextp. 206
Deflected contrastp. 206
Hypercontrastp. 207
Markednessp. 207
Ontogeny Phylogeny Model (OPM)p. 212
Optimality Theory (OT)p. 214
Perceptionp. 219
Summaryp. 225
Exercisesp. 227
Spelling and Pronunciationp. 230
Irregularity of English Spellingp. 230
Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences in Englishp. 231
Consonantsp. 232
Vowelsp. 236
Morphological Basis of English Spellingp. 241
American English vs. British Englishp. 243
Summaryp. 245
Exercisesp. 246
Recommended Readingsp. 249
Appendix: List of Sound Filesp. 252
Glossaryp. 257
Referencesp. 261
Indexp. 268
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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