
The Nature of Fluids and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 


1  (25) 


1  (2) 


3  (1) 

Basic Introductory Concepts 


3  (1) 

The International System of Units (SI) 


4  (1) 

The U.S. Customary System 


5  (1) 


6  (2) 


8  (1) 

Consistent Units in an Equation 


9  (2) 

The Definition of Pressure 


11  (2) 


13  (1) 

Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity 


14  (5) 


19  (7) 


21  (1) 


21  (1) 


21  (3) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


24  (2) 


26  (26) 


26  (1) 


26  (1) 


27  (2) 


29  (1) 

Newtonian Fluids and NonNewtonian Fluids 


30  (3) 

Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 


33  (2) 


35  (9) 


44  (2) 


46  (1) 

Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 


46  (6) 


48  (1) 


48  (1) 


49  (2) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


51  (1) 


52  (31) 


52  (1) 


52  (1) 

Absolute and Gage Pressure 


53  (2) 

Relationship between Pressure and Elevation 


55  (2) 

Development of the PressureElevation Relation 


57  (4) 


61  (1) 


62  (5) 


67  (2) 

Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid 


69  (1) 

Pressure Gages and Transducers 


70  (13) 


74  (1) 


75  (1) 


75  (8) 

Forces Due to Static Fluids 


83  (40) 


83  (2) 


85  (1) 


85  (1) 

Horizontal Flat Surfaces under Liquids 


86  (1) 


87  (3) 

Submerged Plane AreasGeneral 


90  (4) 

Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas 


94  (2) 


96  (1) 

Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface 


97  (6) 

Effect of a Pressure above the Fluid Surface 


103  (1) 

Forces on a Curved Surface with Fluid Below It 


103  (1) 

Forces on Curved Surfaces with Fluid Above and Below 


104  (19) 


105  (17) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


122  (1) 


123  (30) 


123  (1) 


124  (1) 


124  (8) 


132  (1) 

Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies 


133  (2) 

Stability of Floating Bodies 


135  (5) 


140  (13) 


142  (1) 


142  (1) 


142  (10) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


152  (1) 

Flow of Fluids and Bernoulli's Equation 


153  (44) 


153  (1) 


154  (1) 

Fluid Flow Rate and the Continuity Equation 


154  (4) 

Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing 


158  (3) 

Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing 


161  (4) 

Conservation of EnergyBernoulli's Equation 


165  (2) 

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation 


167  (2) 

Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation 


169  (1) 

Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 


169  (10) 


179  (3) 

Flow Due to a Falling Head 


182  (15) 


185  (1) 


185  (1) 


186  (10) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


196  (1) 


197  (29) 


197  (2) 


199  (1) 

Energy Losses and Additions 


199  (3) 

Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions 


202  (1) 


202  (5) 


207  (4) 

Power Delivered to Fluid Motors 


211  (15) 


213  (13) 

Reynolds Number, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow, and Energy Losses Due to Friction 


226  (29) 


226  (3) 


229  (1) 


230  (1) 

Critical Reynolds Numbers 


231  (2) 


233  (1) 

Friction Loss in Laminar Flow 


233  (2) 

Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow 


235  (7) 

Equations for the Friction Factor 


242  (1) 

HazenWilliams Formula for Water Flow 


243  (2) 

Other Forms of the HazenWilliams Formula 


245  (1) 

Nomograph for Solving the HazenWilliams Formula 


245  (10) 


247  (1) 


247  (1) 


247  (7) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


254  (1) 

Velocity Profiles for Circular Sections and Flow in Noncircular Sections 


255  (23) 


255  (1) 


256  (1) 


256  (1) 

Velocity Profile for Laminar Flow 


257  (1) 

Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow 


258  (2) 

Flow in Noncircular Sections 


260  (6) 

Computational Fluid Dynamics 


266  (12) 


268  (1) 


268  (1) 


268  (9) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


277  (1) 


278  (42) 


278  (2) 


280  (1) 


281  (1) 


281  (3) 


284  (2) 


286  (2) 


288  (2) 


290  (2) 


292  (1) 

Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings 


293  (7) 

Application of Standard Valves 


300  (3) 


303  (2) 

Pressure Drop in Fluid Power Valves 


305  (5) 

Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cv 


310  (1) 


311  (9) 


313  (1) 


313  (1) 


314  (5) 

ComputerAided Analysis and Design Assignments 


319  (1) 


320  (38) 


320  (1) 


321  (1) 


321  (6) 

Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems 


327  (3) 


330  (9) 


339  (4) 

Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity 


343  (15) 


345  (1) 


346  (1) 


346  (11) 

ComputerAided Analysis and Design Assignments 


357  (1) 

Parallel Pipeline Systems 


358  (24) 


358  (2) 


360  (1) 

Systems with Two Branches 


361  (7) 

Systems with Three or More BranchesNetworks 


368  (14) 


377  (1) 


377  (1) 


377  (4) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


381  (1) 

Pump Selection and Application 


382  (61) 


382  (2) 


384  (1) 

Parameters Involved in Pump Selection 


385  (1) 


385  (1) 

PositiveDisplacement Pumps 


385  (7) 


392  (6) 

Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps 


398  (2) 

Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps 


400  (1) 

Manufacturers' Data for Centrifugal Pumps 


401  (9) 

The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection 


410  (1) 

Net Positive Suction Head 


411  (6) 


417  (1) 


418  (1) 

Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure 


419  (4) 

Alternate System Operating Modes 


423  (6) 

Pump Selection and Specific Speed 


429  (1) 

Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid Systems 


430  (3) 

Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection 


433  (10) 


434  (1) 


434  (1) 

Software for Piping System Design 


435  (1) 


436  (2) 


438  (3) 

Comprehensive Design Problem 


441  (2) 


443  (30) 


443  (1) 


444  (1) 

Classification of OpenChannel Flow 


445  (1) 

Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in OpenChannel Flow 


446  (1) 

Kinds of OpenChannel Flow 


447  (1) 

Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels 


448  (5) 

The Geometry of Typical Open Channels 


453  (3) 

The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels 


456  (1) 

Critical Flow and Specific Energy 


457  (2) 


459  (3) 

OpenChannel Flow Measurement 


462  (11) 


467  (1) 


467  (1) 


468  (3) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


471  (2) 


473  (30) 


473  (1) 


474  (1) 

Flowmeter Selection Factors 


474  (2) 


476  (9) 


485  (1) 


486  (1) 


487  (1) 


487  (2) 


489  (1) 

Positive Displacement Meters 


489  (1) 


490  (2) 


492  (5) 


497  (2) 

ComputerBased Data Acquisition and Processing 


499  (4) 


499  (1) 


499  (1) 


500  (1) 


501  (1) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


502  (1) 

Forces Due to Fluids in Motion 


503  (17) 


503  (1) 


504  (1) 


504  (1) 

ImpulseMomentum Equation 


505  (1) 

ProblemSolving Method Using the Force Equations 


505  (1) 

Forces on Stationary Objects 


506  (3) 

Forces on Bends in Pipelines 


509  (4) 


513  (7) 


514  (6) 


520  (22) 


520  (1) 


521  (1) 


522  (1) 


523  (1) 


524  (6) 

Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow 


530  (1) 


531  (2) 

Compressibility Effects and Cavitation 


533  (1) 

Lift and Drag on Airfoils 


534  (8) 


537  (1) 


537  (1) 


537  (5) 

Fans, Blowers, Compressors, and the Flow of Gases 


542  (26) 


542  (1) 


543  (1) 

Gas Flow Rates and Pressures 


543  (1) 

Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors 


544  (5) 

Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes 


549  (7) 

Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 


556  (12) 


564  (1) 


564  (1) 


565  (2) 

Computer Programming Assignments 


567  (1) 


568  (21) 


568  (2) 


570  (1) 


570  (6) 


576  (7) 

Energy Efficiency and Practical Considerations in Duct Design 


583  (6) 


584  (1) 


584  (1) 


585  (4) 


589  (27) 


589  (2) 

B Properties of Common Liquids 


591  (2) 

C Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils 


593  (1) 

D Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 


594  (3) 


597  (4) 

F Dimensions of Steel Pipe 


601  (2) 

G Dimensions of Steel Tubing 


603  (1) 

H Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 


604  (1) 

I Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 


605  (1) 


606  (2) 


608  (3) 


611  (2) 


613  (2) 

N Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 


615  (1) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

616  (7) 
Index 

623  