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Applied Hydrogeology,9780130882394
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Applied Hydrogeology

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130882394

ISBN10:
0130882399
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/16/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 11/16/2000.
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Summary

This best selling book,Applied Hydrogeologygives readers a balanced examination of all facets of hydrogeology. It text stresses the application of mathematics to problem solving rather than derivation of theory. It provides a balance between physical and chemical hydrogeology. Numerous case studies cultivate reader understanding of the occurrence and movement of ground water in a variety of geologic settings.This valuable reference includes five new case histories: The Dakota Aquifer, Fractures Sedimentary RocksNewark basin, Faults as Aquifer Boundaries, Desert HydrologyAzraq basin, Jordan. Uses the Internet to obtain hydrogeologic data and information. Includes well-developed case studies in most of the chapters. Contains tables covering various functions, unit conversions, and additional data for solving well hydraulics, water chemistry, and contaminant transport problems.For readers interested in advanced hydrology, groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and civil engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface xvi
About the Author xviii
Water
Water
1(2)
Hydrology and Hydrogeology
3(1)
The Hydrologic Cycle
4(1)
Energy Transformations
5(3)
The Hydrologic Equation
8(3)
Mono Lake
9(2)
Hydrogeologists
11(1)
Applied Hydrogeology
11(1)
The Business of Hydrogeology (What Do Hydrogeologists Do All Day?)
12(4)
Application of Hydrogeology to Human Concerns
12(2)
Business Aspects of Hydrogeology
14(1)
Ethical Aspects of Hydrogeology
15(1)
Sources of Hydrogeological Information
16(2)
American Society of Testing and Materials Standards
18(1)
Working the Problems
18(2)
Solving Problems Using Spreadsheets
20(4)
Notation
22(1)
Analysis
22(1)
Problems
22(2)
Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle
Evaporation
24(3)
Transpiration
27(1)
Evapotranspiration
28(4)
Condensation
32(1)
Formation of Precipitation
32(1)
Measurement of Precipitation and Snow
32(1)
Effective Depth of Precipitation
33(4)
Events During Precipitation
37(5)
Stream Hydrographs
42(6)
Baseflow Recessions
42(2)
Storm Hydrograph
44(2)
Gaining and Losing Streams
46(2)
Rainfall-Runoff Relationships
48(2)
Duration Curves
50(1)
Determining Ground-Water Recharge from Baseflow
51(4)
Seasonal Recession Method (Meyboom Method)
51(2)
Recession Curve Displacement Method (Rorabaugh Method)
53(2)
Measurement of Streamflow
55(3)
Stream Gauging
55(2)
Weirs
57(1)
Manning Equation
58(8)
Notation
60(1)
Analysis
61(1)
Problems
61(5)
Properties of Aquifers
Matter and Energy (A Brief Review of Physics)
66(3)
Porosity of Earth Materials
69(9)
Definition of Porosity
69(1)
Porosity and Classification of Sediments
70(5)
Porosity of Sedimentary Rocks
75(2)
Porosity of Plutonic and Metamorphic Rocks
77(1)
Porosity of Volcanic Rocks
78(1)
Specific Yield
78(3)
Hydraulic Conductivity of Earth Materials
81(9)
Darcy's Experiment
81(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity
82(2)
Permeability of Sediments
84(4)
Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates in Glacial Outwash
88(1)
Permeability of Rocks
89(1)
Permeameters
90(3)
Water Table
93(2)
Aquifers
95(3)
Water-Table and Potentiometric Surface Maps
98(2)
Aquifer Characteristics
100(2)
Compressibility and Effective Stress
102(2)
Homogeneity and Isotropy
104(3)
Gradient of the Potentiometric Surface
107(6)
Notation
109(1)
Analysis
109(1)
Problems
109(4)
Principles of Ground-Water Flow
Introduction
113(1)
Mechanical Energy
114(1)
Hydraulic Head
115(3)
Head in Water of Variable Density
118(3)
Force Potential and Hydraulic Head
121(1)
Darcy's Law
122(3)
Darcy's Law in Terms of Head and Potential
122(1)
The Applicability of Darcy's Law
123(1)
Specific Discharge and Average Linear Velocity
124(1)
Equations of Ground-Water Flow
125(4)
Confined Aquifers
125(4)
Unconfined Aquifers
129(1)
Solution of Flow Equations
129(1)
Gradient of Hydraulic Head
129(2)
Relationship of Ground-Water-Flow Direction to Grad h
131(1)
Flow Lines and Flow Nets
132(4)
Refraction of Flow Lines
136(2)
Steady Flow in a Confined Aquifer
138(2)
Steady Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer
140(10)
Notation
146(1)
Analysis
147(1)
Problems
148(2)
Ground-Water Flow to Wells
Introduction
150(1)
Basic Assumptions
151(1)
Radial Flow
151(2)
Computing Drawdown Caused by a Pumping Well
153(13)
Flow in a Completely Confined Aquifer
153(3)
Flow in a Leaky, Confined Aquifer
156(8)
Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer
164(2)
Determining Aquifer Parameters from Time-Drawdown Data
166(24)
Introduction
166(1)
Steady-State Conditions
166(3)
Nonequilibrium Flow Conditions
169(14)
Nonequilibrium Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer with Storage in the Aquitard
183(1)
Nonequilibrium Radial Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer
184(4)
Effect of Partial Penetration of Wells
188(2)
Slug Tests
190(15)
Determination of Aquifer Parameters with Slug Tests
190(1)
Overdamped Response Slug Tests
190(10)
Underdamped Response Slug Test
200(4)
General Observations on Slug-Test Analysis
204(1)
Estimating Aquifer Transmissivity from Specific Capacity Data
205(2)
Intersecting Pumping Cones and Well Interference
207(1)
Effect of Hydrogeologic Boundaries
208(2)
Aquifer-Test Design
210(9)
Single-Well Aquifer Tests
210(2)
Aquifer Tests with Observation Wells
212(2)
Notation
214(1)
Computer Notes
214(1)
Analysis
215(1)
Problems
215(4)
Soil Moisture and Ground-Water Recharge
Introduction
219(1)
Porosity and Water Content of Soil
220(3)
Capillarity and the Capillary Fringe
223(2)
Pore-Water Tension in the Vadose Zone
225(1)
Soil Water
225(3)
Theory of Unsaturated Flow
228(3)
Water-Table Recharge
231(5)
Notation
234(1)
Analysis
235(1)
Problems
235(1)
Regional Ground-Water Flow
Introduction
236(1)
Steady Regional Ground-Water Flow in Unconfined Aquifers
237(10)
Recharge and Discharge Areas
237(1)
Ground-Water Flow Patterns in Homogeneous Aquifers
237(6)
Effect of Buried Lenses
243(1)
Nonhomogeneous and Anisotropic Aquifers
244(3)
Transient Flow in Regional Ground-Water Systems
247(1)
Noncyclical Ground Water
248(1)
Springs
248(2)
Geology of Regional Flow Systems
250(22)
Regional Flow Systems in the Great Basin
250(5)
Regional Flow Systems in the Coastal Zone of the Southeastern United States
255(8)
Regional Flow System of the High Plains Aquifer
263(5)
The Dakota Aquifer
268(4)
Interactions of Ground Water and Lakes or Wetlands and Streams
272(11)
Computer Notes
279(1)
Notation
280(1)
Analysis
280(1)
Problems
280(3)
Geology of Ground-Water Occurrence
Introduction
283(1)
Unconsolidated Aquifers
284(13)
Glaciated Terrane
285(4)
Hydrogeology of a Buried Valley Aquifer at Dayton, Ohio
289(1)
Alluvial Valleys
289(2)
Alluvium in Tectonic Valleys
291(3)
Tectonic Valleys---San Bernardino Area
294(3)
Lithified Sedimentary Rocks
297(22)
Sandstone Aquifer of Northeastern Illinois-Southeastern Wisconsin
297(3)
Complex Stratigraphy
300(2)
Folds and Faults
302(1)
Faults as Aquifer Boundaries
303(4)
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
307(2)
Newark Basin Hydrogeology
309(1)
Carbonate Rocks
310(9)
Coal and Lignite
319(1)
Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks
319(4)
Intrusive Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks
319(2)
Volcanic Rocks
321(1)
Volcanic Plateaus---Columbia River Basalts
321(1)
Volcanic Domes---Hawaiian Islands
322(1)
Ground Water in Permafrost Regions
323(3)
Alluvial Aquifers---Fairbanks, Alaska
326(1)
Ground Water in Desert Areas
326(1)
Desert Hydrology---Azraq Basin, Jordan
327(1)
Coastal-Plain Aquifers
327(4)
Fresh-Water-Saline-Water Relations
331(6)
Coastal Aquifers
331(4)
Oceanic Islands
335(2)
Tidal Effects
337(1)
Ground-Water Regions of the United States
338(8)
Western Mountain Ranges
338(2)
Alluvial Basins
340(1)
Columbia Lava Plateau
341(1)
Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin
341(1)
High Plains
341(1)
Nonglaciated Central Region
342(1)
Glaciated Central Region
342(1)
Piedmont---Blue Ridge Region
343(1)
Northeast and Superior Uplands
343(1)
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain
343(1)
Southeast Coastal Plain
344(1)
Alluvial Valleys
344(1)
Hawaiian Islands
344(1)
Alaska
344(1)
Puerto Rico
344(1)
Notation
345(1)
Problems
345(1)
Water Chemistry
Introduction
346(1)
Units of Measurement
347(1)
Types of Chemical Reactions in Water
348(1)
Law of Mass Action
348(2)
Common-Ion Effect
350(1)
Chemical Activities
350(3)
Ionization Constant of Water and Weak Acids
353(2)
Carbonate Equilibrium
355(6)
Carbonate Reactions
356(2)
Carbonate Equilibrium in Water with Fixed Partial Pressure of CO2
358(1)
Carbonate Equilibrium with External pH Control
359(2)
Thermodynamic Relationships
361(1)
Oxidation Potential
362(4)
Ion Exchange
366(2)
Isotope Hydrology
368(5)
Statble Isotopes
368(3)
Radioactive Isotopes Used in Age Dating
371(2)
Major Ion Chemistry
373(1)
Presentation of Results of Chemical Analyses
374(11)
Piper Diagram
374(2)
Stiff Pattern
376(1)
Schoeller Semilogarithmic Diagram
377(1)
Chemical Geohydrology of the Floridan Aquifer System
377(4)
Notation
381(1)
Analysis
382(1)
Problems
383(2)
Water Quality and Ground-Water Contamination
Introduction
385(3)
Water-Quality Standards
388(1)
Collection of Water Samples
389(2)
Ground-Water Monitoring
391(6)
Planning a Ground-Water Monitoring Program
391(1)
Installing Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
391(5)
Withdrawing Water Samples from Monitoring Wells
396(1)
Vadose-Zone Monitoring
397(3)
Mass Transport of Solutes
400(15)
Introduction
400(1)
Diffusion
400(1)
Advection
401(1)
Mechanical Dispersion
401(1)
Hydrodynamic Dispersion
402(5)
Retardation
407(8)
Degradation of Organic Compounds
415(1)
Ground-Water Contamination
415(11)
Introduction
415(1)
Septic Tanks and Cesspools
416(2)
Landfills
418(2)
Chemical Spills and Leaking Underground Tanks
420(3)
Mining
423(1)
Contamination from Uranium Tailings Ponds
424(1)
Other Sources of Ground-Water Contamination
425(1)
Ground-Water Restoration
426(2)
Risk-Based Corrective Action
426(1)
Source-Control Measures
426(1)
Plume Treatment
427(1)
Natural and Enhanced Bioremediation
428(1)
Case History: Ground-Water Contamination at a Superfund Site
428(8)
Background
428(2)
Geology
430(1)
Hydrogeology
431(1)
Ground-Water Contamination
432(2)
Site Remediation
434(2)
Capture-Zone Analysis
436(5)
Notation
439(1)
Analysis
440(1)
Problems
440(1)
Ground-Water Development and Management
Introduction
441(1)
Dynamic Equilibrium in Natural Aquifers
442(1)
Deep Sandstone Aquifer of Northeastern Illinois
443(1)
Ground-Water Budgets
443(2)
Management Potential of Aquifers
445(2)
Paradox of Safe Yield
447(2)
Water Law
449(10)
Legal Concepts
449(1)
Law Regulating Quantity of Surface Water
449(3)
Laws Regulating Quantity of Ground Water
452(2)
Arizona's Ground-Water Code
454(1)
Laws Regulating the Quality of Water
455(3)
Wisconsin's Ground-Water Protection Law
458(1)
Artificial Recharge
459(1)
Protection of Water Quality in Aquifers
460(3)
Ground-Water Mining and Cyclic Storage
463(1)
Conjunctive Use of Ground and Surface Water
464(1)
Global Water Issues
465(3)
Analysis
467(1)
Field Methods
Introduction
468(1)
Fracture-Trace Analysis
469(5)
Surficial Methods of Geophysical Investigations
474(18)
Direct-Current Electrical Resistivity
474(5)
Electromagnetic Conductivity
479(4)
Seismic Methods
483(7)
Ground-Penetrating Radar and Magnetometer Surveys
490(1)
Gravity and Aeromagnetic Methods
491(1)
Geophysical Well Logging
492(13)
Caliper Logs
495(1)
Temperature Logs
495(1)
Single-Point Resistance
495(3)
Resistivity
498(1)
Spontaneous Potential
498(1)
Nuclear Logging
499(3)
Use of Multiple Geophysical Methods to Determine the Extent and Thickness of a Critical Confining Layer
502(3)
Hydrogeologic Site Evaluations
505(3)
Responsibilities of the Field Hydrogeologist
508(2)
Project Reports
510(4)
Notation
512(1)
Problems
512(2)
Ground-Water Models
Introduction
514(2)
Applications of Ground-Water Models
516(1)
Data Requirements for Models
517(2)
Finite-Difference Models
519(5)
Finite-Difference Grids
519(1)
Finite-Difference Notation
519(1)
Boundary Conditions
520(1)
Methods of Solution for Steady-State Case for Square Grid Spacing
521(2)
Methods of Solution for the Transient Case
523(1)
Finite-Element Models
524(1)
Use of Published Models
525(3)
Modflow Basics
528(2)
Visual Modflow
530(1)
Geographical Information Systems
530(4)
Analysis
531(3)
Appendices 534(18)
1. Values of the function W(u) for various values of u
535(1)
2. Values of the function F(&eeacgr;μ) for various values of &eeacgr; and μ
536(1)
3. Values of the functions W(μ,r/B) for various values of μ
537(1)
4. Values of the function H(μβ)
538(1)
5. Values of the functions KO(x) and exp (x)KO(x)
539(1)
6. Values of the function W(uA, Γ), and W(uB, Γ) for water-table aquifers
540(2)
7. Table for length conversion
542(1)
8. Table for area conversion
542(1)
9. Table for volume conversion
543(1)
10. Table for time conversion
543(1)
11. Solubility products for selected minerals and compounds
544(1)
12. Atomic weights and numbers of naturally occurring elements
545(2)
13. Table of values of erf (x) and erfc (x)
547(1)
14. Absolute density and absolute viscosity of water
548(1)
15. Loading and running computer programs
549(3)
Glossary 552(10)
Answers 562(5)
References 567(21)
Index 588

Excerpts

PREFACEHydrogeology is now considered to be a core course in the curriculum of undergraduate geology programs as well as many fields of engineering. There is ongoing demand for persons with training in hydrogeology by consulting organizations, state and federal regulatory agencies, and industrial firms. Most of the employment in hydrogeology is in the environmental area. This is a book that will help prepare students for either a career in hydrogeology or in other areas of environmental science and engineering where a strong background in hydrogeology is needed.Applied Hydrogeologyis intended as a textbook for an introductory course in hydrogeology taught either at the advanced undergraduate level, or as a dual-level undergraduate/graduate course. It is also useful in helping individuals who are preparing to take state examinations for professional registration as a hydrologist or hydrogeologist. It can be found as a reference book in the personal library of many working professionals.The reader is expected to have a working knowledge of college algebra, and calculus is helpful, but not necessary, for practical understanding of the material. A background in college chemistry is necessary to understand the chapter on water chemistry. The book stresses the application of mathematics to problem-solving rather than the derivation of theory. To this end you will find many example problems with step-by-step solutions. Case studies in many chapters enhance understanding of the occurrence and movement of ground water in a variety of geological settings. A glossary of hydrogeological terms makes this book a valuable reference.The fourth edition contains new case studies and end-of-chapter problems. In most cases the problems are paired. An odd-numbered problem will have the answer given in a section in the back of the book, followed by an even-numbered problem without the answer. Step-by-step solutions to the odd-numbered problems can also be found at theApplied Hydrogeologyweb page: http://www.appliedhydrogeology.com. Many chapters in the fourth edition also contain a section called Analysis, with non-numerical questions. The use of spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel, in hydrogeology is introduced here.Included with the text are working student versions of three computer programs that are used by ground-water professionals. They have been furnished free of charge by the software publishers. No technical support is furnished for these programs, either by the author or the software publisher. However, they are easy to use and come with tutorials and documentation on the CD-ROM.The following reviewers provided helpful suggestions for the fourth edition: Gary S. Johnson, University of Idaho; Larry Murdoch, Clemson University; Claude Epstein, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey; David L. Brown, California State University at Chico; F. Edwin Harvey, University of Nebraska at Lincoln; Edward L. Shuster, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Willis D. Weight, Montana Tech. of the University of Montana; Larry D. McKay, University of Tennessee at Knoxville; Laura L. Sanders, Northwestern Illinois University; Jean Hoff, St. Cloud State University; and Jim Butler, Kansas Geological Survey.I am grateful to Larry Murdoch and Rex Hodges of Clemson University for introducing me to the use of spreadsheet ground-water flow models. I would especially like to thank Glenn Duffield of Hydrosolve, Inc. for furnishing the student version of AQTESOLV, Pat Delaney of Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc. for furnishing the student version of Visual MODFLOW and Kirk Hemker for the use of FLOWNETLT. Todd Rayne of Hamilton College has prepared the solution manual for the problems, which course instructors can request from their Prentice Hall sales representative. Patrick Lynch, Senior Editor for Geology at Prentice Hall, has been very supportive through the course of my


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