9780495007050

Applying Moral Theories

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780495007050

  • ISBN10:

    0495007056

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 3/7/2006
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning

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Summary

Preface. 1. What Is Ethics? 2. Morality: Subjective or Objective? 3. Moral Theories. 4. The Ethics of Self-Interest. 5. The Ethics of Natural Law. 6. The Ethics of Utilitarianism. 7. The Ethics of Respect for Persons. 8. Virtue Ethics. Appendix I: Applying the Moral Theories. Appendix II: Cases for Analysis. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
What Is Ethics?
1(18)
Three Types of Claims Made in Moral Arguments
2(5)
Factual Issues
3(1)
Conceptual Issues
4(2)
Moral Issues
6(1)
The Nature of Moral Statements
7(5)
Normative versus Factual Statements
7(1)
An Important Corollary
8(2)
Characteristics of Ethical Statements
10(2)
Concepts in Ethical Discourse
12(2)
A Burn Victim's Desire to Die
14(3)
Factual Issues
15(1)
Conceptual Issues
15(1)
Moral Issues
15(1)
Moral and Factual Statements
16(1)
Characteristics of Moral Statements
16(1)
Concepts in Moral Philosophy
17(1)
Concept Summary
17(2)
Morality: Relative or Objective?
19(19)
Classical Moral Relativism
20(7)
The Diversity Thesis
21(1)
The Relativity Thesis
22(2)
The Toleration Thesis
24(1)
Evaluating Classical Moral Relativism
25(2)
Limited Moral Relativism
27(5)
The Diversity of Morality
28(1)
Limits to Moral Diversity
29(2)
Evaluating Limited Moral Relativism
31(1)
Concept Summary
32(1)
The Divine Command Theory
32(4)
Rationality versus Truth
36(1)
Concept Summary
37(1)
Moral Theories
38(25)
Common Morality and Moral Theories
39(3)
The Three Levels of a Moral Theory
42(8)
First Level: Moral Judgments
44(2)
Second Level: Moral Principles
46(2)
Third Level: Moral Standard
48(2)
Four Criteria for Evaluating a Moral Theory
50(4)
Criterion 1: Consistency and Coherence---Does the Theory Yield Consistent Judgments and Show Internal Coherence?
50(2)
Criterion 2: Justification---How Well Can the Moral Standard Be Justified?
52(1)
Criterion 3: Plausibility---Does the Moral Theory Produce Moral Judgments That Agree with Our Prior Moral Beliefs?
52(2)
Criterion 4: Usefulness---Is the Theory Useful in Resolving Moral Disagreements?
54(1)
Concept Summary
54(1)
Problems in Applying Moral Principles
55(7)
Relevance Problems
55(4)
Conflict Problems
59(2)
Room for Disagreement
61(1)
Concept Summary
62(1)
The Ethics of Self-Interest
63(25)
The Paradox of Egoism
65(2)
The State of Nature
65(1)
An Illustration
66(1)
Escaping from the Paradox of Egoism
67(2)
The Moral Standard
69(1)
Checklist for Applying Act Egoism
70(1)
Checklist for Applying Rule Egoism
70(1)
Concept Summary
71(1)
The Personal and Social Ethics of Egoism
71(5)
Duties to Self
71(1)
Duties to Others
72(1)
Social Ethics
73(3)
Concept Summary
76(1)
Applying the Ethics of Egoism
76(6)
Case 1: Bryan's Dilemma
77(1)
Case 2: The Legalization of Homosexual Acts Between Consenting Adults
78(2)
Case 3: Should a Lawyer Reveal the Truth?
80(2)
Evaluating Egoism as a Moral Theory
82(4)
Criterion 1: Coherence and Consistency
82(1)
Criterion 2: Justification of the Moral Standard
82(2)
Criterion 3: Plausibility of the Moral Judgments
84(1)
Criterion 4: Usefulness
85(1)
Concept Summary
86(2)
The Ethics of Natural Law
88(32)
The Natural-Law Moral Standard
89(4)
What Is Natural Law?
89(2)
Human Nature and Natural Inclinations
91(2)
Moral Absolutism and the Qualifying Principles
93(6)
Moral Absolutism
93(2)
Qualifying Principles
95(4)
Checklist for Applying Natural-Law Ethics
99(1)
Concept Summary
100(1)
The Personal and Social Ethics of Natural Law
100(6)
Duties to Self
100(3)
Duties to Others
103(1)
Social Ethics
103(3)
Concept Summary
106(1)
Applying the Ethics of Natural Law
107(7)
Case 1: AIDS and Condoms
107(3)
Case 2: The Morality of Obliteration Bombing
110(1)
Case 3: The Suppression of Galileo
111(3)
Evaluating Natural Law as a Moral Theory
114(4)
Criterion 1: Consistency and Coherence
114(1)
Criterion 2: Justification
115(1)
Criterion 3: Plausibility
116(2)
Criterion 4: Usefulness
118(1)
Concept Summary
118(2)
The Ethics of Utilitarianism
120(33)
The Utilitarian Moral Standard
121(5)
The Definition of Utility
122(2)
Distribution versus Quantity of Utility
124(1)
The Place of Animals
125(1)
Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism
126(3)
Further Considerations in Applying Rule Utilitarianism
129(4)
Will Others Obey the Rules?
129(1)
How Should the Rule Be Formulated?
130(3)
Checklist for Applying Rule Utilitarianism
133(1)
Checklist for Applying Act Utilitarianism
133(1)
Concept Summary
134(1)
Utilitarian Personal and Social Ethics
134(6)
Duties to Self
135(1)
Duties to Others
136(2)
Social Ethics
138(2)
Applying Utilitarian Theories
140(6)
Case 1: The Willowbrook School
140(2)
Case 2: The Morality of Whaling
142(2)
Case 3: Reverse Discrimination
144(2)
Evaluating Utilitarianism as a Moral Theory
146(5)
Criterion 1: Consistency and Coherence
147(1)
Criterion 2: Justification
147(1)
Criterion 3: Plausibility
148(2)
Criterion 4: Usefulness
150(1)
Concept Summary
151(2)
The Ethics of Respect for Persons
153(39)
The Universalization Principle as a Version of the Moral Standard
155(4)
The Self-Defeating Test
155(3)
Guidelines for Applying the Universalization Principle
158(1)
The Means-End Principle as a Version of the Moral Standard
159(10)
Preliminary Concepts
160(4)
The Negative Test
164(1)
The Positive Test
165(4)
Checklist for Applying the Ethics of Respect for Persons
169(1)
Concept Summary
169(1)
The Personal and Social Ethics of the Ethics of Respect for Persons
170(4)
Duties to Self
170(1)
Duties to Others
171(1)
Social Ethics
172(2)
Concept Summary
174(1)
Applying the Ethics of Respect for Persons
174(12)
Case 1: The Case of Baby Marissa
174(3)
Case 2: Deceptive Psychological Testing
177(3)
Case 3: Surrogate Mothers
180(3)
Case 4: Buying and Selling Blood
183(3)
Evaluating the Ethics of Respect for Persons as a Moral Theory
186(4)
Criterion 1: Consistency and Coherence
186(1)
Criterion 2: Justification
186(2)
Criterion 3: Plausibility
188(1)
Criterion 4: Usefulness
189(1)
Concept Summary
190(2)
Virtue Ethics
192(30)
What is Virtue Ethics?
194(1)
What Is a Virtue?
195(2)
Aristotle's Portrait of the Virtuous Person
197(5)
The Magnanimous Man and the Golden Mean
197(3)
Love and Friendship, Happiness, and Luck
200(2)
Feminism and the Ethics of Care
202(4)
Ethics in a Different Voice
202(2)
An Ethics of Relationships
204(2)
Virtue Pluralism
206(2)
Checklist for Applying Virtue Ethics
208(1)
Concept Summary
209(1)
Virtues and Personal and Social Ethics
210(3)
Duties to Self
210(1)
Duties to Others
211(1)
Social Ethics
212(1)
Concept Summary
213(1)
Applying Virtue Ethics
213(6)
Case 1: Abortion
214(1)
Case 2: Animal Rights
215(1)
Case 3: The Job vs. Conscience
216(1)
Case 4: The Patient Wants to Die
217(1)
Case 5: Perilous Pursuit
218(1)
Evaluating Virtue Ethics
219(2)
Criterion 1: Coherence and Consistency
219(1)
Criterion 2: Justification of the Moral Standard
219(1)
Criterion 3: Plausibility of Moral Judgments
220(1)
Criterion 4: Usefulness in Resolving Ethical Conflicts
221(1)
Concept Summary
221(1)
Appendix I Applying the Moral Theories 222(3)
Appendix II Cases for Analysis 225(22)
Index 247

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