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Aquaculture-based fisheries are fisheries based on the regular stocking of cultured organisms into natural or modified aquatic ecosystems. Operating for finfish, molluscs and crustaceans in inland and coastal waters, aquaculture-based fisheries represent a significant "niche" form of aquatic resource use. Aquaculture-based fisheries are complex resource systems at the interface of capture fisheries and aquaculture, where outcomes of management are determined by the interaction of population ecology and genetics, seed production and release techniques, and the institutional arrangements pertaining to resource use and replenishment. The book aims to provide a comprehensive and integrated treatment of aquaculture-based fisheries systems. Following a systems-based introduction, the book is divided into two main parts. The first part reviews the science underlying the key aspects of ecology, genetics, seed production and release, population dynamics, institutional arrangements, and discusses the role of culture-based fisheries in aquatic resource management. The second part focuses on approaches to the development of culture-based fisheries, and provides guidance on analysis and assessment methods including the practical application of population models. A final chapter deals with the special considerations involved in the hatchery supplementation of endangered species. The book is written primarily for scientists and professionals involved in the development and management of aquaculture-based fisheries, including stock enhancement and supplementation programmes. The integrated and comparative treatment of fisheries and aquaculture aspects will also appeal to other scientists and students with interests at the interface of capture fisheries and aquaculture.