9780130888822

Arboriculture : Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780130888822

  • ISBN10:

    0130888826

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/16/2003
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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List Price: $135.40

Summary

Regarded by many as an irreplaceable reference tool, this book describes the integration of the landscape environment (climate, soil, and related organisms), its effect on landscape plants, and how to manage both to obtain the desired results with reasonable effort.All aspects of tree, shrub, and vine care are covered, including plant structure and function, plant selection, site analysis and preparation, environmental influences on growth, soil, water and nutrient management, pruning, transplanting, and plant health care.A valuable handbook for professionals, including arboricultural consultants, arborists, urban foresters, landscape architects, landscape contractors (installation and/or maintenance), state and county horticultural extension advisors, park directors and staff (federal, state, regional, and local), street tree superintendents and staff, grounds superintendents and staff (golf courses, college and school grounds, cemeteries, condominiums, retirement communities, theme parks, etc.), arboretum and botanic garden directors and staff, nursery growers and retailers.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction to Arboriculture
1(12)
Arboriculture
1(1)
Arboriculture in Practice
2(4)
Regulation of Tree Care Activities
4(2)
Relationship of Arboriculture to Urban Forests and Urban Forestry
6(2)
Urban Forestry
6(1)
Arboriculture and Sustainable Urban Forests
7(1)
The Guiding Principles of Arboriculture
8(4)
Review
12(1)
Further Reading
12(1)
Plant Structure and Function
13(39)
Mechanical Design of Trees
14(1)
Crown Development
15(4)
Shoots
15(1)
Buds
15(1)
Shoot Elongation
16(2)
Patterns of Shoot Elongation
18(1)
The Leaf
19(1)
The Crown
20(3)
Form: Excurrent, Decurrent, and Apical Control
20(3)
The Root
23(6)
Roots and Soil Organisms
24(2)
Root Development
26(1)
Size of Root Systems
27(1)
Roots and Underground Pipes
28(1)
Girdling Roots
28(1)
The Trunk
29(7)
Xylem
30(1)
Phloem and Bark
31(1)
Trunk Taper
31(3)
Compartmentalization
34(1)
Wood Decay
35(1)
Branch Attachment
36(2)
Palms
38(2)
Reproductive Development
40(2)
Angiosperm Flowers
40(1)
Gymnosperm Flowers
41(1)
Tree Death
42(1)
How Trees Die
42(1)
Overview of Basic Physiological Processes
43(1)
Photosynthesis
43(1)
Respiration
43(1)
Transpiration
44(1)
Control Mechanisms of Growth and Development
44(5)
Genetic Controls
44(1)
Environmental Controls
45(1)
Time
46(2)
Plant Growth Regulators
48(1)
Integration of Growth over Time
49(2)
Root--Shoot Ratio
50(1)
Review
51(1)
Further Reading
51(1)
Site Evaluation: Climate and Environment
52(22)
Plant Climates: Temperature
53(11)
Cold Temperatures
55(2)
Lowest Temperature Expectable
57(1)
Spring and Fall Cold
58(2)
Protecting against Frosts
60(2)
Winter Chilling and Rest
62(2)
High Temperatures
64(1)
Light: Radiation
64(3)
Photosynthesis
65(1)
Phototropism
65(1)
Photoperiodism
65(1)
Night Lighting
66(1)
Transpiration
67(1)
Moisture
67(2)
Rain
67(1)
Fog
67(1)
Dew
68(1)
Drought
68(1)
Excess Moisture
68(1)
Hail
69(1)
Snow and Glaze Ice
69(1)
Wind
69(2)
Plant Damage
70(1)
Transpiration
70(1)
Photosynthesis
71(1)
Windchill Factor
71(1)
Urban Climate
71(1)
Review
72(1)
Further Reading
73(1)
Planting Site: Soil and Water
74(28)
Evaluation of Soils
75(21)
Soil Formation
75(2)
Soil Physical Characteristics
77(3)
Chemical Properties of Soils
80(3)
Biological Properties of Soil
83(2)
Soil Organic Matter
85(2)
Soil Quality and Health
87(1)
Urban Soils
88(3)
Evaluating Site Soils
91(5)
Water Quality
96(4)
Evaluating Water Quality
97(2)
Selection of Sites Suitable for Irrigation with Recycled Water
99(1)
Review
100(1)
Further Reading
101(1)
Benefits of Trees
102(16)
Air Quality
103(2)
Primary Atmospheric Contaminants
103(1)
Pollutants from Trees---Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds
103(1)
Air Purification by Trees
103(1)
Carbon Uptake and Storage
104(1)
Air Temperature, Wind, and Energy Savings
105(5)
Trees and Wind
105(1)
Energy Conservation---Direct Benefits
106(2)
Energy Conservation---Indirect Benefits
108(1)
Energy Conservation---Deferred Costs of Energy Production
109(1)
Energy Conservation through Strategic Tree Planting
109(1)
Storm Water Runoff and Erosion Control
110(1)
Noise Reduction
111(1)
Psychological and Social Benefits of Trees
111(2)
The Restorative Power of Nature
111(1)
Urban Forests and Human Behavior
112(1)
Summary of Psychological and Social Benefits of Trees
113(1)
Economic Values
113(2)
Appraisal of the Value of Landscape Trees
114(1)
Other Approaches to Value
114(1)
The True and Full Accounting of the Urban Forest---Cost-Benefit Analysis
115(1)
Review
116(1)
Further Reading
116(2)
A Final Note
118(1)
Plant Selection
118(19)
Selecting the Right Plant
118(6)
Inherent Characteristics
119(1)
Growth Habit and Size
119(3)
Plant Features
122(1)
Native Plants
123(1)
Plant Selection Programs
124(1)
Sources and Size of Planting Stock
124(1)
Performance Following Planting
125(1)
Selecting Quality Plants
126(9)
Root Characteristics
126(4)
The Future
130(1)
Top and Trunk Characteristics
130(1)
Top-to-Root Relationships
130(3)
Health
133(1)
Inspecting Plants
133(1)
Additional Thoughts
134(1)
Review
135(1)
Further Reading
136(1)
Modifying and Managing the Site
137(45)
Modifying Soil Physical Properties
137(15)
Modifying Soil Texture and Improving Structure
138(8)
Improving Surface Drainage
146(1)
Improving Internal Drainage
147(4)
Improving Soil Moisture Conditions
151(1)
Modifying Soil Chemical Properties
152(6)
Adjusting Soil Reaction
152(1)
Reclaiming Saline Soils
153(4)
Reclaiming Sodic and Saline-Sodic Soils
157(1)
Enhancing and Maintaining Soil Organic Matter
158(17)
Organic Soil Amendments
159(3)
Mulches
162(13)
Improving the Biological Activity of Soil
175(5)
Improving Symbiotic Associations
175(3)
Applying Mycorrhizal Fungi to the Landscape
178(2)
Review
180(1)
Further Reading
181(1)
Planting
182(26)
Seeds, Liner Plants, and Cuttings
182(2)
Planting Seed
182(1)
Planting Liner Plants
183(1)
Sticking Cuttings
184(1)
Young Plants
184(17)
Season to Plant
184(1)
Handling Plants before Planting
185(1)
Preparing the Planting Hole
185(1)
Pruning Roots
186(2)
Setting the Plant
188(1)
Backfilling
189(1)
Treatments That May Enhance Rooting
189(1)
Wire Baskets
190(1)
Pruning
191(1)
Staking
192(6)
Alternatives to Support Staking
198(1)
Treeshelters
199(2)
Care Following Planting
201(5)
Water
201(1)
Turf
202(2)
Bedding and Ground-Cover Plants
204(1)
Weed Management
204(1)
Cultivation
205(1)
Effects of Bare Soil around Plants
206(1)
Review
206(1)
Further Reading
207(1)
Transplanting Large Plants
208(14)
Selection of Plants
208(1)
Species
208(1)
Size and Quality
209(1)
Site Characteristics
209(1)
Season of Transplanting
209(1)
Methods of Transplanting
210(6)
Bare Root
210(1)
Ball-in-Burlap
210(2)
Frozen Root Ball
212(1)
Bare Root Ball
213(1)
Box
213(2)
Mechanical Tree Movers
215(1)
Planting
216(2)
Protecting the Trunk
217(1)
Watering and Mulching
217(1)
Pruning
218(1)
Transplanting Palms
218(2)
Preparing to Move
218(2)
Planting
220(1)
Postplanting Care
220(1)
Evaluating Success
220(1)
Review
221(1)
Further Reading
221(1)
Special Management Situations
222(34)
Trees in Pavement
222(5)
Providing an Environment Adequate for Tree Growth
222(5)
Root--Pavement Conflicts
227(7)
Preventing Root--Pavement Conflicts
228(4)
Remedial Treatment for Existing Root--Pavement Conflicts
232(2)
Roots and Pavement---The Future?
234(1)
Tree Roots in Sewers
234(3)
Sewer Design and Construction
234(1)
Tree Planting Practices---Species Selection and Placement
234(2)
Mechanical Treatment to Control Roots in Sewers
236(1)
Chemical Treatment to Control Roots in Sewers
236(1)
Remedial Treatments to Sewer Line
237(1)
Recycling Wood Waste
237(4)
Material Generated
237(1)
Recycling of Wood Waste
237(1)
Composting
238(1)
Recycling Tree Trunks
239(2)
The Future
241(1)
Managing Fire-Safe Landscapes
241(4)
Basic Elements of Fire Behavior
242(1)
Managing Fire Fuels
242(1)
Evaluating Fire-Damaged Plants
242(2)
Community Education and Awareness
244(1)
Managing Forest Remnants
245(3)
Function of Forest Remnants
246(1)
Guiding Principles
246(1)
Management Goals
246(2)
Summary of Managing Forest Remnants
248(1)
Roots and Buildings
248(4)
The Role of Trees in Structural Damage
248(1)
Diagnosing Tree Contribution to Structural Damage
249(1)
Soil Expansion
250(1)
Correcting and Avoiding Problem Situations
251(1)
Other Special Management Situations
252(3)
Planters without Natural Drainage
252(1)
Areas That Are Periodically Flooded
253(1)
Landfill Sites
254(1)
Coastal Locations
254(1)
Review
255(1)
Further Reading
255(1)
Preserving Existing Trees
256(24)
Why Trees Are Preserved
256(1)
Goals of Tree Preservation
256(1)
An Overview of the Land Development Process
257(1)
The Tree Preservation Process
258(7)
Conducting a Tree Survey
258(1)
Suitability for Preservation
258(2)
Identifying a Tree Protection Zone
260(1)
Locating Trees on Plans
261(2)
Assessing Construction Impacts to Trees
263(2)
Designs to Minimize Impacts to Trees
265(11)
Grading Considerations
266(5)
Footing and Foundation Design
271(1)
Structure Design
272(1)
Utilities and Services
272(2)
Installing Pavement
274(2)
Construction Specifications
276(1)
Preconstruction Treatments
276(2)
Arboricultural Treatments to Improve Health
276(1)
Provide Clearance for Construction Activities
277(1)
Protect Tree from Damage
277(1)
Clear Unwanted Vegetation
278(1)
Tree Protection During Construction
278(1)
Review
278(1)
Further Reading
279(1)
Nutrient Management
280(29)
Relationships among Soil, Nutrients, and Plants
280(1)
Physical Properties of Soil
280(1)
Chemical Properties of Soil
280(1)
Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients
281(1)
Essential Plant Nutrients
282(17)
Macronutrients
282(7)
Micronutrients
289(10)
Fertilizing and Fertilizers
299(1)
Complete Fertilizers
299(1)
Plant Adaptation to Low Nutrient Levels
299(1)
Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Root and Shoot Growth
300(3)
Determining Nutrient Needs and Toxicity Problems
301(2)
Fertilizer Application Methods
303(2)
Time of Application
305(1)
Fertilizing Young Plants
306(1)
Fertilizing Root-Damaged Mature Trees
307(1)
Fertilizing Palms
307(1)
Potential Fertilizer Pollution
307(1)
Review
308(1)
Further Reading
308(1)
Water Management
309(26)
Soil Water
309(4)
Movement of Water
312(1)
Water Use by Plants
313(2)
Atmospheric Demand
313(1)
Plant Restriction of Water Loss
313(2)
Soil Moisture Reservoir
315(1)
Plant Adaptations to Natural Water Supply
315(4)
Drought
317(2)
Supplying Additional Water Through Irrigation
319(4)
Determining When and How Much to Irrigate
319(1)
Applying Water
320(2)
Managing Water for Young Trees
322(1)
Establishing a Water Management Program
323(5)
Adjustments to Reference Evapotranspiration (Eto)
324(2)
Putting It All Together to Start a Management Program
326(1)
Additional Comments
327(1)
Landscape Water Conservation
328(3)
Managing Landscapes during a Drought
330(1)
Irrigating with Recycled Water
330(1)
Antitranspirants
331(1)
Review
332(2)
Further Reading
334(1)
Pruning
335(57)
General Principles of Pruning
335(13)
Purposes of Pruning
335(1)
Reasons for Pruning
335(1)
Pruning Responses
336(4)
Pruning Techniques
340(4)
Making the Pruning Cut
344(3)
Protecting Pruning Cuts
347(1)
Pruning Trees
348(21)
Structural Strength
348(2)
Long and Short Pruning
350(1)
Long Pruning: Natural
351(1)
Training Young Trees
351(3)
Pruning at Planting
354(1)
Training in the Landscape
354(6)
Pruning Mature Trees
360(9)
Short Pruning
369(6)
Screen (Curtain) Pruning
369(1)
Pollard
370(3)
Topiary
373(1)
Pleach
374(1)
Bonsai
374(1)
Coniferous Trees
375(5)
Whorl-Branching Species
378(1)
Random-Branching Species
379(1)
Pruning Severity
379(1)
Columnar Conifers
379(1)
Nursery-Grown Trees
380(1)
Young Conifers in the Landscape
380(1)
Palm Trees
380(3)
Shrubs
383(4)
General Shrub Pruning Considerations
383(1)
Pruning Deciduous Shrubs
383(1)
Pruning Evergreen Shrubs
384(1)
Shrubs into Small Trees
385(1)
Hedges
385(2)
Roses (Rosa)
387(1)
Vines
387(3)
Review
390(1)
Further Reading
391(1)
Control of Plant Growth
392(13)
Stimulation of Growth
392(1)
Chemical Control of Plant Height
392(8)
Growth Control Mechanisms
392(8)
Chemical Control of Trunk Sprouts
400(1)
Killing Woody Plants
401(2)
Chemical Control of Flowering, Fruit Set, and Mistletoes
403(1)
Review
404(1)
Tree Hazard Management
405(29)
Components of Hazard Evaluations
405(4)
Inspection Period
408(1)
Factors Influencing Tree Failure
409(3)
Species
409(2)
Size and Age
411(1)
Site
411(1)
Maintenance Practices
412(1)
Defects
412(1)
Evaluating Defects
412(6)
Visual Tree Assessment
412(1)
Tree Structure
413(2)
Increased Exposure
415(1)
Leaning Trees
415(1)
Frost Cracks and Lightning Scars
415(1)
Dead Trees and Branches
415(1)
Root Defects
415(1)
Cankers
416(1)
Decay
417(1)
Evaluating the Potential for Failure Caused by Decay
418(8)
Direct Methods of Decay Detection
418(7)
Selecting Sampling Locations
425(1)
Evaluating Strength Loss from Decay
425(1)
Evaluating the Potential for Windthrow
426(2)
Evaluating the Potential for Summer Branch Drop
428(1)
Evaluating Targets
429(1)
Tree Hazard Management
429(1)
Hazard Rating Systems
430(1)
Hazard Abatement
430(2)
Review
432(1)
Further Reading
432(2)
Preventive Maintenance and Repair
434(22)
Tree Support Systems
434(15)
A Note of Caution on Use of Support Systems
435(2)
Cabling
437(5)
Bracing
442(2)
Sling Systems
444(1)
Guying
444(2)
Propping
446(1)
Lightning Protection
447(2)
Care of Wounds and Cavities
449(5)
Injection Wounds
451(1)
Caring for Trees with Wounds
452(2)
Cavities
454(1)
Treating Cavities
454(1)
Review
455(1)
Further Reading
455(1)
Diagnosing Plant Problems
456(45)
The Diagnosis
456(1)
Evaluating Symptoms and Signs
456(9)
Distinguishing What Is Normal and Abnormal
459(3)
A Diagnostic Approach
462(1)
Diagnostic Tools
463(2)
Collecting Samples
465(1)
Identifying Common Plant Problems
465(1)
Abiotic Agents
466(10)
Mechanical Injury
466(1)
Chemical Injury
467(3)
Thermal Injury
470(1)
Lightning
470(1)
Nutrient Deficiency
471(1)
Problems Related to Soil and Roots
472(2)
Air Quality
474(2)
Biotic Agents
476(10)
Leaf Diseases
478(1)
Cankers
478(1)
Causal Agents
479(7)
Sources of Help
486(1)
Review
487(1)
Further Reading
488(13)
Plant Health Care: The Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines
501(24)
Integrated Pest Management
502(2)
Integrated Pest Management and its Application to Arboriculture
504(2)
Key Pest---Key Plant---Key Stress
504(1)
Action Thresholds
504(1)
Monitoring
505(1)
Control Options
506(5)
Regulatory Control
506(1)
Genetic Control
506(1)
Biological Control
506(1)
Cultural Control
507(1)
Chemical Control
508(3)
Plant Health Care in Practice
511(7)
The Integrated Management of Oak Wilt
511(3)
The Integrated Management of Vegetation along Transmission Rights-of-Way
514(2)
The Management of Mature Trees
516(2)
Review
518(1)
Further Reading
518(1)
Appendices
I. Specifications for Acceptance of Landscape Nursery Trees
519(2)
II. Pruning Specifications
521(2)
III. Measurement Conversions
523(2)
Glossary 525(10)
Bibliography 535(28)
Index 563

Excerpts

Twenty years have past since the publication of the first edition. During that time arboriculture has experienced significant changes. Research findings; the application, training, and certification of arborists; innovations by practitioners; new and improved equipment and products; a worldwide community of professionals; and a better informed and more concerned public bode well for the future of arboriculture. Instant access to information across the Internet allows for exchange of ideas and experiences among arborists in every part of the globe.The fourth edition ofArboricultureprovides approaches to analyzing problems and situations and selecting the most appropriate solutions or courses of action. This is particularly important because local or regional factors require specific solutions. As in previous editions, new information and maintenance practices are evaluated and, where appropriate, current practices reassessed. The analytical approach is emphasized, assessing management needs and deciding on an appropriate solution.The common and botanical names used generally conform to those listed inHortus Third(Bailey and others, 1976) and theAnnotated Checklist of Woody Ornamental Plants of California, Oregon,andWashington(McClintock and Leiser, 1979).Measurements are given in metric units, followed by English equivalents in parentheses. In many situations, approximate values are accurate enough, so conversions between the two systems are rounded for simplicity.

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