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Archaeology: Down to Earth,9780495008583
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Archaeology: Down to Earth

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780495008583

ISBN10:
0495008583
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/5/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 1/5/2006.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

This new brief edition pairs two of archaeology's most recognized names-- David Hurst Thomas of the American Museum of Natural History and Robert L. Kelly of the University of Wyoming?to bring a passionate, down-to-earth introduction to archaeological method and theory to the classroom. Designed both for students who intend on pursuing a career in archaeology, as well as those who do not, the authors give students a more immediate, concrete impression of what the practice of archaeology is all about. They include well-chosen examples that show how archaeologists have worked through actual problems in the field and in the lab. After using this text, students will be better able to ask questions, solve problems, and discern "truth" from "fiction." Students will not only learn about the nature of archaeological data and how archaeologists do such things as archaeological survey and excavation, they will also develop their sense of scientific logic and gain a better understanding of what career opportunities are available for archaeologists. This edition is enhanced with new pedagogical features, many more photos and a completely new design to help students prioritize and learn the material presented. A rich array of supplemental resources includes a new companion website, as well as the option to use a new CD-ROM, DOING FIELDWORK: ARCHAEOLOGICAL DEMONSTRATIONS also developed by the authors.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Meet Some Real Archaeologists
1(22)
Preview
2(1)
Introduction
2(3)
Who Was ``Kennewick Man''?
2(1)
Who Controls Human Remains?
3(1)
Looking Closer: American Indian or Native American?
3(1)
Kennewick and American Archaeology
4(1)
The Western World Discovers Its Past
5(4)
Looking Closer: AD/BC/BP . . . Archaeology's Alphabet Soup
6(1)
Archaeology and Society
6(1)
The Discovery of Deep Time
7(1)
Archaeology and Native Americans
8(1)
Founders of Americanist Archaeology
9(5)
A Genteel Antiquarian
9(1)
C. B. Moore
America's First-Generation ``Working'' Archaeologist
10(1)
Nels Nelson
Founder of Anthropological Archaeology
11(1)
A. V. ``Ted'' Kidder
A Master of Time
12(1)
James A. Ford
Americanist Archaeology at Mid-Twentieth Century
13(1)
Revolution In Archaeology: An Advancing Science
14(4)
Moses in the Wilderness
14(2)
Walter W. Taylor
Visionary with a Message
16(1)
Lewis R. Binford
In His Own Words: The Challenge of Archaeology
17(1)
Lewis R. Binford
Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century
18(3)
Archaeology Comes of Age
18(2)
Kathleen Deagan
In Her Own Words: The Potential of Historical Archaeology
20(1)
Kathleen Deagan
Conclusion: Archaeology's Future
21(1)
Summary
21(1)
Media Resources
22(1)
The Structure of Archaeological Inquiry
23(25)
Preview
24(1)
Introduction
24(1)
So, What's an Anthropological Approach?
24(2)
The Culture Concept in Anthropology
26(1)
Scientific and Humanistic Approaches in Archaeology
27(5)
What's a Scientific Approach?
27(1)
How Science Explains Things: The Moundbuilder Myth
28(2)
The Scientific Method
30(2)
What's a Humanistic Approach?
32(1)
Levels of Archaeological Theory
32(4)
Low-Level Theory
33(1)
Middle-Level Theory
34(1)
High-Level Theory
35(1)
Paradigms in Archaeology
36(7)
Cultural Materialism
36(1)
Processual Archaeology: Materialism at Work in Archaeology
37(1)
Archaeological Ethics: Does Archaeology Put Native Americans on Trial?
38(1)
Postmodernism
39(1)
Deconstruction and the Maya
39(1)
Postprocessual Archaeology: Postmodernism at Work in Archaeology
40(1)
Processual-Plus?
41(1)
Profile of an Archaeologist: An Academic Archaeologist
42(1)
The Structure of Archaeological Inquiry
43(3)
Testing Ideas
44(1)
Reconstructing the Past
44(1)
Looking Closer: Contrasting Views of Archaeology at Zuni Pueblo
45(1)
Roger Anyon
T. J. Ferguson
Conclusion: Scientist or Humanist, Processualist or Postprocessualist?
46(1)
Summary
46(1)
Media Resources
47(1)
Doing Fieldwork: Surveying for Archaeological Sites
48(25)
Preview
49(1)
Introduction
49(1)
Good Old Gumshoe Survey
49(2)
Surface Archaeology in the Carson Desert
51(4)
Looking Closer: How Do Archaeological Sites Get Their Names?
51(1)
Some Sampling Considerations
52(1)
Getting the Sample
53(1)
Doing the Work
54(1)
What We Learned
55(1)
What about Things That Lie below Ground?
55(2)
Looking Closer: The Surveyor's Toolkit
56(1)
How to Find a Lost Spanish Mission
57(2)
The Transect Survey
57(1)
The Power Auger Survey
58(1)
GPS Technology and Modern Surveys
59(1)
Remote Sensing: Data at a Distance
59(3)
Looking Closer: Anasazi or Ancestral Pueblo?
60(1)
High-Altitude Imagery
60(1)
The Ancient Roads of Chaco Canyon
60(2)
Remote Sensing at Mission Santa Catalina
62(4)
A Proton Magnetometer Approach
63(1)
A Soil Resistivity Approach
64(1)
A Ground-Penetrating Radar Approach
65(1)
Ceren: The New World Pompeii?
66(1)
Geographic Information Systems
67(3)
GIS and the Chacoan Roads
69(1)
Conclusion: The Potential and Limitations of Noninvasive Archaeology
70(1)
Summary
71(1)
Media Resources
72(1)
Doing Fieldwork: Why Archaeologists Dig Square Holes
73(25)
Preview
74(1)
Introduction
74(3)
The Folsom Site and Humanity's Antiquity in North America
75(2)
Excavation: What Determines Preservation?
77(2)
The Duck Decoys of Lovelock Cave
77(1)
The Houses of Ozette
77(1)
The Ice Man of the Alps
78(1)
The Preservation Equation
78(1)
Principles of Archaeological Excavation
79(5)
Looking Closer: The Excavator's Toolkit
80(1)
Test Excavations
80(1)
Expanding the Test Excavation
81(1)
How Archaeologists Dig
82(1)
Expanding Gatecliff's Excavation
83(1)
Precision Excavation
84(2)
Is That All There Is to It?
84(2)
Sifting the Evidence
86(3)
Water Screening and Matrix Sorting
87(1)
Flotation
88(1)
Cataloging the Finds
89(1)
Site Formation Processes: How Good Sites Go Bad
89(7)
Formation Processes in the Systemic Context
90(2)
Formation Processes in the Archaeological Context
92(2)
Profile of an Archaeologist: An African Archaeologist
94(2)
Conclusion: Archaeology's Conservation Ethic: Dig Only What You Must
96(1)
Summary
97(1)
Media Resources
97(1)
Chronology Building: How to Get a Date
98(25)
Preview
99(1)
Introduction
99(1)
Relative Dating
100(5)
The Law of Superposition
100(1)
The Index Fossil Concept
100(1)
Time Markers in the American Southwest
101(2)
The Next Step: Seriation
103(2)
Absolute Dating
105(12)
Tree-Ring Dating
105(1)
Archaeological Ethics: What's Wrong with Buying Antiquities? (Part I)
106(2)
Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology's Workhorse
108(4)
Looking Closer: How Old Is Egyptian Agriculture?
112(1)
Trapped Charge Dating
113(3)
Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon
116(1)
What Do Dates Mean?
117(1)
How Old Are the Pyramids?
117(3)
The Check, Please
120(1)
Conclusion: How Dating Changed Archaeology
120(1)
Summary
121(1)
Media Resources
122(1)
The Dimensions of Archaeology: Time, Space, and Form
123(24)
Preview
124(1)
Introduction
124(1)
After the Excavation: Conservation and Cataloging
125(1)
Looking Closer: Preserving the Hunley
126(1)
Archaeological Classification
126(11)
Types of Types
127(2)
Projectile Point Typology at Gatecliff
129(3)
Looking Closer: The Frison Effect
132(4)
Gatecliff Projectile Points as Temporal Types
136(1)
Space-Time Systematics
137(7)
Archaeological Cultures: Dividing Space
138(1)
Periods: Dividing Time
138(1)
Phases: Combining Space and Time
139(2)
Profile of an Archaeologist: A Cultural Resource Management Archaeologist
141(1)
Phases: The Basic Units of Space-Time Systematics
142(1)
Archaeological Ethics: What's Wrong with Buying Antiquities? (Part II)
143(1)
Conclusion: Space-Time Systematics and Archaeological Objectives
144(1)
Summary
145(1)
Media Resources
146(1)
Taphonomy, Experimental Archaeology, and Ethnoarchaeology
147(26)
Preview
148(1)
Introduction
148(1)
Middle-Range Research: What Is It?
149(6)
Some Bones of Contention
149(2)
Archaeological Ethics: The Ethics of Doing Ethnoarchaeology
151(1)
Analogy versus Middle-Range Theory
152(3)
Taphonomy
155(4)
Taphonomy at the Hudson-Meng Bison Bonebed
156(2)
Taphonomy and Uniformitarianism
158(1)
Experimental Archaeology
159(4)
How Were Stone Tools Made?
160(2)
Experimental Archaeology and Uniformitarianism
162(1)
Ethnoarchaeology
163(7)
Binford Takes Off for Points North
164(1)
Ethnoarchaeology in Madagascar
164(1)
In His Own Words: Why I Began Doing Ethnoarchaeology
165(2)
Lewis R. Binford
Looking Closer: Doing Ethnoarchaeology in Madagascar
167(2)
Ethnoarchaeology and Uniformitarianism
169(1)
Conclusion: The Importance of Middle-Range Theory
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Media Resources
172(1)
People, Plants, and Animals in the Past
173(26)
Preview
174(1)
Introduction
174(1)
What's an Archaeofauna?
174(12)
In Her Own Words: Zooarchaeology and Biological Conservation
175(1)
Virginia Butler
The Agate Basin Site
176(5)
Looking Closer: Hunter-Gatherers as Optimal Foragers
181(1)
The Zooarchaeology of a Peruvian Civilization
182(2)
Early Patterns at Chavin de Huantar
184(2)
Studying Plant Remains from Archaeological Sites
186(7)
Palynology
187(3)
Looking Closer: Palynology of Shanidar Cave: Why Formation Processes Matter
190(1)
What Plants Did People Eat in the Stillwater Marsh?
190(2)
Coprolites of Hidden Cave
192(1)
The Symbolic Meaning of Plants: The Upper Mantaro Valley Project
193(4)
Looking Closer: What Did Sixteenth-Century Colonists Eat in Spanish Florida?
194(1)
What Explains Wood Use?
195(2)
Relating Ideology to the Past
197(1)
Conclusion: Economic and Non-economic Explanations
197(1)
Summary
197(1)
Media Resources
198(1)
Bioarchaeological Approaches to the Past
199(23)
Preview
200(1)
Introduction
200(1)
Skeletal Analysis: The Basics
201(3)
Looking Closer: Native Americans and the Stillwater Burials
202(1)
Determining Sex
203(1)
Determining Age
203(1)
How Well Did the Stillwater People Live?
204(5)
Disease and Trauma at Stillwater
205(1)
Growth Arrest Features
205(1)
Workload
206(2)
Paleodemography
208(1)
Stature
209(1)
Reconstructing Diet from Human Bone
209(4)
Profile of an Archaeologist: A Native American Archaeologist
210(1)
Cavities
210(1)
Bone and Stable Isotopes
211(2)
Lives of Affluence? or Nasty, Brutish, and Short?
213(1)
Archaeological Ethics: Should We Excavate and Analyze Human Remains?
214(1)
Archaeology and DNA: Tracing Human Migrations
214(6)
A Little Background on DNA
215(1)
Prospecting for Ancient DNA
215(1)
Skulls and DNA: Tracking the First Americans
216(4)
Conclusion: The Importance of Human Skeletons
220(1)
Summary
220(1)
Media Resources
221(1)
Reconstructing Social and Political Systems of the Past
222(25)
Preview
223(1)
Introduction
223(2)
Social Vocabulary
223(1)
From Artifact to Symbol
224(1)
Archaeology and Gender
225(6)
Hunting in Africa's Rain Forest
227(1)
Reconstructing Male and Female Activities from Archaeology
228(3)
Archaeology and Kinship
231(1)
Forms of Kinship
231(3)
Archaeology and Social Status
233(1)
Looking Closer: Kinship and Residence among the Mikea
234(7)
Egalitarian Societies
234(1)
Ranked Societies
235(1)
Death and Social Status
236(1)
Rank and Status at Moundville
236(2)
Looking Closer: Help Find Moundville's Stolen Ceramics
238(3)
Kinship at Moundville
241(1)
Trade and Political Organization
241(4)
Tracing Exotics
242(3)
Conclusion: Reconstructing Past Social and Political Systems
245(1)
Summary
245(1)
Media Resources
246(1)
The Archaeology of the Mind
247(22)
Preview
248(1)
Introduction
248(1)
What's a Symbol?
249(2)
Looking Closer: Food Taboos in the Near East
250(1)
The Peace Pipe as Ritual Weapon
251(3)
Exploring Ancient Chavin Cosmology
254(4)
Animal Symbolism in Chavin Iconography
255(1)
Where Did Chavin Cosmology Come From?
256(1)
The Role of Cosmology in Andean Civilization
257(1)
Blueprints for an Archaeology of the Mind
258(1)
Upper Paleolithic Cave Art
259(8)
Art or Magic?
260(2)
Shamanism?
262(1)
The Cave of Lascaux
263(2)
What Does All This Mean?
265(1)
Looking Closer: The Discovery of Lascaux
266(1)
Conclusion: The Archaeology of Symbols
267(1)
Summary
267(1)
Media Resources
268(1)
Historical Archaeology: Insights on American History
269(25)
Preview
270(1)
Introduction
270(1)
Why Do Historical Archaeology?
271(1)
Historical Archaeology: Just a ``Handmaiden to History''?
271(4)
Historical Archaeology Comes of Age
272(1)
Characteristics of Historical Archaeology
272(1)
Themes in Historical Archaeology
273(1)
Archaeological Ethics: Who Should Control and Own Sacred Sites?
274(1)
Hidden History: The Archaeology of African Americans
275(7)
Slave Archaeology at Monticello
275(3)
New York City's African Burial Ground
278(2)
Beyond Slavery
280(1)
In His Own Words: Balancing Interests at the African Burial Ground
281(1)
Michael L. Blakey
Correcting Inaccuracies
282(3)
What Happened at the Battle of the Little Bighorn?
282(1)
Looking Closer: Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom
283(1)
An Archaeological Perspective on the Battle
283(2)
Reexamining America's History
285(6)
Historical Archaeology in Annapolis
286(4)
Taking Critical Theory Public
290(1)
Conclusion: Historical Archaeology's Future
291(1)
Summary
292(1)
Media Resources
293(1)
Caring for America's Cultural Heritage
294(26)
Preview
295(1)
Introduction
295(1)
What Is Cultural Resource Management?
296(5)
Early Efforts to Protect America's Cultural Heritage
296(1)
Historic Preservation Comes of Age
297(1)
Profile of an Archaeologist: A Federal Archaeologist
298(1)
The National Historic Preservation Act
299(1)
The Archaeological Resources Protection Act
300(1)
What about Private Land?
300(1)
Archaeological Science: Pure or Applied?
301(1)
The Garbage Project
302(2)
How Do Archaeologists Collect Trash?
302(1)
The Archaeology of Us
302(1)
Myths about America's Landfills
303(1)
Forensic Archaeology
304(4)
In His Own Words: Disaster Archaeology
305(1)
Richard A. Gould
In Her Own Words: The Journey of a Forensic Anthropologist
306(1)
Clea Koff
The Archaeology of Mass Disasters
307(1)
Who Has the Authority to Study the Past?
308(4)
A Spiritual Site: The Bighorn Medicine Wheel
308(2)
Who Owns the Past?
310(1)
Nazi Archaeology: The Danger of Owning the Past
310(1)
In His Own Words: Archaeological Sites or Sacred Places? A Native American Perspective
311(1)
William Tallbull
The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990
312(4)
Archaeological Ethics: Should Antiquities Be Returned to the Country of Origin?
313(1)
Native Americans and Cultural Affiliation
314(1)
Kennewick Man and Repatriation
314(2)
Seeking Common Ground
316(2)
Conclusion: Archaeology and America's Cultural Heritage
318(1)
Summary
318(1)
Media Resources
319(1)
Glossary 320(11)
Bibliography 331(17)
Photo Credits 348(1)
Index 349


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